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Assignment 01 Assignment 01 Document Transcript

  • ASSIGNMENT 01 REPORT MONTREAL AND KYOTO PROTOCOL NAME : MONIQUE JANICE V TAN STUDENT ID : 0302371 SUBJECT : ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE [BCC 207] LECTURER : MISS NORMA JEAN SUBMISSION DATE : 14TH OCT, 2013 1
  • INDEX CONTEXT PAGE NO. INTRODUCTION 3 KYOTO PROTOCOL 4 MONTREAL PROTOCOL 5 CONCLUSSION 6-7 2
  • INTRODUCTION WHAT IS KYOTO AND MONTREAL PROTOCOL? WHY DO THEY EXIST? Kyoto protocol is to contain the emissions of greenhouse effect from the factories of the developed countries that emit gases harmful to the earth’s protective ozone layer. The objective is very noble however it is easier said than done because executing the protocol in the most appropriate way will compromise the pace of development and revenue generation for most countries. Therefore the head of the countries find it very difficult to move on. It is hoped that the leaders of the world will learn how to think of the future generations rather than think of just the present. While the Kyoto protocol will be very much influenced by the concrete determination of the leaders to help the ozone layer it is up to the general public or the people to do their best in reducing the effect of their lifestyle on the ozone layer. The Montréal protocol boils down to the population to do their part in changing into a life-sustaining living. The two protocols ensure that the implementations starts form the leaders of the countries. Without commitment form these leaders there is no way that the two protocols will meet their objectives. The leaders of the countries will have to cascade the emission targets to the responsible industry’s and companies and monitor the achievement. It will be up to the companies and industries to strategies and approach on reducing on their carbon footprint. Examples: -Companies and industries are to developed construction materials that are conducive to housing and office structures, which require less cooling system. -Sourcing raw materials only from companies with sustainable production. -Spending on new technology that will be emit gases that are not harmful to our ozone layer. -Governments awarding the companies and organizations who built buildings that are following building constructions standards, eg: Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design that change the way we think about how our buildings and communities are designed, constructed, maintained and operated across the globe. -for people to prefer and demand hybrid cars and houses that are designed to be less dependant on air-conditioning rather natural air 3
  • circulations or companies designing air condition that are not going to emit carbon emissions. KYOTO PROTOCOL The Kyoto Protocol treaty was negotiated in December 1997 at the city of Kyoto, Japan and came into force February 16th, 2005. It is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which commits its Parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets. This protocol is recognized to be principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity and places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities." The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh, Morocco, in 2001, and are referred to as the "Marrakesh Accords." Its first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. There is the one golden rule that must be obliged under the terms of the protocol that is, countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. However, the Protocol also offers them an additional means to meet their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms. The Kyoto mechanisms are: 4
  • -International Emissions Trading -Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) -Joint implementation (JI) The mechanisms help to stimulate green investment and help Parties meet their emission targets in a cost-effective way leading to a better lifestyle as well. The Kyoto Protocol is seen as an important first step towards a truly global emission reduction regime that will stabilize GHG emissions, and can provide the architecture for the future international agreement on climate change. MONTREAL PROTOCOL The Evolution of the Montreal Protocol The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was designed to reduce the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in order to reduce their abundance in the 5
  • atmosphere, and thereby protect the earth’s fragile ozone Layer. The original Montreal Protocol was agreed on 16 September 1987 and entered into force on 1 January 1989. The Montreal Protocol includes a unique adjustment provision that enables the Parties to the Protocol to respond quickly to new scientific information and agree to accelerate the reductions required on chemicals already covered by the Protocol. MONTREAL PROTOCOL started out their methods in determining which product places harm on the ozone layer. Hydrofluorocarbons is known as a class of partly chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons, used as an alternative to chlorofluorocarbons in foam production, refrigeration, and other processes.HFCs replaced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), that were phased out under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. HFCs pose no harm to the ozone layer because, unlike CFCs and HCFCs, they do not contain chlorine that depletes the ozone layer. But it has been established that HFCs are not innocuous either. These materials are super-greenhouse gases with an extremely high global warming potential. This means they are capable of trapping enormous amounts of infrared radiations in the atmosphere and can cause a greenhouse effect a thousand times stronger than carbon dioxide that are harmful to our atmostpehere. CONCLUSION Based on my studies I am able to conclude that learning about these two Protocols have opened my eyes. To be able to plan and construct from nothing and creating a whole new perspective in making a better habitat as well as preserving the naturally is not an easy task. I can say I highly look up to both protocols. In studies I observe that how both protocols compliment each other well in benefiting both parties. KYOTO PROTOCOL is to contain emissions of greenhouse effect... MONTREAL PROTOCOL is to protect the ozone layer... One would not be better of without the others existence. Overall these two protocols are just a helping hand in nature but the real thing is on us, as we are the ones who are able to act out the things that needed to be done and conquer our bad habits together with preserving the way of life we live. They are a procedure ensuring out earths survival. They exist because of our incompetence in handling the very destruction of our daily activities. ACT, CONQUER AND PRESERVE. I’ve learn much from the structure of the two procedures. 6
  • We need to act on our weaknesses as the main destruction is probably caused non other than by us humans. Loitering trash and dumping liquid substances into rives and oceans polluting and killing forest for our own luxury and etc. We need to conquer ourselves first before we start saving our earth. We depend too much on cars on traveling, which consume petrol, air conditioning at the expense of our ozone layer, and etc. We can look at other options available. Living the sustainable lifestyle and conducting eco-technology that have been developed for the past few years. Technology is the best in class green technology partners for an efficient environment. We need to preserve the balance in our habitat and correct the imbalanced caused due to our own selfishness. Turning over a new leaf may be costly and seemingly not worth it but it all comes down to where our next generation will see the life we see today through their own eyes or digitally captured through the lens of a camera. • • • • • • • • • • • Air Source Heat Pumps Biomass or Burning Boilers Combined Heat and Power Systems (CHP) Greywater Recycling Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning) Insulation IT Measures Lighting (Internal & External) Lighting Controls Rainwater Harvesting 7
  • • Solar Photovoltaic (PV) • Solar Thermal • Variable Speed Drives • Voltage Optimisation Water Saving Measures Several ways in making our life better and ensuring the sustainable living in action. 8