Mons PubisIs rounded, soft fullness ofsubcutaneous fatty tissue, prominenceover the symphysis pubis that formsthe anterior border of the externalreproductive organs.It is covered with varying amountsof pubic hair.
Labia Majora & MinoraThe labia Majora are two rounded,fleshy folds of tissue that extendedfrom the mons pubis to the perineum.It is protect the labia minora, urinarymeatus and vaginal introitus.
Labia MinoraIt is located between the labia majora,are narrow.The lateral and anterior aspects areusually pigmented.The inner surfaces are similar tovaginal mucosa, pink and mois.Their rich vascularity.
Clitoris.The term clitoris comes from aGreek word meaning key.Erectile organ.It’s rich vascular, highly sensitiveto temperature, touch, andpressure sensation
Vestibule.Is oval-shaped area formedbetween the labia minora, clitoris,and fourchette.Vestibule contains the externalurethral meatus, vaginal introitus,and Bartholins glands.
PerineumIs the most posterior part of theexternal female reproductive organs.It extends from fourchette anteriorlyto the anus posteriorly.And is composed of fibrous andmuscular tissues that support pelvicstructures.
Fallopian tubesThe two tubes extended from thecornu of the uterus to the ovary.It runs in the upper free border ofthe broad ligament.Length 8 to 14 cm average 10 cmIts divided into 4 parts.
1. Interstitial partWhich runs into uterine cavity,passes through the myometriumbetween the fundus and body ofthe uterus. About 1-2cm inlength.
2. IsthmusWhich is the narrow part ofthe tube adjacent to theuterus.Straight and cord like ,about 2 – 3 cm in length.
3. AmpullaWhich is the wider part about5 cm in length.Fertilization occurs in theampulla.
4. InfundibulumIt is funnel or trumpet shaped.Fimbriae are fingerlike processes, oneof these is longer than the other andadherent to the ovary.The fimbriae become swollen almosterectile at ovulation.
FunctionsGamete transport (ovum pickup,ovum transport, sperm transport).Final maturation of gamete postovulate oocyte maturation, spermcapicitation.
Fluid environment for earlyembryonic development.Transport of fertilized andunfertilized ovum to the uterus.
OvariesOval solid structure, 1.5 cm in thickness,2.5 cm in width and 3.5 cm in lengthrespectively. Each weights about 4–8 gm.Ovary is located on each side of theuterus, below and behind the uterine tubes
Structure of the ovariesCortexMedullaHilum
Ovaries and Relationshipto Uterine Tube and UterusFigure 28–14
Function of the ovarySecrete estrogen & progesterone.Production of ova
UterusThe uterus is a hollow, pear shapedmuscular organ.The uterus measures about 7.5 X 5X 2.5 cm and weight about 50 – 60gm.
Its normal position is anteverted(rotated forward and slightlyantiflexed (flexed forward)The uterus divided into threeparts
1. Body of the uterusThe upper part is the corpus, or bodyof the uterusThe fundus is the part of the body orcorpus above the area where thefallopian tubes enter the uterus.Length about 5 cm.
2. IsthmusA narrower transition zone.Is between the corpus of the uterusand cervix.During late pregnancy, the isthmuselongates and is known as the loweruterine segment.
3.CervixThe lowermost position of theuterus “neck”.The length of the cervix is about2.5 t0 3 cm.
The os, is the opening in the cervixthat runs between the uterus andvagina.The upper part of the cervix is markedby internal os and the lower cervix ismarked by the external os.
Layers of the uterus Perimetrium. Myometrium. Endometrium.
1. PerimetriumIs the outer peritoneal layer ofserous membrane that coversmost of the uterus.
Laterally, the perimetrium iscontinuous with the broadligaments on either side of theuterus.
2. MyometriumIs the middle layer of thickmuscle.Most of the muscle fibers areconcentrated in the upper uterus,and their number diminishesprogressively toward the cervix.
The myometriumcontains three types ofsmooth muscle fiber
Longitudinal fibers (outer layer(Which are found mostly in thefundus and are designed toexpel the fetus efficientlytoward the pelvic outlet duringbirth.
Middle layer figure-8 fibersThese fiber contract afterbirth to compress the bloodvessels that pass betweenthem to limit blood loss.
Inner layer circular fibersWhich form constrictions where thefallopian tubes enter the uterus andsurround the internal osCircular fibers prevent reflux ofmenstrual blood and tissue into thefallopian tubes.
Promote normal implantation ofthe fertilized ovum by controllingits entry into the uterus.And retain the fetus until theappropriate time of birth.
3. EndometriumIs the inner layer of the uterus.It is responsive to the cyclicvariations of estrogen andprogesterone during the femalereproductive cycle every month.
The two or three layers of theendometrium are:*Compact layer*The basal layer*The functional or Sponge layer thislayer is shed during each menstrual periodand after child birth in the lochia
The Function of the uterusMenstruation ----the uterussloughs off the endometrium.Pregnancy ---the uterus supportfetus and allows the fetus to grow.
Labor and birth---the uterinemuscles contract and the cervixdilates during labor to expel thefetus
VaginaIt is an elastic fibro-muscular tubeand membranous tissue about 8 to10 cm long.Lying between the bladderanteriorly and the rectumposteriorly.
The vagina connects the uterusabove with the vestibule below.The upper end is blind and calledthe vaginal vault.
The vaginal lining has multiplefolds, or rugae and muscle layer.These folds allow the vagina tostretch considerably duringchildbirth.
The reaction of the vaginais acidic, the pH is 4.5 thatprotects the vagina againstinfection.
Functions of the vaginaTo allow discharge of themenstrual flow.As the female organs of coitus.To allow passage of the fetus fromthe uterus.
Support structuresThe bony pelvis supportand protects the lowerabdominal and internalreproductive organs.
Muscle, Joints and ligamentsprovide added support forinternal organs of the pelvisagainst the downward force ofgravity and the increases inintra-abdominal pressure
Bony PelvisBony Pelvis Is Composed of 4bones:1. Two hip bones.2. Sacrum.3. Coccyx.
1. Two hip bones.Each or hip bone is composedof three bones:*Ilium*Ischium*Pubis
*IliumIt is the flared out part.The greater part of its inneraspect is smooth and concave,forming the iliac fossa.The upper border of the ilium iscalled iliac crest
*IschiumIt is the thick lower part.It has a large prominenceknown as the ischial tuberosityon which the body rests whilesitting.
Behind and little above thetuberosity is an inwardprojection the ischial spine.
2. SacrumIs a wedge shaped bone consisting offive vertebrae.The anterior surface of the sacrum isconcaveThe upper border of the first sacralvertebra known as the sacralpromontory
3.Coccyx. Consists of fourvertebrae forming asmall triangular bone.