Anatomy  physiology of female reproductive system
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Anatomy physiology of female reproductive system

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    Anatomy  physiology of female reproductive system Anatomy physiology of female reproductive system Presentation Transcript

    • Anatomy & Physiology OfFemale Reproductive System
    • Learning ObjectivesDefine the terms listed.Identify the female externalreproductive organs.Explain the structure of the bonypelvis.Explain the functions and structuresof pelvic floor.
    • Introduction
    • External Female StructuresCollectively, the externalfemale reproductiveorgans are called theVulva.
    • External Female StructuresMons Pubis.Labia MajoraLabia Minora.Clitoris.Vestibule.Perineum
    • Mons PubisIs rounded, soft fullness ofsubcutaneous fatty tissue, prominenceover the symphysis pubis that formsthe anterior border of the externalreproductive organs.It is covered with varying amountsof pubic hair.
    • Labia Majora & MinoraThe labia Majora are two rounded,fleshy folds of tissue that extendedfrom the mons pubis to the perineum.It is protect the labia minora, urinarymeatus and vaginal introitus.
    • Labia MinoraIt is located between the labia majora,are narrow.The lateral and anterior aspects areusually pigmented.The inner surfaces are similar tovaginal mucosa, pink and mois.Their rich vascularity.
    • Clitoris.The term clitoris comes from aGreek word meaning key.Erectile organ.It’s rich vascular, highly sensitiveto temperature, touch, andpressure sensation
    • Vestibule.Is oval-shaped area formedbetween the labia minora, clitoris,and fourchette.Vestibule contains the externalurethral meatus, vaginal introitus,and Bartholins glands.
    • PerineumIs the most posterior part of theexternal female reproductive organs.It extends from fourchette anteriorlyto the anus posteriorly.And is composed of fibrous andmuscular tissues that support pelvicstructures.
    • Internal Female StructuresVaginaUterusFallopian tubesOvaries
    • Fallopian tubesThe two tubes extended from thecornu of the uterus to the ovary.It runs in the upper free border ofthe broad ligament.Length 8 to 14 cm average 10 cmIts divided into 4 parts.
    • 1. Interstitial partWhich runs into uterine cavity,passes through the myometriumbetween the fundus and body ofthe uterus. About 1-2cm inlength.
    • 2. IsthmusWhich is the narrow part ofthe tube adjacent to theuterus.Straight and cord like ,about 2 – 3 cm in length.
    • 3. AmpullaWhich is the wider part about5 cm in length.Fertilization occurs in theampulla.
    • 4. InfundibulumIt is funnel or trumpet shaped.Fimbriae are fingerlike processes, oneof these is longer than the other andadherent to the ovary.The fimbriae become swollen almosterectile at ovulation.
    • FunctionsGamete transport (ovum pickup,ovum transport, sperm transport).Final maturation of gamete postovulate oocyte maturation, spermcapicitation.
    • Fluid environment for earlyembryonic development.Transport of fertilized andunfertilized ovum to the uterus.
    • OvariesOval solid structure, 1.5 cm in thickness,2.5 cm in width and 3.5 cm in lengthrespectively. Each weights about 4–8 gm.Ovary is located on each side of theuterus, below and behind the uterine tubes
    • Structure of the ovariesCortexMedullaHilum
    • Ovaries and Relationshipto Uterine Tube and UterusFigure 28–14
    • Function of the ovarySecrete estrogen & progesterone.Production of ova
    • UterusThe uterus is a hollow, pear shapedmuscular organ.The uterus measures about 7.5 X 5X 2.5 cm and weight about 50 – 60gm.
    • Its normal position is anteverted(rotated forward and slightlyantiflexed (flexed forward)The uterus divided into threeparts
    • 1. Body of the uterusThe upper part is the corpus, or bodyof the uterusThe fundus is the part of the body orcorpus above the area where thefallopian tubes enter the uterus.Length about 5 cm.
    • 2. IsthmusA narrower transition zone.Is between the corpus of the uterusand cervix.During late pregnancy, the isthmuselongates and is known as the loweruterine segment.
    • 3.CervixThe lowermost position of theuterus “neck”.The length of the cervix is about2.5 t0 3 cm.
    • The os, is the opening in the cervixthat runs between the uterus andvagina.The upper part of the cervix is markedby internal os and the lower cervix ismarked by the external os.
    • Layers of the uterus Perimetrium. Myometrium. Endometrium.
    • 1. PerimetriumIs the outer peritoneal layer ofserous membrane that coversmost of the uterus.
    • Laterally, the perimetrium iscontinuous with the broadligaments on either side of theuterus.
    • 2. MyometriumIs the middle layer of thickmuscle.Most of the muscle fibers areconcentrated in the upper uterus,and their number diminishesprogressively toward the cervix.
    • The myometriumcontains three types ofsmooth muscle fiber
    • Longitudinal fibers (outer layer(Which are found mostly in thefundus and are designed toexpel the fetus efficientlytoward the pelvic outlet duringbirth.
    • Middle layer figure-8 fibersThese fiber contract afterbirth to compress the bloodvessels that pass betweenthem to limit blood loss.
    • Inner layer circular fibersWhich form constrictions where thefallopian tubes enter the uterus andsurround the internal osCircular fibers prevent reflux ofmenstrual blood and tissue into thefallopian tubes.
    • Promote normal implantation ofthe fertilized ovum by controllingits entry into the uterus.And retain the fetus until theappropriate time of birth.
    • 3. EndometriumIs the inner layer of the uterus.It is responsive to the cyclicvariations of estrogen andprogesterone during the femalereproductive cycle every month.
    • The two or three layers of theendometrium are:*Compact layer*The basal layer*The functional or Sponge layer thislayer is shed during each menstrual periodand after child birth in the lochia
    • The Function of the uterusMenstruation ----the uterussloughs off the endometrium.Pregnancy ---the uterus supportfetus and allows the fetus to grow.
    • Labor and birth---the uterinemuscles contract and the cervixdilates during labor to expel thefetus
    • VaginaIt is an elastic fibro-muscular tubeand membranous tissue about 8 to10 cm long.Lying between the bladderanteriorly and the rectumposteriorly.
    • The vagina connects the uterusabove with the vestibule below.The upper end is blind and calledthe vaginal vault.
    • The vaginal lining has multiplefolds, or rugae and muscle layer.These folds allow the vagina tostretch considerably duringchildbirth.
    • The reaction of the vaginais acidic, the pH is 4.5 thatprotects the vagina againstinfection.
    • Functions of the vaginaTo allow discharge of themenstrual flow.As the female organs of coitus.To allow passage of the fetus fromthe uterus.
    • Support structuresThe bony pelvis supportand protects the lowerabdominal and internalreproductive organs.
    • Muscle, Joints and ligamentsprovide added support forinternal organs of the pelvisagainst the downward force ofgravity and the increases inintra-abdominal pressure
    • Bony PelvisBony Pelvis Is Composed of 4bones:1. Two hip bones.2. Sacrum.3. Coccyx.
    • 1. Two hip bones.Each or hip bone is composedof three bones:*Ilium*Ischium*Pubis
    • *IliumIt is the flared out part.The greater part of its inneraspect is smooth and concave,forming the iliac fossa.The upper border of the ilium iscalled iliac crest
    • *IschiumIt is the thick lower part.It has a large prominenceknown as the ischial tuberosityon which the body rests whilesitting.
    • Behind and little above thetuberosity is an inwardprojection the ischial spine.
    • 2. SacrumIs a wedge shaped bone consisting offive vertebrae.The anterior surface of the sacrum isconcaveThe upper border of the first sacralvertebra known as the sacralpromontory
    • 3.Coccyx. Consists of fourvertebrae forming asmall triangular bone.