Anatomy  physiology of female reproductive system
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Anatomy physiology of female reproductive system






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Anatomy physiology of female reproductive system Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Anatomy & Physiology OfFemale Reproductive System
  • 2. Learning ObjectivesDefine the terms listed.Identify the female externalreproductive organs.Explain the structure of the bonypelvis.Explain the functions and structuresof pelvic floor.
  • 3. Introduction
  • 4. External Female StructuresCollectively, the externalfemale reproductiveorgans are called theVulva.
  • 5. External Female StructuresMons Pubis.Labia MajoraLabia Minora.Clitoris.Vestibule.Perineum
  • 6. Mons PubisIs rounded, soft fullness ofsubcutaneous fatty tissue, prominenceover the symphysis pubis that formsthe anterior border of the externalreproductive organs.It is covered with varying amountsof pubic hair.
  • 7. Labia Majora & MinoraThe labia Majora are two rounded,fleshy folds of tissue that extendedfrom the mons pubis to the perineum.It is protect the labia minora, urinarymeatus and vaginal introitus.
  • 8. Labia MinoraIt is located between the labia majora,are narrow.The lateral and anterior aspects areusually pigmented.The inner surfaces are similar tovaginal mucosa, pink and mois.Their rich vascularity.
  • 9. Clitoris.The term clitoris comes from aGreek word meaning key.Erectile organ.It’s rich vascular, highly sensitiveto temperature, touch, andpressure sensation
  • 10. Vestibule.Is oval-shaped area formedbetween the labia minora, clitoris,and fourchette.Vestibule contains the externalurethral meatus, vaginal introitus,and Bartholins glands.
  • 11. PerineumIs the most posterior part of theexternal female reproductive organs.It extends from fourchette anteriorlyto the anus posteriorly.And is composed of fibrous andmuscular tissues that support pelvicstructures.
  • 12. Internal Female StructuresVaginaUterusFallopian tubesOvaries
  • 13. Fallopian tubesThe two tubes extended from thecornu of the uterus to the ovary.It runs in the upper free border ofthe broad ligament.Length 8 to 14 cm average 10 cmIts divided into 4 parts.
  • 14. 1. Interstitial partWhich runs into uterine cavity,passes through the myometriumbetween the fundus and body ofthe uterus. About 1-2cm inlength.
  • 15. 2. IsthmusWhich is the narrow part ofthe tube adjacent to theuterus.Straight and cord like ,about 2 – 3 cm in length.
  • 16. 3. AmpullaWhich is the wider part about5 cm in length.Fertilization occurs in theampulla.
  • 17. 4. InfundibulumIt is funnel or trumpet shaped.Fimbriae are fingerlike processes, oneof these is longer than the other andadherent to the ovary.The fimbriae become swollen almosterectile at ovulation.
  • 18. FunctionsGamete transport (ovum pickup,ovum transport, sperm transport).Final maturation of gamete postovulate oocyte maturation, spermcapicitation.
  • 19. Fluid environment for earlyembryonic development.Transport of fertilized andunfertilized ovum to the uterus.
  • 20. OvariesOval solid structure, 1.5 cm in thickness,2.5 cm in width and 3.5 cm in lengthrespectively. Each weights about 4–8 gm.Ovary is located on each side of theuterus, below and behind the uterine tubes
  • 21. Structure of the ovariesCortexMedullaHilum
  • 22. Ovaries and Relationshipto Uterine Tube and UterusFigure 28–14
  • 23. Function of the ovarySecrete estrogen & progesterone.Production of ova
  • 24. UterusThe uterus is a hollow, pear shapedmuscular organ.The uterus measures about 7.5 X 5X 2.5 cm and weight about 50 – 60gm.
  • 25. Its normal position is anteverted(rotated forward and slightlyantiflexed (flexed forward)The uterus divided into threeparts
  • 26. 1. Body of the uterusThe upper part is the corpus, or bodyof the uterusThe fundus is the part of the body orcorpus above the area where thefallopian tubes enter the uterus.Length about 5 cm.
  • 27. 2. IsthmusA narrower transition zone.Is between the corpus of the uterusand cervix.During late pregnancy, the isthmuselongates and is known as the loweruterine segment.
  • 28. 3.CervixThe lowermost position of theuterus “neck”.The length of the cervix is about2.5 t0 3 cm.
  • 29. The os, is the opening in the cervixthat runs between the uterus andvagina.The upper part of the cervix is markedby internal os and the lower cervix ismarked by the external os.
  • 30. Layers of the uterus Perimetrium. Myometrium. Endometrium.
  • 31. 1. PerimetriumIs the outer peritoneal layer ofserous membrane that coversmost of the uterus.
  • 32. Laterally, the perimetrium iscontinuous with the broadligaments on either side of theuterus.
  • 33. 2. MyometriumIs the middle layer of thickmuscle.Most of the muscle fibers areconcentrated in the upper uterus,and their number diminishesprogressively toward the cervix.
  • 34. The myometriumcontains three types ofsmooth muscle fiber
  • 35. Longitudinal fibers (outer layer(Which are found mostly in thefundus and are designed toexpel the fetus efficientlytoward the pelvic outlet duringbirth.
  • 36. Middle layer figure-8 fibersThese fiber contract afterbirth to compress the bloodvessels that pass betweenthem to limit blood loss.
  • 37. Inner layer circular fibersWhich form constrictions where thefallopian tubes enter the uterus andsurround the internal osCircular fibers prevent reflux ofmenstrual blood and tissue into thefallopian tubes.
  • 38. Promote normal implantation ofthe fertilized ovum by controllingits entry into the uterus.And retain the fetus until theappropriate time of birth.
  • 39. 3. EndometriumIs the inner layer of the uterus.It is responsive to the cyclicvariations of estrogen andprogesterone during the femalereproductive cycle every month.
  • 40. The two or three layers of theendometrium are:*Compact layer*The basal layer*The functional or Sponge layer thislayer is shed during each menstrual periodand after child birth in the lochia
  • 41. The Function of the uterusMenstruation ----the uterussloughs off the endometrium.Pregnancy ---the uterus supportfetus and allows the fetus to grow.
  • 42. Labor and birth---the uterinemuscles contract and the cervixdilates during labor to expel thefetus
  • 43. VaginaIt is an elastic fibro-muscular tubeand membranous tissue about 8 to10 cm long.Lying between the bladderanteriorly and the rectumposteriorly.
  • 44. The vagina connects the uterusabove with the vestibule below.The upper end is blind and calledthe vaginal vault.
  • 45. The vaginal lining has multiplefolds, or rugae and muscle layer.These folds allow the vagina tostretch considerably duringchildbirth.
  • 46. The reaction of the vaginais acidic, the pH is 4.5 thatprotects the vagina againstinfection.
  • 47. Functions of the vaginaTo allow discharge of themenstrual flow.As the female organs of coitus.To allow passage of the fetus fromthe uterus.
  • 48. Support structuresThe bony pelvis supportand protects the lowerabdominal and internalreproductive organs.
  • 49. Muscle, Joints and ligamentsprovide added support forinternal organs of the pelvisagainst the downward force ofgravity and the increases inintra-abdominal pressure
  • 50. Bony PelvisBony Pelvis Is Composed of 4bones:1. Two hip bones.2. Sacrum.3. Coccyx.
  • 51. 1. Two hip bones.Each or hip bone is composedof three bones:*Ilium*Ischium*Pubis
  • 52. *IliumIt is the flared out part.The greater part of its inneraspect is smooth and concave,forming the iliac fossa.The upper border of the ilium iscalled iliac crest
  • 53. *IschiumIt is the thick lower part.It has a large prominenceknown as the ischial tuberosityon which the body rests whilesitting.
  • 54. Behind and little above thetuberosity is an inwardprojection the ischial spine.
  • 55. 2. SacrumIs a wedge shaped bone consisting offive vertebrae.The anterior surface of the sacrum isconcaveThe upper border of the first sacralvertebra known as the sacralpromontory
  • 56. 3.Coccyx. Consists of fourvertebrae forming asmall triangular bone.