How are males and females typically represented or portrayed in music video?E.g.Men are likely to play a musical instrumentWomen are more likely to dance
Men engaged in significantly more aggressive and dominant behaviour Men represented as independent, adventurous, unemotional and competent Stereotypical Gendered occupations apparent (i.e. Males as FireFighters/Mechanics Women as Cheerleader/Waitress) Women engaged in significantly more explicit, sexual and passive behaviour Women represented as objects of sexual advances or as sexual objects Sex role stereotyping and negative attitudes towards females Women more likely to be presented in provocative or revealing clothing Women portrayed as decorative objects that dance, pose and do not play instruments Research findings NOT restricted to the Hip Hop genre Research Findings taken from ‘Joining the Dots’ May 2009 OBJECT
• A movement in which women questioned their position within patriarchal society & the ‘private sphere’ of ‘home/children/domestic bliss’• Serves to uncover, challenge and eliminate oppression and dominant gender imagery• Women began to debates the narrow range of stereotypes present across all media;• Women as virgins, mothers or promiscuous• Women as sex objects• Women are inferior to men• Women as domestic/based in the home
Definition of Voyeurism: Erotic pleasures gained from looking at a sexual object (who is unaware of being watched) Presence of women solely for the purpose of display (rather than narrative function) Female on display is passive and objectified for a male gaze regardless of viewers gender Voyeuristic treatment of female body in ‘male’ videos – use of dancers as adornments to the male ego The inclusion of women for display is a staple element in music video’s – across all genres Women connote to-be-looked-at-ness and are the object of the male gaze.
Britney adheres to traditional gender stereotypes by taking on the roles of: Secretary Air Hostess Waitress Each occupation emphasises highly sexualised costume & behaviours
Buttons (Pussycat Dolls/Snoop Dogg)- Having watch the Pussycat dolls ‘Buttons’ video, (taking Mulvey’s theory)into account what do you think a feminist reading of the video would say?
Sexual power derived from physical attractiveness to men. Snoop’s voyeuristic male gaze/POV shots invites male viewer to join in. Suggestive body language. The Doll’s used literally as objects to create patterns in an aerial shot.
Post-Feminism (1980’s)• A re-appraisal of Feminist values• Does not strive for ‘equality’ as thisassumes men are ‘the best’ - they wish tosurpass male achievements• Objected to theories which positionthem as objects of the ‘male gaze’• Identifies a ‘female gaze’ - womenactively desiring men•Women began to assert their right todress and be sexually attractive
• Rihanna is not on show for the benefit of male audiences, but isenjoying herself experiencing different identities.• She is successful, independent and in control.• Connotes messages of Empowerment/Confidence/Independence to female audience. In contrast to other representations here Britney is in control and dominates men within the narratives. She also takes a variety of identities e.g. super heroine. There is also opportunity for the female gaze.
Thinking back to the Buttonsvideo what post-feminist readingscould be made about therepresentation of gender?
Offer messages of sexual empowerment - assertive, provocative and in control of ‘the gaze’ Confident, sassy, sexy icons challenging traditional assumptions about passive female sexuality “I’m a sexy mama/ Who Uses a provocative male address challenging Snoop to “loosen up my buttons babe” - however, the dolls prove ‘too hot to handle’ for Snoop