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  1. 1. Rebirth of the New Era (1400-1600)
  2. 2.   A French historian Other occupations:  Writer  Philosopher  Teacher      Nationality: French Period: Middle Ages Genres: French History Subjects: History Spouse(s): unknown wife 1824-Athenais Mialaret
  3. 3.  The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period.  Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.  Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art.
  4. 4.  Highly urbanized  Had a lot of prosperous towns (center for manufacturing, trade, and banking)  People were with considerable wealth.
  5. 5.  Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence.  It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 370,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1.5 million in the metropolitan area.  Florence is famous for its history. A centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time;  Florence is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has been called the Athens of the Middle Ages.  A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family, and numerous religious and republican revolutions.  From 1865 to 1871 the city was also the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy.
  6. 6.  A political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century.  WEALTH: industry, trade, banking  Giovanni di Bicci de Medici (an Italian banker, founder of the Medici Bank)  Cosimo de Medici (virtually became “Dictator of Florence”)  Lorenzo de Medici (the most famous; generous patron of the arts)
  8. 8.  The architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.  Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture.  Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the Renaissance style quickly spread to other Italian cities. The style was carried to France, Germany, England, Russia and other parts of Europe at different dates and with varying degrees of impact.
  9. 9.  (1377 – April 15, 1446)  One of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance.  Most famous for his discovery of perspective and for engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral.  His accomplishments also include other architectural works, sculpture, mathematics, engine ering and even ship design.  His principal surviving works are to be found in Florence, Italy.
  10. 10. Perspective drawing for Church of Santo Spirito in Florence Sketch of the machines (c. 1430) Brunelleschi's dome for the Duomo of Florence, Santa Maria del Fiore
  11. 11.  Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained.  Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.
  12. 12. Church of San Prospero, Reggio Emilia, Italy Ancient Roman Severan Basilica at Leptis Magna, Libya Sydney sandstone in the entry of the Mitchell Library in Sydney, Australia
  13. 13. Dome of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome crowned by a cupola. Designed primarily by Michelangelo, the dome was not completed until 1590 Niche on exterior of Uffizi Palace, Florence (c.156081), containing statue of Farinata degli Uberti (d.1264)
  14. 14.  During the Renaissance period, there was a distinction between country dances and court dances.  Court dances required the dancers to be trained and were often for display and entertainment, whereas country dances could be attempted by anyone. At Court, the formal entertainment would often be followed by many hours of country dances which all present could join in.  Dances described as country dances such as Chiarantana or Chiaranzana remained popular over a long period - over two centuries in the case of this dance.  A Renaissance dance can be likened to a ball.  Knowledge of court dances has survived better than that of country dances as they were collected by dancing masters in manuscripts and later in printed books. The earliest surviving manuscripts that provide detailed dance instructions are from 15th century Italy. The earliest printed dance manuals come from late 16th century France and Italy. The earliest dance manual printed in England did not appear until 1651.
  15. 15.  One dance for couples, a form of the galliard called Lavolta, involved a rather intimate hold between the man and woman, with the woman being lifted into the air while the couple made a 3/4 turn. Other dances, such as branles or bransles, were danced by many people in a circle or line.  Fifteenth-century Italian dance  Our knowledge of 15th-century Italian dances comes mainly from the surviving works of three Italian dance masters: Domenico da Piacenza, Antonio Cornazzano and Guglielmo Ebreo da Pesaro. Their work deals with similar steps and dances, though some evolution can be seen. The main types of dances described are bassa danze and balletti. These are the earliest European dances to be well-documented, as we have a reasonable knowledge of the choreographies, steps and music used.
  16. 16. Lavolta Bransles; Abbey Medieval Dance, 2010
  17. 17.  Renaissance art is the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of that period of European history, emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel with developments which occurred in philosophy, literature, music and science.  Renaissance art took recent developments in the art of Northern Europe and by application of contemporary scientific knowledge.  Renaissance art, with Renaissance Humanist philosophy, spread throughout Europe, affecting both artists and their patrons with the development of new techniques and new artistic sensibilities.  Renaissance art marks the transition of Europe from the medieval period to the Early modern age.
  18. 18.  In many parts of Europe, Early Renaissance art was created in parallel with Late Medieval art. By 1500 the Renaissance style prevailed. As Late Renaissance art (Mannerism) developed, it took on different and distinctive characteristics in every region.
  19. 19.  The "universal genius" Leonardo da Vinci was to further perfect the aspects of pictorial art (lighting, linear and atmospheric perspective, anatomy, foreshortening and characterization) that had preoccupied artists of the Early Renaissance, in a lifetime of studying and meticulously recording his observations of the natural world.
  20. 20.  An Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, invent or, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer.  He’s genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination“.  He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived.
  21. 21.  Among his works, the Mona Lisa is the most famous and most parodied portrait.  The Last Supper the most reproduced religious painting of all time, with their fame approached only by Michelangelo's The Creation of Adam.  Leonardo's drawing of the Vitruvian Man is also regarded as a cultural icon, being reproduced on items as varied as the euro coin, textbooks, and T-shirts.  Perhaps fifteen of his paintings survive, the small number because of his constant, and frequently disastrous, experimentation with new techniques, and his chronic procrastination.
  22. 22.  The Mona Lisa (La Gioconda or La Joconde) is a half-length portrait of a woman by the Italian artist, Leonardo da Vinci, which has been acclaimed as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world.“  The painting, thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo, is in oil on a poplar panel, and is believed to have been painted between 1503 and 1506, although Leonardo may have continued working on it as late as 1517.  It was acquired by King Francis I of France and is now the property of the French Republic, on permanent display at The Louvre museum in Paris since 1797.
  23. 23.  Mona in Italian is a polite form of address originating as ma donna — similar to Ma’am, Madam, or my lady in English. This became madonna, and its contraction mona. The title of the painting, though traditionally spelled "Mona" (as used by Vasari), is also commonly spelled in modern Italian as Monna Lisa, but this is rare in English.
  24. 24. Artist: Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519)  Title:   The Mona Lisa (or La Joconde, La Gioconda)   Date: Between circa 1503 and circa 1505 Current location: Louvre Museum
  25. 25.  Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564)  An Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.  Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci.
  26. 26.  Two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, were sculpted before he turned thirty.
  27. 27.   Artist: Title: Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564)  English:  Spanish:   Creation of Adam La Creación de Adán Date: c. 1511 Current Location: Sistine Chapel (the best-known chapel of the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope in the Vatican City)
  28. 28.  The earliest Renaissance literature appeared in Italy in the 14th century;  Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio, Machiavelli and Ariosto are notable examples of Italian Renaissance writers. From Italy the influence of the Renaissance spread at different times to other countries and continued to spread around Europe through the 17th century.  The English Renaissance and the Renaissance in Scotland date from the late 15th century to the early 17th century. In northern Europe the scholarship of Erasmus, the plays of Shakespeare and the writings of Sir Philip Sidney may be included in the Renaissance.
  29. 29.  The impact of the Renaissance varied across the continent; countries that were predominantly Catholic or Protestant, experienced the Renaissance differently. Areas where the Orthodox Church was dominant as reflecting on its culture, as well as those areas of Europe under Islamic rule were more or less outside its influence. The period focused on self actualization and one's ability to accept what is going on in one's life.  The creation of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg encouraged authors to write in the local vernacular rather than in Greek or Latin classical languages, widening the reading audience and promoting the spread of Renaissance ideas.
  30. 30.  Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum; c. 1395 – February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe.  His invention of mechanical movable type printing started the Printing Revolution and is widely regarded as the most important event of the modern period.  It played a key role in the development of the Renaissance, Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, and the Scientific Revolution and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses.
  31. 31.  Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca)  One of the earliest and most influential humanists.  Wrote 14-line poems called sonnets.  Giovanni Boccaccio  Best known for his Decameron.  Stories that were supposedly told by a group of youngsters waiting in a villa to avoid the plague sweeping through Florence.  Niccolò Machiavelli  Best known for his The Prince.  Examines how a ruler can gain power and keep it in spite of his enemies.  Vittoria Colonna  A woman writer who helped Castiglione publish The Courtier.
  32. 32.  Count of Casatico  An Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Renaissance author.  Most famous for his 1528 work, The Book of the Courtier.
  33. 33.  Renaissance music is music written in Europe during the Renaissance. Consensus among music historians – with notable dissent – has been to start the era around 1400, with the end of the medieval era, and to close it around 1600, with the beginning of the Baroque period.  As in the other arts, the music of the period was significantly influenced by the developments which define the Early Modern period:  The rise of humanistic thought;  The recovery of the literary and artistic heritage of ancient Greece and     Rome; Increased innovation and discovery; The growth of commercial enterprise; The rise of a bourgeois class; and the Protestant Reformation.
  34. 34.  From the Renaissance era both secular and sacred music survives in quantity, and both vocal and instrumental. An enormous diversity of musical styles and genres flourished during the Renaissance, and can be heard on commercial recordings in the 21st century, including masses, motets, madrigals, chansons, accompanied songs, instrumental dances, and many others.  Numerous early music ensembles specializing in music of the period give concert tours and make recordings, using a wide range of interpretive styles.  Polyphony became increasingly elaborate throughout the 14th century, with highly independent voices: the beginning of the 15th century showed simplification, with the voices often striving for smoothness. This was possible because of a greatly increased vocal range in music – in the Middle Ages, the narrow range made necessary frequent crossing of parts, thus requiring a greater contrast between them.
  35. 35.  The modal (as opposed to tonal) characteristics of Renaissance music began to break down towards the end of the period with the increased use of root motions of fifths. This later developed into one of the defining characteristics of tonality.  The main characteristics of Renaissance music are:  Music based on modes.  Richer texture in four or more parts.  Blending rather than contrasting strands in the musical texture.  Harmony with a greater concern with the flow and progression of chords.  Polyphony is one of the notable changes that mark the Renaissance from the Middle Ages musically. Its use encouraged the use of larger ensembles and demanded sets of instruments that would blend together across the whole vocal range.
  36. 36.  Instruments:  Brass (e.g. cornett, sackbut, trumpet)  Strings (e.g. viol, lyre, hurdy gurdy)  Percussion (e.g. tambourine, Jew’s harp)  Woodwinds (e.g. shawm, panpipe, horn pipe)
  37. 37. Viol Panpipe Tambourine Trumpet
  38. 38.  The designation "Renaissance philosophy" is used by scholars of intellectual history to refer to the thought of the period running in Europe roughly between 1350 and 1650 (the dates shift forward for central and northern Europe and for areas such as Spanish America, India, Japan, and China under European influence).  Therefore overlaps both with late medieval philosophy, which in the 14th and 15th centuries was influenced by notable figures such as Albert the Great, Thomas Aquinas, William of Ockham, and Marsilius of Padua, and early modern philosophy, which conventionally starts with René Descartes and his publication of the Discourse on Method in 1637.  Intellectual historians, however, take into considerations factors such as sources, approaches, audience, language, and literary genres in addition to ideas. This article reviews both the changes in context and content of Renaissance philosophy and its remarkable continuities with the past.
  39. 39.  During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, manufacturing, and engineering. The rediscovery of ancient scientific texts was accelerated after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, and the invention of printing which would democratize learning and allow a faster propagation of new ideas  Marie Boas Hall coined the term Scientific Renaissance to designate the early phase of the Scientific Revolution, 1450–1630.  Scientific Renaissance of the 15th and 16th centuries, focused on the restoration of the natural knowledge of the ancients;  Scientific Revolution of the 17th century shifted from recovery to innovation.
  40. 40.  The capture of Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, which occurred after a siege by the invading Ottoman Empire, under the command of 21-year-old Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, against the defending army commanded by Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos.  The siege lasted from Friday, 6 April 1453 until Tuesday, 29 May 1453 (according to the Julian calendar), when the city fell and was finally conquered by the Ottomans.  The conquest of the city of Constantinople and the eventual collapse of the Byzantine Empire marks, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages.
  41. 41.  During and after the Renaissance of the 12th century, Europe experienced an intellectual revitalization, especially with regard to the investigation of the natural world.  In the 14th century, however, a series of events that would come to be known as the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages was underway. When the Black Death came, it wiped out so many lives it affected the entire system. It brought a sudden end to the previous period of massive scientific change. The plague killed 25–50% of the people in Europe, especially in the crowded conditions of the towns, where the heart of innovations lay. Recurrences of the plague and other disasters caused a continuing decline of population for a century.
  42. 42.  The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, killing an estimated 75 to 200 million people and peaking in Europe in the years 1348–50 CE.  Although there were several competing theories as to the etiology of the Black Death, recent analysis of DNA from victims in northern and southern Europe indicates that the pathogen responsible was the Yersinia pestis bacterium, probably causing several forms of plague.
  43. 43. The disease is widely believed to be the plague. The location of bumps or blisters, however, is more consistent with smallpox (as the bubonic plague normally causes them only in the groin and in the armpits). Is generally interpreted as a depiction of the plague - "the Black Death".
  44. 44.  Alchemy  Paracelsus was an alchemist and physician of the Renaissance. The Paracelsians added a third element, salt, to make a trinity of alchemical elements.  Astronomy  The last major event in Renaissance astronomy is the work of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543). He was among the first generation of astronomers to be trained with the Theoricae novae and the Epitome. Shortly before 1514, he began to explore a shocking new idea that the Earth revolves around the Sun.  Medicine  William Harvey provided a refined and complete description of the circulatory system. The most useful tomes in medicine used both by students and expert physicians were Materia Medica and Pharmacopoeia.
  45. 45.  Geography and the New World  The key classical text was the Geographia of Claudius Ptolemy (2nd century). It was translated into Latin in the 15th century by Jacopo d'Angelo. It was widely read in manuscript and went through many print editions after it was first printed in 1475.  Thomas More's Utopia was inspired partly by the discovery of the New World.
  46. 46.  One of the names used for the Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas, certain Atlantic and Pacific oceanic islands to which the closest continental shelf is that of the Americas (such as Bermuda), and sometimes Oceania (Australasia);  The term originated in the early 16th century after America was discovered by Europeans in the age of discovery, expanding the geographical horizon of the people of the Middle Ages, who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa, Asia, and Europe only: collectively now referred to as the Old World.  The term was first coined by Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci. The Americas were also referred to as the "fourth part of the world".
  47. 47.  (March 9, 1454 – February 22, 1512)  An Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer  Demonstrated that Brazil and the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern outskirts as initially conjectured from Columbus' voyages, but instead constituted an entirely separate landmass hitherto unknown to AfroEurasians.  Colloquially referred to as the New World, this second super continent came to be termed "America", probably deriving its name from the feminized Latin version of Vespucci's first name.
  48. 48.  (Born before 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506);  Born in the Republic of Genoa, in what is today northwestern Italy.  An Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer;  Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents.  Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola, initiated the Spanish colonization of the New World.
  49. 49. 12 October 1492 – Christopher Columbus discovers The Americas for Spain, painting by Gergio Delucio, no date.
  50. 50.  Renaissance technology is the set of European artifacts and customs which span the Renaissance period, roughly the 14th through the 17th century. The era is marked by profound technical advancements such as the printing press, linear perspective in drawing, patent law, double shell domes and Bastion fortresses.  Renaissance science spawned the Scientific Revolution; science and technology began a cycle of mutual advancement.
  51. 51.  Three inventions in particular — the printing press, firearms, and the nautical compass — were indeed seen as evidence that the Moderns could not only compete with the Ancients, but had surpassed them, for these three inventions allowed modern people to communicate, exercise power, and finally travel at distances unimaginable in earlier times.  The invention of the printing press by the German goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg (1398–1468) is widely regarded as the single most important event of the second millennium, and is one of the defining moments of the Renaissance. The Printing Revolution which it sparks throughout Europe works as a modern "agent of change" (Eisenstein) in the transformation of medieval society.
  52. 52.  Flying Machines      War Machines      33-Barreled Organ Armoured Car Giant Crossbow Triple Barrel Canon Architect/Innovations       Anemometer Flying Machine Helicopter (Aerial Screw) Parachute Clock Colossus Ideal City Robotic Knight Self-Propelled Cart Water & Land Machines   Scuba Gear Revolving Bridge
  53. 53.  Early modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive, including artillery and handguns such as the arquebus and later the musket, and for this reason the era is also summarized as the age of gunpowder warfare.  Prior to the 15th century, gunpowder was used on a limited basis, but its use became universal in the early modern period, its apex occurring during the Napoleonic Wars from 1792 to 1815. This entire period is contained within the Age of Sail, which characteristic dominated the era's naval tactics, including the use of gunpowder in naval artillery.
  54. 54. Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfield. Adolphus was perhaps the greatest military innovator of this era
  55. 55.  The Battle of Breitenfeld (Battle of Leipzig), was fought at the crossroads villages of Breitenfeld, Podelwitz, and Seehausen, approximately five miles north-west of the walled city of Leipzig on September 17 (new style or Gregorian calendar), or September 7 (Julian calendar, in wide use at the time), 1631. It was the Protestants’ first major victory of the Thirty Years War.  The victory ensured that the German states would not be forcibly reconverted to Roman Catholicism. It confirmed Sweden’s Gustavus Adolphus of the House of Vasa as a great tactical leader and induced many Protestant German states to ally with Sweden against the German Catholic League, led by Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, and the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II of Austria.
  56. 56.  Was king of England from 21 April 1509 until his death.  Henry was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII.  He made a new version of Christianity that was much like Catholicism except they could divorce. He then divorced his first wife to marry another. He made himself the head of the Church of England. It changed the way people thought because now they could divorce and remarry if they are christens.  People in the modern day are divorcing more than ever. People are remarrying as well. People are still using the version of Christianity that King Henry had created because they are Christens just they are also allowed to divorce. So without King Henry it would probably be really had to divorce anyone.
  57. 57. King Henry VIII by Hans Holbein the Younger, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool
  58. 58.  Was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death.  Sometimes called "The Virgin Queen", "Gloriana" or "Good Queen Bess", Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.  The daughter of Henry VIII, she was born into the royal succession, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed two and a half years after her birth, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate.  Became queen at the age of 25.
  59. 59.  From the start of Elizabeth's reign, it was expected that she would marry and the question arose to whom. She never did, although she received many offers for her hand; the reasons for this are not clear.  Historians have speculated that Thomas Seymour had put her off sexual relationships,  or that she knew herself to be infertile.  She considered several suitors until she was about fifty. Her last courtship was with Francis, Duke of Anjou, 22 years her junior.
  60. 60. Elizabeth I in her coronation robes, patterned with Tudor roses and trimmed with ermine.