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Neuropsychology compiled report

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  • 1. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY Joseph Ryan Has Sixtus Dane Ramos Nikki Angeli Sarmiento Monica Renee Policarpio
  • 2. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY Field of study that seeks to understand how the brain processes make human behavior and psychological functions possible.
  • 3. HISTORY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGY  Neuropsychology emerged in the mid-20th Century  Rooted in two lines of 19th century thinking  Localization of Function  Cerebral Hemispheres functioned as a single unit
  • 4. LOCALIZATION OF FUNCTION  Advocated by Franz Gall and Johann Spurzheim  Phrenology – Individual differences in personality and intelligence could be assessed by bumps or indentions in the surface of the skull; certain functions were localized in certain brain areas.
  • 5. SINGULARITY IN FUNCTION  Cerebral hemispheres functions as a single unit  Karl Lashley’s Equipotentiality– emphasized the capacity of one area of the cortex to take over the functions of a destroyed area
  • 6. DEVELOPMENT OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUES  Alfred Binet assessed children with brain damage; beginning of modern intelligence tests.  Psychoneurolgical Institute in Russia was established in 1907 dedicated to studying effects of brain damage  Ward Halstead founded a neuropsychology laboratory in University of Chicago in 1935 and observed persons with brain damage in natural settings.  Halstead used test battery – set of several different tests designed to complement each other and assess all key categories of psychological functions.  Ralph Reitan started a neuropsychology laboratory at the Indiana University Medical Center  Reitan revised Halstead’s test battery and included Wechsler Intelligence Test and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – Halstead-Reitan Battery.  World War II advanced research in neuropsychology and assessment methods.
  • 7. SPLIT BRAIN RESEARCH  Roger Sperry and colleagues at California Institute of Technology studied the effects of cutting the corpus callosum in preventing the spread of epileptic seizures.  Research detected no significant differences between normal people and split-brain patients.
  • 8. RESEARCH ON NORMAL BRAINS  Tachistoscope – device that displays visual stimuli for a very brief period of time.  Tachistoscopic Methods – directed entry of visual stimuli into one hemisphere and measured the person’s accuracy of performance or reaction time in response.  Documented and confirmed unique hemispheric superiorities for a wide variety of cognitive and perceptual tasks.
  • 9. BASIC PRINCIPLES  Localization of Function  Localizationist View: Specific areas of the brain are responsible for specific behaviors and psychological functions.  Globalist View: Each area of the brain has its own specialization but these areas work together to achieve a holistic function.
  • 10. BASIC PRINCIPLES  Modularity  Modular View: Brain regions (modules) that specialize in certain functions often interact with other modules that may process information differently.  A complex psychological function is controlled by several brain modules that are working together in a “network.”
  • 11. BASIC PRINCIPLES  Levels of Interaction  The brain’s modules are connected in multiple levels.  These modules are organized in a global to local fashion.
  • 12. BASIC PRINCIPLES  Lateralization of Function  Certain psychological functions are more lateralized in one brain hemisphere than the other.  Left Hemisphere: speech and linguistic processing  Right Hemisphere: supraordinate levels of language communication; social communication
  • 13. PATTERNS OF NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTIONS  Occipital Lobe  Visual processing center of the brain  Damage to this usually causes blindness or visual impairment  Parietal Lobe  Integrates sensory information from different cortical modules  Damage to this usually affects attention and awareness of spatial location (e.g. hemineglect, simultanagnosia)
  • 14. TEMPORAL LOBE DYSFUNCTION  People with temporal lobe dysfunction may experience:  Difficulty in naming seen objects (visual agnosia)  Disruption in memory (e.g. inability to form new long-term memories)  Temporal lobe epilepsy
  • 15. FRONTAL LOBE DYSFUNCTION  People with frontal lobe dysfunction may experience:  Disruption in social and emotional functioning  Deficits in planning and organizing  Perseveration  Echolalia  Exhopraxia  Abulia  Akinetic mutism
  • 16. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY  seeks to understand how the brain, through structure and neural networks, produces and controls behavior and mental processes, including emotions, personality, thinking, learning and remembering, problem solving, and consciousness.  particularly in the case of how damaged or diseased brain structures alter behaviors and interfere with mental and cognitive functions
  • 17. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT  the administration of objective psychological tests and related procedures that are proven sensitive to the effects of brain injury;  the selection of examination procedures that are specific for measuring functional changes due to impairment of specific cognitive domains;
  • 18. WHAT DO NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS MEASURE?  Attention and Processing Speed  Motor Performance  Sensory Acuity  Working Memory  Learning and Memory
  • 19. WHAT DO NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS MEASURE?  Intelligence  Language  Calculation  Visuospatial Analysis  Problem Solving and Judgment
  • 20. WHAT DO NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS MEASURE?  Abstract Thinking  Mood and Temperament  Executive Functions
  • 21. SAMPLES OF TESTS…  Annett Handedness Questionnaire Please indicate which hand you habitually use for each of the following: (R, L or E) 1. Writing 2. Throwing a ball 3. Holding a racquet 4. Striking a match 5. Cut with scissors 6. Threading a needle 7. At top of broom 8. At top of shovel 9. To deal cards 10. To hammer a nail 11. To hold a toothbrush 12. To unscrew a lid
  • 22. SAMPLES OF TESTS… Figure/ground discrimination – separate figure from background
  • 23. SAMPLES OF TESTS… The embedded figures test – task is to find all the objects in this figure.
  • 24. SAMPLES OF TESTS… The objects in the embedded figures test stimulus
  • 25. SAMPLES OF TESTS… The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (Osterrieth, 1946)
  • 26. SAMPLES OF TESTS…
  • 27. SAMPLES OF TESTS… Graded Naming Test examples – test has 30 of these, presented in order of increasing difficulty Boston Naming Test examples
  • 28. SAMPLES OF TESTS… Pyramid Palm Tree Fir Tree 3 Picture Version 3 Word Version Pyramid and Palm Trees Test – which one of the two lower items goes with the upper item?
  • 29. SAMPLES OF TESTS… Trails A 8 2 4 3 1 9 5 6 10 7 Trails B A 2 4 B 1 C D E 3 5 Trails A and Trails B – from Halstead-Reitan test battery
  • 30. SAMPLES OF TESTS…
  • 31. Samples of Tests…
  • 32. Samples of Tests… Sort by number Sort by color Wisconsin Card Sort Task
  • 33. LEFT HEMISPHERE OF THE BRAIN  Functions are:  Expressive speech  Receptive language  Language(general)  Complex motor functions  Vigilance  Liaison to consciousness  Sequential processing  Ideation
  • 34.  Conceptual similarities  Temporal analysis  Analysis of details  Arithmetic  Writing  Right- left orientation
  • 35. RIGHT HEMISPHERE OF THE BRAIN  Functions are:  Spatial orientation  Simple language comprehension  Non- verbal ideation  Picture and pattern sense  Performance like functions  Spatial integration  Gestalt perception  Intuitive problem solving
  • 36.  Creative associative thinking  Facial recognition  Sound recognition  Non- verbal paired associate thoughts  Tactile perception  Picture processing  Simultaneous processing
  • 37. DEPRESSION  Rises with increasing proximity of the lesion to the frontal part of the brain.  Left- brain damage often shows catastrophic reactions such as tearfulness, despair and other symptoms of depression.  The closer the lesion is to the frontal pole of the left hemisphere, the more severe the depression.
  • 38. LEFT FRONTAL LOBE  Contains most of the Dopamine- sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex.  Dopamine: a neurotransmitter that is responsible for reward- driven learning, attention, short- term memory tasks, planning and motivation.  Functions involve the ability to recognize future consequences, choose between good and bad actions, override and suppress socially unacceptable responses, and determine similarities and differences between things and events.
  • 39. ACCORDING TO STUDIES…  Left hemisphere in people who are clinically depressed is typically less active than the right hemisphere.  Similarly when people who are not clinically depressed are feeling sad, the LHis less active than the RH.  When visual stimuli are projected to both hemispheres, the LH typically rates pictures as more positive than the RH.  LH play some role in maintaining a positive
  • 40. SCHIZOPHRENIA  Hypofrontality of the brain  When measured through assessment, brain imaging studies and studies measuring cerebral blood flow, left- prefrontal region is abnormal because it is not activated.  Decrease level of Dopamine in prefrontal cortex of the brain.  Negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia can also be seen to patients with structural lesions to prefrontal regions of
  • 41. LEARNING DISABILITIES
  • 42. DEVELOPMENTAL DYSLEXIA  Disruptions in the ability to read.  Usually related to dysfunction of the left hemisphere.  3 Areas of the left hemisphere are affected:  1. Broca’s Area ( affects articulation and word analysis)  2. Left parietotemporal Area (affects word analysis)  3. Left occipitotemporal Area ( affects
  • 43. DYSCALCULA  Innate difficulty in learning or comprehending arithmetic.  The intraparietal sulcus in the left hemisphere of the brain is affected. (junction between the temporal and parietal lobes of the crebral cortex.
  • 44. ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER  Brain volume reduction (3%- 4% slightly smaller than normal) in the left- sided prefrontal cortex.  Features of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity may reflect frontal lobe dysfunction.
  • 45. NON- VERBAL LEARNING DISABILITIES  Involves deficits in visuospatial and visuomotor skills like dressing, eating and organizing.  Deficits in the right hemisphere of the brain.  Neuropsychologists use Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children to look for discrepancy between verbal and performance IQ.
  • 46. STATUS OF CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGY  Late 1960’s- International Neuropsychological Society (INS) was founded  1970’s- clinical neuropsychology emerged as a distinctive professional specialty.  1980- Division of clinical neuropsychology was formed within the American Psychological Association(APA).  1996- APA designated clinical neuropsychology as a specialty( similar to
  • 47.  September 1997- a group of specialists and educators meeting in Houston, Texas, developed guidelines for the training of clinical neuropsychologists. It includes the use of imaging methods in brain testing such as Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging(fMRI).