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Health problrms in india
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Health problrms in india

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Health problrms in india Health problrms in india Presentation Transcript

  • HEALTH PROBLEMS IN INDIA
  • INTRODUCTION: Assessment of health status and health problems is the first requisite for any planned effort to develop health care services. The data required for the analysis of health situation and health problems comprise of mortality, morbidity, demographic conditions, socioeconomic factors etc
  • HEALTH Acc to who health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
  •  “Health problem is a state in which we are unable to function normally (state of ill health, unhealthiness)”
  • MAJOR HEALTH PROBLEMS : communicable disease problem nutritional problem environmental sanitation problem medical care problem population problem
  • COMMUNICABLE DISEASE PROBLEMS Communicable diseases are continue to be the major health problem in India. The diseases continue to be of greater importance are
  • MALARIA: Malaria is caused by a parasite that is Anopheles mosquitoes Symptoms: Anemia, Bloody stools,Chills, Coma, Convulsion, Fever, Headache, Jaundice, Muscle pain, Nausea, Sweating, Vomiting
  • CONT..: SIGNS AND TESTS: During a physical examination, the doctor may find an enlarged liver or enlarged spleen. A complete blood count (CBC) will identify anemia if it is present.
  • CONT..: Treatment: Chloroquine, for chloroquine-resistant infections(quinine plus doxycycline, tetracycline, or clindamycin)
  • TUBERCULOSIS: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that involves the lungs, but may spread to other organs. Causes: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis)
  • CONT… Symptoms:- Cough (usually cough up mucus),- Coughing up blood,- Excessive sweating, especially at night,- Fatigue, Fever, Unintentional weight loss,- Breathing difficulty,- Chest pain,- Wheezing
  • CONT… Tests: Sputum examination and cultures, Biopsy of the affected tissue (rare), Bronchoscopy, Chest CT scan, Chest x-ray, Thoracentesis, Tuberculin skin test
  • CONT… Treatment:Isoniazid, Rifampin, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol , Amikacin, Ethionamide, Moxifloxacin, Para-aminosalicylic acid, Streptomycin
  • DIARRHOEAL DISEASE: Diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under five years old. leading cause of malnutrition in children under five years old. Causes: Infection(bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms),
  • CONT… Prevention and treatment:- access to safe drinking-water- improved sanitation,- exclusive breastfeeding or the first six months of life,- good personal and food hygiene,- health education about how infections spread rotavirus vaccination.- Rehydration, Zinc supplements, Nutrient-rich foods, Consulting a health worker if there are signs of dehydration
  • ARI: Acute respiratory infections are causes of mortality and morbidity in children below 5yrs of age. It is estimated that about 13.6% hospital admissions and 13% inpatient deaths in paediatric ward are due to ARI. Acc. To 2009, Around two million deaths each year with the incidence of 0.29 and 0.05 episodes per child-year occurs. Causes: Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and other bacterial species, measles virus, human parainfluenza viruses, influenza virus and varicella virus.
  • LEPROSY is another major public health problem in India. In 2002: 0.44 million cases were there. During the year 2003-2004: 2.20 lakh new cases were detected out of which child cases were 14.91%, all the states and union territories reported cases of leprosy. India accounts for the 60% of the leprosy cases in the world.
  • AIDS Since AIDS was first detected in year 1986, the cumulative number of cases has risen to 124995 by the end of Aug 2007. In 2009 : Total cases-2.4 million, 1.7 lakh HIV/AIDS related deaths were reported. 41% of new cases were reported from Orissa, Bihar, West bangal,U.P, Rajsthan, M.P, and Gujrat.
  • OTHERS: Kala-azar, Meningitis, viral hepatitis, Japanese encephalitis, entric fever, and helmenthic infestations are among the other important communicable disease problems in india
  • NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS
  • PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION:PEM refers to the deficiency of energy and protein in the body. 1-2% of preschool children in India suffer from PEM. In 1998, India is ranked 2nd in the world of the number of children suffering from malnutrition. In 1991,it has around 150 million children, constituting 17.5% of Indias population, who are below the age of 6 years. The 2011 Global Hunger Index (GHI) Report ranked India 15th, amongst leading countries with hunger situation
  • CONT…. CAUSES: Inadequate intake of food both in quantity and quality, Infections (Diarrhea, Respiratory infections, measles, intestinal worms) TYPES: MARASMUS, KWASHIORKER
  • NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA: India has probably the highest prevalence of nutritional anaemia in women and children. About one half of the non-pregnant women and children are estimated to suffer from anaemia. 60-80% of pregnant women are anaemic. 20-40% of maternal deaths are attributed to anaemia. Mostly the anaemia is of iron deficiency and less frequently is of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency
  • LOW BIRTH WEIGHT This is the major public health problem in developing countries. About 30% of the babies are born of low birth weight as compared to about 4% in some developed countries. Cause : Maternal malnutrition and anaemia. CAUSES: Inadequate nutritional intake during pregnancy.
  • XEROPHTHALMIA About 0.04% of total blindness in India are attributed to nutritional deficiency of Vit. A. Keramalacia has been the major cause of nutritional blindness in children usually between 1-3 years of age.
  • DRYNESS BITOT SPOTkeratomalacia BILATERAL BLINDNESS
  • IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDER  Goitre  The prevalence rate in some parts of Himachal Pradesh was 28.7%(Sirmor) and 34.5%(Mandi) ,45.8% in ropar;64.4% in bihar;27% in Arunachal Pradesh.  According to 2011 census, 71 million people in India suffer from this, 1.3 crore people in UP, M.P-0.82 crore, Bihar-0.62 crore.
  • ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
  •  The two main problems1.) lack of safe water in many areas of the country2.) primitive methods of excreta disposal. Beside these, there has been a growing concern about the impact of new problems resulting from population explosion, urbanization and industrialization leading to hazards to human health in the air, in water, and in food chain.
  • MEDICAL CARE PROBLEMS
  • * Inadequate financial sources* health benefits to the urban population.* Uneven distribution* Migration to the urban areas, health problems have been* Aggravated like overcrowding in hospitals, inadequate staffing* Scarcity of certain drugs and medicines.Thus the major health care problem is inequitable distribution andinadequate services.
  • POPULATION PROBLEM
  • SUMMARIZATION
  • RECAPTULIZATION
  • REFERENCES