ECOLOGYHistoryEcology has a complex origin due in large part to its interdisciplinary natureAncient philosophers of Greece, including Hippocrates and Aristotle were amongthe first to record their observations on natural history.Philosophers in ancient Greece viewed life as a static element that did not requirean understanding of adaptation, a modern cornerstone of ecological theory. Topicsmore familiar in the modern context, including food chains, population regulation,and productivity, did not develop until the 1700s through the published works ofmicroscopist Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) and botanist Richard Bradley(1688?-1732). Biogeographer Alexander von Humbolt (1769–1859) was anotherearly pioneer in ecological thinking and was among the first to recognizeecological gradients.In the early 20th century, ecology was an analytical form of natural history.Following in the traditions of Aristotle, the descriptive nature of natural historyexamined the interaction of organisms with both their environment and theircommunity.Natural historians, including James Hutton and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, contributedsignificant works that laid the foundations of the modern ecological sciences. The term "ecology" (German: Oekologie) is of a more recent origin and was firstcoined by the German biologist Ernst Haeckel in his book Generelle Morphologieder Organismen (1866). Haeckel was a zoologist, artist, writer, and later in life aprofessor of comparative anatomy.By ecology we mean the body of knowledge concerning the economy of nature-theinvestigation of the total relations of the animal both to its inorganic and its organicenvironment; including, above all, its friendly and inimical relations with thoseanimals and plants with which it comes directly or indirectly into contact-in aword, ecology is the study of all those complex interrelations referred to by Darwinas the conditions of the struggle of existence.Ernst Haeckel (left) and Eugenius Warming (right), two founders of ecology.Opinions differ on who was the founder of modern ecological theory. Some mark
Haeckels definition as the beginning, others say it was Eugenius Warming with thewriting of ecology of Plants: An Introduction to the Study of Plant Communities(1895).Ecology may also be thought to have begun with Carl Linnaeus research principalson the economy of nature that matured in the early 18th century He founded anearly branch of ecological study he called the economy of nature. In the broader contributions to the historical development of the ecologicalsciences, Aristotle is considered one of the earliest naturalists who had aninfluential role in the philosophical development of ecological sciences. One ofAristotles students, Theophrastus, made ecological observations about plants andposited a philosophical stance about the autonomous relations between plants andtheir environment that is more in line with modern ecological thought. BothAristotle and Theophrastus made extensive observations on plant and animalmigrations, biogeography, physiology, and their habits in what might beconsidered an analog of the modern ecological niche.From Aristotle to Darwin the natural world was predominantly considered staticand unchanged since its original creation. Prior to The Origin of Species there waslittle appreciation or understanding of the dynamic and reciprocal relationsbetween organisms, their adaptations and their modifications to the environment.While Charles Darwin is most notable for his treatise on evolution, he is also oneof the founders of soil ecologyINTRODUCTIONEcology is a sub-discipline of biology the study of life. The word "ecology"("Ökologie") was coined in 1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919). Ancient philosophers of Greece, including Hippocrates and Aristotle, wereamong the earliest to record observations and notes on the natural history of plantsand animals. Modern ecology branched out of natural history and matured into amore rigorous science in the late 19th century. Charles Darwins evolutionarytreatise including the concept of adaptation, as it was introduced in 1859, is apivotal cornerstone in modern ecological theory. Ecology is not synonymous withenvironment, environmentalism, natural history or environmental science. It isclosely related to physiology, evolutionary biology, genetics and ethology.
Ecology (from Greek: οἶ κος, "house"; -λογία, "study of") is the scientific study ofthe relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their naturalenvironment.Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount (biomass), number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems.Ecosystems are hierarchical systems that are organized into a graded series of regularly interacting and semi-independent parts (e.g., species) that aggregate into higher orders of complex integrated wholes (e.g., communities). Ecosystems are sustained by the biodiversity within them. Biodiversity is the full-scale of life and its processes, including genes, species and ecosystems forming lineages that integrate into a complex and regenerative spatial arrangement of types, forms, and interactions. Ecosystems create biophysical feedback mechanisms between living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) components of the planet. These feedback loops regulate and sustain local communities, continental climate systems, and global biogeochemical cycles.An understanding of how biodiversity affects ecological function is an importantfocus area in ecological studies. Ecologists seek to explain: Life processes and adaptations Distribution and abundance of organisms The movement of materials and energy through living communities The succession development of ecosystems, and The abundance and distribution of biodiversity in context of the environment.Ecology is a human science as well. There are many practical applications ofecology in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resourcemanagement (agriculture, forestry, fisheries), city planning (urban ecology),community health, economics, basic and applied science and human socialinteraction (human ecology). Ecosystems sustain every life-supporting function onthe planet, including climate regulation, water filtration, soil formation(pedogenesis), food, fibers, medicines, erosion control, and many other naturalfeatures of scientific, historical or spiritual value.DEFINITIONACCORDING TO TAYLOR
‗‘Ecology is the science of study of all the relation of all organism to all organismto all their environment .‘‘ACCORDING TO ODUM‗‘Ecology is the study of structure and function of nature‘‘.ACCORDING TO PATRIDES―Ecology is the study of environmental interaction which control the welfare ofliving thing regulating there distribution ,abundance and evolution .‖These definition explain that ecology as a science studies – The component of nature which include different forms of life ,and there physical and chemical environment The process of interaction among different form of life and non living thing How different form of life can live in harmonious relation to there surrounding How different form of life and there surrounding can be controlled and regulated to maintain there health and welfare .PRINCIPAL OF ECOLOGY Everything is related to everything else .It means that all the living organism and the non-living thing in an ecosystem are interrelated Everything must go somewhere –it means the organism excretion or waste is taken up by another organism as food .This helps in removal of waste excreted by various forms of life from the environment to quit an extent . Nature know best –it means that means that changes about by human being in any natural system do not always improve the system . In order to preserve the nature anything which is removed from there nature by human effort must be replaced and anything which is added to it must be removed.
HIERARCHICAL ECOLOGY System behaviours must first be arrayed into levels of organization.Behaviors corresponding to higher levels occur at slow rates. Conversely, lowerorganizational levels exhibit rapid rates. For example, individual tree leavesrespond rapidly to momentary changes in light intensity, CO2 concentration, andthe like. The growth of the tree responds more slowly and integrates these short-term changes To structure the study of ecology into a manageable framework of understanding, the biological world is conceptually organized as a nested hierarchy of organization, ranging in scale from genes, to cells, to tissues, to organs, to organisms, to species and up to the level of the biosphere. The main areas of concerns of ecology are from population to biosphere. Protoplasm Cell Tissues Organ Organ Organism system Biosphere Ecosystem Communities PopulationPOPULATION: From Ecological point of view, population refers to as Group ofindividuals of any kind of organism living together in a particular locality. Forexample number of pigeons or sparrows or dogs or human beings living together ina particular place. The population is the unit of analysis in population ecology. A population consists of individuals of the same species that live, interact and migrate through the same niche and habitat. A primary law of population ecology is the Malthusian growth model. This law states that: "...a population will grow (or decline) exponentially as long as the environment experienced by all individuals in the population remains constant” Simplified population models usually start with four variables including death, birth, immigration, and emigration. Mathematical models are used to calculate changes in population demographics using a null model. A null model is used as a null hypothesis
for statistical testing. The null hypothesis states that random processes create observed patterns. Alternatively the patterns differ significantly from the random model and require further explanation. Models can be mathematically complex where "...several competing hypotheses are simultaneously confronted with the data." An example of an introductory population model describes a closed population, such as on an island, where immigration and emigration does not take place. In these island models the rate of population change is described by: where N is the total number of individuals in the population, B is the number of births, D is the number of deaths, b and d are the per capita rates of birth and death respectively, and r is the per capita rate of population change. This formula can be read out as the rate of change in the population (dN/dT) is equal to births minus deaths (B – D). COMMUNITY: In the ecological sense community refers to association of various populations in a particular locality. This is also referred to as biotic community. ECOSYSTEM: An ecosystem is formed when the community (various types of populations) and the non-living environment interact and function together. Ecosystem is a unit of study of ecology. BOISPHERE: Biosphere refers to the world of living things and is comprised of part of earth (The lithosphere), a thin layer of air above the surface of earth (Atmosphere) and water (hydrosphere). OTHER RELATED TERMS:BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity is the variety of life and its processes. It includes the variety of living organisms, the genetic differences among them, the communities and ecosystems in which they occur, and the ecological and evolutionary processes that keep them functioning, yet ever changing and adapting
Biodiversity (an abbreviation of biological diversity) describes the diversity of life from genes to ecosystems and spans every level of biological organization. Biodiversity means different things to different people and there are many ways to index, measure, characterize, and represent its complex organization. Biodiversity includes species diversity, ecosystem diversity, genetic diversity and the complex processes operating at and among these respective levels. Biodiversity plays an important role in ecological health as much as it does for human health. Preventing or prioritizing species extinctions is one way to preserve biodiversity,but populations, the genetic diversity within them and ecological processes, such asmigration, are being threatened on global scales and disappearing rapidly as well.Conservation priorities and management techniques require different approachesand considerations to address the full ecological scope of biodiversity. Populationsand species migration, for example, are more sensitive indicators of ecosystemservices that sustain and contribute natural capital toward the well-being ofhumanity. An understanding of biodiversity has practical application forecosystem-based conservation planners as they make ecologically responsibledecisions in management recommendations to consultant firms, governments andindustry.HABITAT The habitat of a species describes the environment over which a species is known to occur and the type of community that is formed as a result. More specifically, "habitats can be defined as regions in environmental space that are composed of multiple dimensions, each representing a biotic or abiotic environmental variable; that is, any component or characteristic of the environment related directly (e.g. forage biomass and quality) or indirectly (e.g. elevation) to the use of a location by the animal. For example, the habitat might refer to an aquatic or terrestrial environment that can be further categorized as montane or alpine ecosystems Biotope and habitat are sometimes used interchangeably, but the former applies to a communities environment, whereas the latter applies to a species environment.
BIOME Biomes are larger units of organization that categorize regions of the Earths ecosystems mainly according to the structure and composition of vegetation. Different researchers have applied different methods to define continental boundaries of biomes dominated by different functional types of vegetative communities that are limited in distribution by climate, precipitation, weather and other environmental variables. Examples of biome names include: tropical rainforest, temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, temperate deciduous forest, taiga, tundra, hot desert, and polar desert.SOCIAL ECOLOGY Social behaviors include reciprocally beneficial behaviors among kin and nest mates. Social behaviors evolve from kin and group selection. Kin selection explains altruism through genetic relationships, whereby an altruistic behavior leading to death is rewarded by the survival of genetic copies distributed among surviving relatives. The social insects, including ants, bees and wasps are most famously studied for this type of relationship because the male drones are clones that share the same genetic make-up as every other male in the colony.BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY All organisms are motile to some extent. Even plants express complex behavior, including memory and communication. Behavioral ecology is the study of an organisms behavior in its environment and its ecological and evolutionary implications. Behaviour Eology is the study of observable movement or behavior in animals. This could include investigations of motile sperm of plants, mobile phytoplankton, zooplankton swimming toward the female egg, the cultivation of fungi by weevils, the mating dance of a salamander, or social gatherings of amoeba
Adaptation is the central unifying concept in behavioral ecology. Behaviors can be recorded as traits and inherited in much the same way that eye and hair color can. Behaviors evolve and become adapted to the ecosystem because they are subject to the forces of natural selection. Hence, behaviors can be adaptive, meaning that they evolve functional utilities that increases reproductive success for the individuals that inherit such traits. This is also the technical definition for fitness in biology, which is a measure of reproductive success over successive generations. COEVOLUTION Ecological interactions can be divided into host and associate relationships. A host is any entity that harbors another that is called the associate. Host and associate relationships among species that are mutually or reciprocally beneficial are called mutualisms. If the host and associate are physically connected, the relationship is called symbiosis. Approximately 60% of all plants, for example, have a symbiotic relationship with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Symbiotic plants and fungi exchange carbohydrates for mineral nutrients. Symbiosis differs from indirect mutualisms where the organisms live apart. For example, tropical rainforests regulate the Earths atmosphere. Trees living in the equatorial regions of the planet supply oxygen into the atmosphere that sustains species living in distant polar regions of the planet. This relationship is called commensalism because many other host species receive the benefits of clean air at no cost or harm to the associate tree species supplying the oxygen. The host and associate relationship is called parasitism if one species benefits while the other suffers. Competition among species or among members of the same species is defined as reciprocal antagonism, such as grasses competing for growth space.MOLECULAR ECOLOGY The important relationship between ecology and genetic inheritance predates modern techniques for molecular analysis. Molecular ecological research became more feasible with the development of rapid and accessible genetic technologies, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The rise of molecular technologies and influx of research questions into this new ecological field resulted in the publication Molecular Ecology in 1992.
Molecular ecology uses various analytical techniques to study genes in an evolutionary and ecological context.HUMAN ECOLOGY Human ecology is the interdisciplinary investigation into the ecology of our species. "Human ecology may be defined:(1) from a bio-ecological standpoint as the study of man as the ecologicaldominant in plant and animal communities and systems;(2) as a human being, somehow different from animal life in general, interactingwith physical and modified environments in a distinctive and creative way. The term human ecology was formally introduced in 1921, but many sociologists,geographers, psychologists, and other disciplines were interested in humanrelations to natural systems centuries prior, especially in the late 19th century.Some authors have identified a new unifying science in coupled human and naturalsystems that builds upon, but moves beyond the field human ecology. Ecology isas much a biological science as it is a human science. Perhaps the most importantimplication involves our view of human society.
ECOSYSTEMThe term ecosystem was proposed in 1935 by British Botanist Professor ARTHURTANSLEY. He defined it as a system resulting from the integration of all livingand no-living factorsof the environment. Ecosystem is defined as : The basic functional unit of ecology and consist ofinteracting organisms and all aspects of environment in any area. It consist both living and non-living components. The size of ecosystem can vary.It can be small as the size of aquarium and as large as ocean. As long as both livingand non-living organisms interact, the life sustained, it is considered as ecosystem.Ecosystem can also be created artificially in the test tube in the laboratory. Thebiosphere is made up of number of ecosystems such as ponds, lakes, streams,rivers, sea, and sea shore, grass lands, deserts, forests etc.COMPONENTS OF ECOSYSTEM:There are two major components of ecosystem. A.) Living Organism: The living organisms refers to as Biotic community and includes Plants, animals and microbs. Plants in the presence of light converts carbon-diaoxide and water into carbohydrates and thus manufacture their own food. Plants are therefore called Producers. Animals on the other hand consumes the products of plants and are called as consumers. Microbs which includes bacteria‘s, fungi, and insects breake down the dead organic matter , consumes some of the decomposed products and releases multiple substances which are used by the plant to manufacture their food. They are therefore called Decomposers. B.) Non-living organisms: The non-living things are also called Abiotic components. These are comprised of physical and chemical substances which include sunlight, water, oxygen, carbon-diaoxide, minerals, dead plants and animal matter and other factors such as temperature, light, heat, wind and rainfall etc. All these help in growth of plants and animals. There are no of cycles such as carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, hydrogen cycle, energy cycle etc. which help in manufacturing the food by plants, maintenance of composition of air, formulations of moisture and rain, maintenance of healthy soil, temperature, weather conditions, and agriculture aspects.
FOOD CHAIN AND FOOD WEBSThe living organisms in the ecosystem of biosphere have feeding relationship withone another to sustain life and maintain balance in these. In this feedingrelationship one organism become food for another which interns become food forthird organism, third for forth and goes on.There are many different food chains which are inter-related to each other to formnetwork of food chains which is called food web. A food web is the archetypal ecological network. Plants capture and convert solar energy into the bimolecular bonds of simple sugars during photosynthesis. This food energy is transferred through a series of organisms starting with those that feed on plants and are themselves consumed. The simplified linear feeding pathways that move from a basal trophic species to a top consumer is called the food chain. The larger interlocking pattern of food chains in an ecological community creates a complex food web. Food webs are a type of concept map or a heuristic device that is used illustrate and study pathways of energy and material flows Food-webs exhibit principals of ecological emergence through the nature of trophic entanglement, where some species have many weak feeding links (e.g., omnivores) while some are more specialized with fewer stronger feeding links (e.g., primary predators). Food-webs have compartments, where the many strong interactions create subgroups among some members in a community and the few weak interactions occur between these subgroups. These compartments increase the stability of food-webs. As plants grow, they accumulate carbohydrates and are eaten by grazing herbivores. Step by step lines or relations are drawn until a web of life is illustrated.
The Greek root of the word troph, τροφή, trophē, means food or feeding. Links in food-webs primarily connect feeding relations or trophism among species. Biodiversity within ecosystems can be organized into vertical and horizontal dimensions. The vertical dimension represents feeding relations that become further removed from the base of the food chain up toward top predators. A trophic level is defined as "a group of organisms acquiring a considerable majority of its energy from the adjacent level nearer the abiotic source. The horizontal dimension represents the abundance or biomass at each level. When the relative abundance or biomass of each functional feeding group is stacked into their respective trophic levels they naturally sort into a pyramid of numbers. Functional groups are broadly categorized as autotrophs (or primary producers), heterotrophs (or consumers), and detrivores (or decomposers). Autotrophs are organisms that can produce their own food (production is greater than respiration) and are usually plants or cyanobacteria that are
capable of photosynthesis but can also be other organisms such as bacteria near ocean vents that are capable of chemosynthesis. Heterotrophs are organisms that must feed on others for nourishment and energy (respiration exceeds production). Heterotrophs can be further sub- divided into different functional groups, including: - primary consumers (strict herbivores), - secondary consumers (carnivorous predators that feed exclusively on herbivores) - tertiary consumers (predators that feed on a mix of herbivores and predators). Omnivores do not fit neatly into a functional category because they eat both plant and animal tissues. It has been suggested that omnivores have a greater functional influence as predators because relative to herbivores they are comparatively inefficient at grazing.ECOSYSTEM RELATION TO ENVIRONMENTThe environment is dynamically interlinked, imposed upon and constrainsorganisms at any time throughout their life cycle. Like the term ecology,environment has different conceptual meanings and to many these terms alsooverlap with the concept of nature. Environment "...includes the physical world, the social world of human relations and the built world of human creation." The environment in ecosystems includes both physical parameters and biotic attributes. The physical environment is external to the level of biological organization under investigation, including abiotic factors such as temperature, radiation, light, chemistry, climate and geology. The biotic environment includes genes, cells, organisms, members of the same species (conspecifics) and other species that share a habitat. The laws of thermodynamics applies to ecology by means of its physical state.Armed with an understanding of metabolic and thermodynamic principles acomplete accounting of energy and material flow can be traced through anecosystem.Environmental and ecological relations are studied through reference toconceptually manageable and isolated parts. Once the effective environmentalcomponents are understood they conceptually link back together as a holocoenotic
system. In other words, the organism and the environment form a dynamic wholeChange in one ecological or environmental factor can concurrently affect thedynamic state of an entire ecosystem. (A) Disturbance and resilienceEcosystems are regularly confronted with natural environmental variations anddisturbances over time and geographic space. A disturbance is any process thatremoves living biomass from a community, such as a fire, flood, drought, orpredation. Fluctuations causing disturbance occur over vastly different ranges interms of magnitudes as well as distances and time periods. Disturbances, such asfire, are both cause and product of natural fluctuations in death rates, speciesassemblages, and biomass densities within an ecological community. Thesedisturbances create places of renewal where new directions emerge out of thepatchwork of natural experimentation and opportunity. Ecological resilience is acornerstone theory in ecosystem management. Biodiversity fuels the resilience ofecosystems acting as a kind of regenerative insurance. (B)Metabolism and the early atmosphereMetabolism – the rate at which energy and material resources are taken up fromthe environment, transformed within an organism, and allocated to maintenance,growth and reproduction – is a fundamental physiological trait.The Earth formed approximately 4.5 billion years ago and environmentalconditions were too extreme for life to form for the first 500 million years. Duringthis early Hadean period, the Earth started to cool, allowing a crust and oceans toform. Environmental conditions were unsuitable for the origins of life for the firstbillion years after the Earth formed. The Earths atmosphere transformed from being dominated by hydrogen, toone composed mostly of methane and ammonia. Over the next billion years themetabolic activity of life transformed the atmosphere to higher concentrations ofcarbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapor. These gases changed the way that lightfrom the sun hit the Earths surface and greenhouse effects trapped heat. Therewere untapped sources of free energy within the mixture of reducing and oxidizinggasses that set the stage for primitive ecosystems to evolve and, in turn, theatmosphere also evolved. The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants.
Throughout history, the Earths atmosphere and biogeochemical cycles have beenin a dynamic equilibrium with planetary ecosystems. The history is characterizedby periods of significant transformation followed by millions of years of stability. The evolution of the earliest organisms, likely anaerobic methanogen microbes, started the process by converting atmospheric hydrogen into methane (4H2 + CO2 → CH4 + 2H2O). Anoxygenic photosynthesis converting hydrogen sulfide into other sulfurcompounds or water (for example 2H2S + CO2 + hv → CH2O + H2O + 2S), asoccurs in deep sea hydrothermal vents today, reduced hydrogen concentrations andincreased atmospheric methane. Early forms of fermentation also increased levels of atmospheric methane.The transition to an oxygen dominant atmosphere (the Great Oxidation) did notbegin until approximately 2.4-2.3 billion years ago, but photosynthetic processesstarted 0.3 to 1 billion years prior (C) Radiation: heat, temperature and lightThe biology of life operates within a certain range of temperatures. Heat is a formof energy that regulates temperature. Heat affects growth rates, activity, behavior and primary production. Temperature is largely dependent on the incidence of solar radiation.The latitudinal and longitudinal spatial variation of temperature greatly affectsclimates and consequently the distribution of biodiversity and levels of primaryproduction in different ecosystems or biomes across the planet. Heat and temperature relate importantly to metabolic activity.Poikilotherms, for example, have a body temperature that is largely regulated anddependent on the temperature of the external environment. In contrast,homeotherms regulate their internal body temperature by expending metabolicenergy.There is a relationship between light, primary production, and ecological energybudgets. Sunlight is the primary input of energy into the planets ecosystems. Lightis composed of electromagnetic energy of different wavelengths. Radiant energyfrom the sun generates heat, provides photons of light measured as active energy inthe chemical reactions of life, and also acts as a catalyst for genetic mutation. Plants, algae, and some bacteria absorb light and assimilate the energythrough photosynthesis. Organisms capable of assimilating energy by
photosynthesis or through inorganic fixation of H2S are autotrophs. Autotrophs—responsible for primary production—assimilate light energy that becomesmetabolically stored as potential energy in the form of biochemical enthalpicbonds.Physical environmentsWaterWetland conditions such as shallow water, high plant productivity, and anaerobicsubstrates provide a suitable environment for important physical, biological, andchemical processes. Because of these processes, wetlands play a vital role in globalnutrient and element cycles.:The rate of diffusion of carbon dioxide and oxygen is approximately 10,000 timesslower in water than it is in air. When soils become flooded, they quickly loseoxygen and transform into a low-concentration (hypoxic - O2 concentration lowerthan 2 mg/liter) environment and eventually become completely (anoxic)environment where anaerobic bacteria thrive among the roots. Water alsoinfluences the spectral composition and amount of light as it reflects off the watersurface and submerged particles. Aquatic plants exhibit a wide variety of morphological and physiologicaladaptations that allow them to survive, compete and diversify these environments.For example, the roots and stems develop large air spaces (Aerenchyma) thatregulate the efficient transportation gases (for example, CO2 and O2) used inrespiration and photosynthesis. In drained soil, microorganisms use oxygen duringrespiration. In aquatic environments, anaerobic soil microorganisms use nitrate,manganese ions, ferric ions, sulfate, carbon dioxide and some organic compounds.The activity of soil microorganisms and the chemistry of the water reduces theoxidation-reduction potentials of the water. Carbon dioxide, for example, isreduced to methane (CH4) by methanogenic bacteria.GravityThe shape and energy of the land is affected to a large degree by gravitationalforces. On a larger scale, the distribution of gravitational forces on the earth areuneven and influence the shape and movement of tectonic plates as well as havingan influence on geomorphic processes such as orogeny and erosion. These forcesgovern many of the geophysical properties and distributions of ecological biomesacross the Earth. On a organism scale, gravitational forces provide directional cues
for plant and fungal growth (gravitropism), orientation cues for animal migrations,and influence the biomechanics and size of animals. Ecological traits, such asallocation of biomass in trees during growth are subject to mechanical failure asgravitational forces influence the position and structure of branches and leaves.The cardiovascular systems of all animals are functionally adapted to overcomepressure and gravitational forces that change according to the features of organisms(e.g., height, size, shape), their behavior (e.g., diving, running, flying), and thehabitat occupied (e.g., water, hot deserts, cold tundra).PressureClimatic and osmotic pressure places physiological constraints on organisms, suchas flight and respiration at high altitudes, or diving to deep ocean depths. Theseconstraints influence vertical limits of ecosystems in the biosphere as organismsare physiologically sensitive and adapted to atmospheric and osmotic waterpressure differences. Oxygen levels, for example, decrease with increasingpressure and are a limiting factor for life at higher altitudes. Water transportationthrough trees is another important ecophysiological parameter where osmoticpressure gradients factor in. Water pressure in the depths of oceans requires thatorganisms adapt to these conditions. For example, mammals, such as whales,dolphins and seals are specially adapted to deal with changes in sound due to waterpressure differences. Different species of hagfish provide another example ofadaptation to deep-sea pressure through specialized protein adaptations.Wind and turbulenceThe architecture of inflorescence in grasses is subject to the physical pressures ofwind and shaped by the forces of natural selection facilitating wind-pollination (oranemophily). Turbulent forces in air and water have significant effects on the environmentand ecosystem distribution, form and dynamics. On a planetary scale, ecosystemsare affected by circulation patterns in the global trade winds. Wind power and theturbulent forces it creates can influence heat, nutrient, and biochemical profiles ofecosystems. For example, wind running over the surface of a lake createsturbulence, mixing the water column and influencing the environmental profile tocreate thermally layered zones, partially governing how fish, algae, and other partsof the aquatic ecology are structured.
Wind speed and turbulence also exert influence on rates of evaporation ratesand energy budgets in plants and animals. Wind speed, temperature and moisturecontent can vary as winds travel across different landfeatures and elevationsFireForest fires modify the land by leaving behind an environmental mosaic thatdiversifies the landscape into different serial stages and habitats of varied quality(left). Some species are adapted to forest fires, such as pine trees that open theircones only after fire exposure (right).Plants convert carbon dioxide into biomass and emit oxygen into the atmosphereApproximately 350 million years ago (near the Devonian period) thephotosynthetic process brought the concentration of atmospheric oxygen above17%, which allowed combustion to occur Fire releases CO2 and converts fuel intoash and tar. Fire is a significant ecological parameter that raises many issuespertaining to its control and suppression in management. While the issue of fire inrelation to ecology and plants has been recognized for a long time, Charles Cooperbrought attention to the issue of forest fires in relation to the ecology of forest firesuppression and management in the 1960s.Fire creates environmental mosaics and a patchiness to ecosystem age and canopystructure. Native North Americans were among the first to influence fire regimesby controlling their spread near their homes or by lighting fires to stimulate theproduction of herbaceous foods and basketry materials. The altered state of soilnutrient supply and cleared canopy structure also opens new ecological niches forseedling establishment. Most ecosystem are adapted to natural fire cycles. Plants,for example, are equipped with a variety of adaptations to deal with forest fires.Some species (e.g., Pinus halepensis) cannot germinate until after their seeds havelived through a fire. This environmental trigger for seedlings is called serotiny.Some compounds from smoke also promote seed germination. Fire plays a majorrole in the persistence and resilience of ecosystems.BiogeochemistryEcologists study and measure nutrient budgets to understand how these materialsare regulated, flow, and recycled through the environment. This research has led toan understanding that there is a global feedback between ecosystems and thephysical parameters of this planet including minerals, soil, pH, ions, water andatmospheric gases. There are six major elements, including H (hydrogen), C(carbon), N (nitrogen), O (oxygen), S (sulfur), and P (phosphorus) that form the
constitution of all biological macromolecules and feed into the Earths geochemicalprocesses. From the smallest scale of biology the combined effect of billions uponbillions of ecological processes amplify and ultimately regulate the biogeochemicalcycles of the Earth. Understanding the relations and cycles mediated between theseelements and their ecological pathways has significant bearing towardunderstanding global biogeochemistry.ECOSYSTEM SERVICES:Ecosystem services are ecologically mediated functional processes essential tosustaining healthy human societies. Water provision and filtration, production ofbiomass in forestry, agriculture, and fisheries, and removal of greenhouse gasessuch as carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere are examples of ecosystemservices essential to public health and economic opportunity. Nutrient cycling is aprocess fundamental to agricultural and forest production.However, like most ecosystem processes, nutrient cycling is not an ecosystemcharacteristic which can be ―dialed‖ to the most desirable level. Maximizingproduction in degraded systems is an overly simplistic solution to the complexproblems of hunger and economic security. For instance, intensive fertilizer use inthe Midwestern United States has resulted in degraded fisheries in the Gulf ofMexico. Regrettably, a ―Green Revolution‖ of intensive chemical fertilization hasbeen recommended for agriculture in developed and developing countries.These strategies risk alteration of ecosystem processes that may be difficult torestore, especially when applied at broad scales without adequate assessment ofimpacts. Ecosystem processes may take many years to recover from significantdisturbance. For instance, large-scale forest clearance in the northeastern United States duringthe 18th and 19th centuries has altered soil texture, dominant vegetation, andnutrient cycling in ways that impact forest productivity in the present day Anappreciation of the importance of ecosystem function in maintenance ofproductivity, whether in agriculture or forestry, is needed in conjunction with plansfor restoration of essential processes. Improved knowledge of ecosystem functionwill help to achieve long-term sustainability and stability in the poorest parts of theworld.How do ecosystems work?
Biomass productivity is one of the most apparent and economically importantecosystem functions. Biomass accumulation begins at the cellular level viaphotosynthesis. Photosynthesis requires water and consequently global patters ofannual biomass production are correlated with annual precipitation. Amounts ofproductivity are also dependent on the overall capacity of plants to capture sunlightwhich is directly correlated with plant leaf area and N content.Net primary productivity (NPP) is the primary measure of biomass accumulationwithin an ecosystem. Net primary productivity can be calculated by a simpleformula where the total amount of productivity is adjusted for total productivitylosses through maintenance of biological processes: NPP = GPP – RproducerWhere GPP is gross primary productivity is photosynthate (Carbon) lost viacellular respiration.Decomposition and nutrient cyclingDecomposition and nutrient cycling are fundamental to ecosystem biomassproduction. Most natural ecosystems are nitrogen (N) limited and biomassproduction is closely correlated with N turnover typically external input ofnutrients is very low and efficient recycling of nutrients maintains productivity.Decomposition of plant litter accounts for the majority of nutrients recycledthrough ecosystems. Rates of plant litter decomposition are highly dependent onlitter quality; high concentration of phenolic compounds, especially lignin, in plantlitter has a retarding effect on litter decomposition. More complex C compoundsare decomposed more slowly and may take many years to completely breakdown.Decomposition is typically described with exponential decay.Globally, rates of decomposition are mediated by litter quality and climate.Ecosystems dominated by plants with low-lignin concentration often have rapidrates of decomposition and nutrient cycling (Chapin et al. 1982). Simple carbon(C) containing compounds are preferentially metabolized by decomposermicroorganisms which results in rapid initial rates of decomposition For instance, proteins, sugars and lipids decompose exponentially, but lignindecays at a more linear rate Thus, litter decay is inaccurately predicted bysimplistic models
Trophic dynamicsTrophic dynamics refers to process of energy and nutrient transfer betweenorganisms. Trophic dynamics is an important part of the structure and function ofecosystems. Energy gained by primary producers (plants, P) is consumed byherbivores (H), which are consumed by carnivores (C), which are themselvesconsumed by ―top- carnivores‖(TC).Plants exert a ―bottom-up‖ control on the energy structure of ecosystems bydetermining the total amount of energy that enters the system.Trophic dynamics can strongly influence rates of decomposition and nutrientcycling in time and in space. For example, herbivory can increase litterdecomposition and nutrient cycling via direct changes in litter quality and altereddominant vegetation. Insect herbivory has been shown to increase rates ofdecomposition and nutrient turnover due to changes in litter quality and increasedfrays inputsHowever, insect outbreak does not always increase nutrient cycling. Stadlershowed that C rich honeydew produced during aphid outbreak can result inincreased N immobilization by soil microbes thus slowing down nutrient cyclingand potentially limiting biomass production. North Atlantic marine ecosystemshave been greatly altered by overfishing of cod. Cod stocks crashed in the 1990swhich resulted in increases in their prey such as shrimp and snow crab. Humanintervention in ecosystems has resulted in dramatic changes to ecosystem structureand function. These changes are occurring rapidly and have unknownconsequences for economic security and human well-being.Applications: Why does this science matter?The biosphere has been greatly altered by the demands of human societies.Ecosystem ecology plays an important role in understanding and adapting to themost pressing current environmental problems. Restoration of ecology andecosystem management are closely associated with ecosystem ecology. Restoringhighly degraded resources depends on integration of functional mechanisms ofecosystems.
Without these functions intact, economic value of ecosystems is greatlyreduced and potentially dangerous conditions may develop in the field. For example, areas within the mountainous western highlands of Guatemala aremore susceptible to catastrophic landslides and crippling seasonal water shortagesdue to loss of forest resources. In contrast, cities such as Totonicapán that have preserved forests throughstrong social institutions have greater local economic stability and overall greaterhuman well-being. This situation is striking considering that these areas are close to each other, themajority of inhabitants are of Mayan descent, and the topography and overallresources are similar. This is a case of two groups of people managing resources infundamentally different ways. Ecosystem ecology provides the basic scienceneeded to avoid degradation and to restore ecosystem processes that provide forbasic human needsENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND ITS EFFECTSINTRODUCTION- One of the greatest problems that the world is facing today isthat of environmental pollution, increasing with every passing year and causinggrave and irreparable damage to the earth. Environmental pollution consists of fivebasic types of pollution, namely, air, water, soil, noise and light.
TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION WATER POLLUTION SOIL POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION LIGHT POLLUTIONAIR POLLUTION- Air pollution is by far the most harmful form of pollution inour environment. Air pollution is cause by the injurious smoke emitted by cars,buses, trucks, trains, and factories, namely sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide andnitrogen oxides. Even smoke from burning leaves and cigarettes are harmful to theenvironment causing a lot of damage to man and the atmosphere. Evidence ofincreasing air pollution is seen in lung cancer, asthma, allergies, and variousbreathing problems along with severe and irreparable damage to flora and fauna.Even the most natural phenomenon of migratory birds has been hampered, withsevere air pollution preventing them from reaching their seasonal metropolitandestinations of centuries.Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), released from refrigerators, air-conditioners,deodorants and insect repellents cause severe damage to the Earth‘s environment.This gas has slowly damaged the atmosphere and depleted the ozone layer leadingto global warming.WATER POLLUTION- Water pollution caused industrial waste productsreleased into lakes, rivers, and other water bodies, has made marine life no longerhospitable. Humans pollute water with large scale disposal of garbage, flowers,ashes and other household waste. In many rural areas one can still find peoplebathing and cooking in the same water, making it incredibly filthy. Acid rainfurther adds to water pollution in the water. In addition to these, thermal pollutionand the depletion of dissolved oxygen aggravate the already worsened condition ofthe water bodies. Water pollution can also indirectly occur as an offshoot of soilpollution – through surface runoff and leaching to groundwater.NOISE POLLUTION- Noise pollution, soil pollution and light pollution too arethe damaging the environment at an alarming rate. Noise pollution include aircraftnoise, noise of cars, buses, and trucks, vehicle horns, loudspeakers, and industrynoise, as well as high-intensity sonar effects which are extremely harmful for theenvironment.
Maximum noise pollution occurs due to one of modern science‘s best discoveries –the motor vehicle, which is responsible for about ninety percent of all unwantednoise worldwide.SOIL POLLUTION- Soil pollution, which can also be called soil contamination,is a result of acid rain, polluted water, fertilizers etc., which leads to bad crops. Soilcontamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground storagetank leakage which releases heavy contaminants into the soil. These may includehydrocarbons, heavy metals, MTBE, herbicides, pesticides and chlorinatedhydrocarbons.LIGHT POLLUTION- Light Pollution includes light trespass, over-illuminationand astronomical interferenceENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IMPACT ON HUMAN BEINGWe know that pollution causes not only physical disabilities but also psychologicalandbehavioral disorders in people. The following pollution effects on humans havebeen reported:I. Effects of Air Pollution Reduced lung functioning Irritation of eyes, nose, mouth and throat Asthma attacks
Respiratory symptoms such as coughing and wheezing Increased respiratory disease such as bronchitis Reduced energy levels Headaches and dizziness Disruption of endocrine, reproductive and immune systems Neurobehavioural disorders Cardiovascular problems Cancer Premature deathII.Effects of Water Pollutiona. Waterborne diseases caused by polluted drinking water: o Typhoid o Amoebiasis o Giardiasis o Ascariasis o Hookwormb. Waterborne diseases caused by polluted beach water: o Rashes, ear ache, pink eye o Respiratory in Hepatitis, encephalitis, gastroenteritis, diarrhoea, vomiting, and stomach achesc. Conditions related to water polluted by chemicals (such as pesticides,hydrocarbons, persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals etc): o Cancer, incl. prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin‘s lymphoma o Hormonal problems that can disrupt reproductive and developmental processes o Damage to the nervous system o Liver and kidney damage o Damage to the DNA o Exposure to mercury (heavy metal): o In the womb: may cause neurological problems including slower reflexes, learning deficits, delayed or incomplete mental development, autism and brain damage o In adults: Parkinson‘s disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer‘s disease, heart disease, and even deathd. Other effects: o Water pollution may also result from interactions between water and contaminated soil as from deposition of air contaminants (such as acid rain) o Damage to people may be caused by fish foods coming from polluted water (a well known example is high mercury levels in fish)
o Damage to people may be caused by vegetable crops grown / washed with polluted water (author‘s own conclusion)III. Effects of Soil Pollution o Causes cancers including leukaemia o Lead in soil is especially hazardous for young children causing developmental damage to the brain o Mercury can increase the risk of kidney damage; cyclo dienes can lead to liver toxicity o Causes neuro muscular blockage as well as depression of the central nervous system o Also causes headaches, nausea, fatigue, eye irritation and skin rash o Contact with contaminated soil may be direct (from using parks, schools etc) or indirect (by inhaling soil contaminants which have vaporized) o Soil pollution may also result from secondary contamination of water supplies and from deposition of air contaminants (for example, via acid rain) o Contamination of crops grown in polluted soil brings up problems with food security o Since it is closely linked to water pollution, many effects of soil contamination appear to be similar to the ones caused by water contamination.IV. Effects of Noise Pollution Decreases the efficiency of a man-Regarding the impact of noise on human efficiency there are number of experiments which shows that human efficiency increases with noise reduction. Lack of concentration-For better quality of work there should be concentration , Noise causes lack of concentration. In big cities , mostly all the offices are on main road. The noise of traffic or the loud speakers of different types of horns divert the attention of the people working in offices. Fatigue:Because of Noise Pollution, people cannot concentrate on their work. Thus they have to give their more time for completing the work and they feel tiring.
Abortion is caused-There should be cool and calm atmosphere during the pregnancy. Unpleasant sounds make a lady of irritative nature. Sudden Noise causes abortion in females. Causes Blood Pressure-Noise Pollution causes certain diseases in human. It attacks on the person‘s peace of mind. The noises are recognized as major contributing factors in accelerating the already existing tensions of modern living. These tensions result in certain disease like blood pressure or mental illness etc. Temporary of permanent Deafness-The effect of noise on audition is well recognized. Mechanics ,locomotive drivers, telephone operators etc. All have their hearing impairment as a result of noise at the place of work. Physicians & psychologists are of the view that continued exposure to noise level above. 80 to 100 db is unsafe, Loud noise causes temporary or permanent deafness.Environmental Pollution Effects on AnimalsI. Effects of Air Pollution o Acid rain (formed in the air) destroys fish life in lakes and streams o Excessive ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun through the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere which is eroded by some air pollutants, may cause skin cancer in wildlife o Ozone in the lower atmosphere may damage lung tissues of animalsII. Effects of Water Pollution o Nutrient pollution (nitrogen, phosphates etc) causes overgrowth of toxic algae eaten by other aquatic animals, and may cause death; nutrient pollution can also cause outbreaks of fish diseases o Oil pollution (as part of chemical contamination) can negatively affect development of marine organisms, increase susceptibility to disease and affect reproductive processes; can also cause gastrointestinal irritation, liver and kidney damage, and damage to the nervous system o Mercury in water can cause abnormal behavior, slower growth and development, reduced reproduction, and death o Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may cause declines, deformities and death of fish life o Too much sodium chloride (ordinary salt) in water may kill animals
o We also assume that some higher forms of non-aquatic animals may have similar effects from water pollution as those experienced by humans, as described aboveIII. Effects of Soil Pollution Can alter metabolism of microorganisms and arthropods in a given soil environment; this may destroy some layers of the primary food chain, and thus have a negative effect on predator animal species Small life forms may consume harmful chemicals which may then be passed up the food chain to larger animals; this may lead to increased mortality rates and even animal extinction.IV. Effects of Noise Pollution o Noise pollution damage the nervous system of animal. o Animal looses the control of its mind. o They become dangerous. oEnvironmental Pollution Effects on Trees and PlantsI. Effects of Air PollutionTrees Damaged by Acid Rain• Acid rain can kill trees, destroy the leaves of plants, can infiltrate soil by makingit unsuitable for purposes of nutrition and habitation• Ozone holes in the upper atmosphere can allow excessive ultraviolet radiationfrom the sun to enter the Earth causing damage to trees and plants• Ozone in the lower atmosphere can prevent plant respiration by blocking stomata(openings in leaves) and negatively affecting plants‘ photosynthesis rates whichwill stunt plant growth; ozone can also decay plant cells directly by enteringstomata.II. Effects of Water Pollution• May disrupt photosynthesis in aquatic plants and thus affecting ecosystems thatdepend on these plants• Terrestrial and aquatic plants may absorb pollutants from water (as their mainnutrient source) and pass them up the food chain to consumer animals and humans• Plants may be killed by too much sodium chloride (ordinary slat) in water• Plants may be killed by mud from construction sites as well as bits of wood andleaves, clay and other similar materials• Plants may be killed by herbicides in water; herbicides are chemicals which aremost harmful to plants.III. Effects of Soil Pollution• May alter plant metabolism and reduce crop yields• Trees and plants may absorb soil contaminants and pass them up the food chain
IV. Effects of Noise PollutionNoise pollution causes poor quality of crops in a pleasant atmosphere. PRESERVATION OF ECOLOGYIntroductionThere has been an increasing awareness in recent years that protection of theenvironment is necessary for sustaining the economic and social progress of acountry. This awareness was reflected at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro inJune 1992, where more than a 100 heads of government adopted a global actionplan called Agenda 21 aimed at integrating environmental imperatives with de-
velopmental aspirations and reiterated through the U.N. General Assembly SpecialSession on Environment held in 1997.The Indian Governments Policy towards Environment is guided by the principlesof Agenda 21. The Government of India has issued Policy Statements on: Forestry Abatement of Pollution National Conservation Strategy Environment and DevelopmentThe main environment problems in India relate to air and water pollution,degradation of common property resources, threat to biological diversity, solidwaste disposal and sanitation. Increasing deforestation, industrialization,urbanization, transportation and input-intensive agriculture are some of the othermajor causes of environmental problems faced by the country.2. Air QualityAir pollution, a severe environmental problem in urban areas, can cause chronicand acute respiratory diseases, ventilatory malfunction, heart disease, cancer oflungs and even death. The blood lead levels of persons in Ahmedabad, Bombayand Calcutta have been reported to be higher than the corresponding levels ofpersons in lead-free gasoline areas. In most of the cities, while the SPM levels aresignificantly higher than the CPCB Standards, the levels of S02 and N02 are withinthe CPCB Standards.3. Water Resources and Water QualityIn India, three sources of water pollution are: domestic sewage, industrial elementsand run-off from agriculture.The most significant environmental problem and threat to public health in bothrural and urban India is inadequate access to clean drinking water and sanitationfacilities. The diseases commonly caused by contaminated water are diarrhea,trachoma, intestinal worms, hepatitis etc. Many of the rivers and lakes arecontaminated from industrial effluents and agricultural run-off, with toxic-chemicals and heavy metals which are hard to remove from drinking water withstandard purification facilities.4. Solid Wastes and Hazardous Chemicals
There has been a significant increase in the generation of domestic, urban andindustrial wastes in the last few decades, owing to rapid population growth andindustrialization. The per capita solid waste generated in Mumbai is 0.20 tonne, inDelhi it is 0.44 tonnes and 0.29 tonnes in Chennai.5. Land Degradation and Soil Loss Soil erosion is the most serious cause of land degradation. Estimates show that around 130 million hectares of land (45 per cent of total geographical area) is affected by serious soil erosion through ravine and gully, cultivated waste lands, water-logging, shifting cultivation etc. It is also estimated that India losses about 5310 million tonnes of soil annually. The accumulation of salts and alkalinity affect the productivity of agricultural lands in arid and semi-arid regions, which are under irrigation. The magnitude of water logging in irrigated command has recently been estimated at 2.46 million hectare. Besides, 3.4 million hectares suffer from surface water stagnation. Fertilizers and pesticides are important inputs for increasing agricultural production. Their use has increased significantly from the mid-60s. Over and unbalanced use of these chemicals is fraught with danger. However, fertilizers and pesticide use are concentrated in certain areas and crops.6. Forest, Wild-Life and Bio-Diversity Forests are important for maintaining ecological balance and preserving the life supporting system of the earth. They are essential for food production, health and other aspects of human survival and sustainable development. Indian forests constitute 2 per cent of the worlds forest area but are forced to support 12 per cent of the worlds human population and 14 per cent of worlds livestock population. This is sufficient to indicate the tremendous biotic pressure they face. Forests in India have been shrinking for several decades owing to the pressure of population on land for competing uses, such as agriculture, irrigation & power projects, industry, roads etc. Another concern relating to the state of forest resources is that of bio- diversity and extinction of species. India has a rich heritage of species and genetic strains of flora and fauna. Out of the total eighteen-bio-diversity hot- spots in the world, India has 2, one is North-East Himalayas and the other is the Western Ghats. At present, India is home to several animal species that are threatened, including over 77 mammal, 22 reptiles and 55 birds and one amphibian species. For in-situ conservation of bio-diversity, India has developed a
network of protected areas including national parks, sanctuaries and bio- sphere reserves. Environment problems and issues received special attention of the Government of India during the beginning of the Fourth Five Year Plan. As a follow up step, a National Committee of Environment Planning and Co-ordination (NCEPC) were set up in 1972 under the Department of Science and Technology. A separate Empowered Committee was set up in 1980 for reviewing the existing legislative measures and administrative machinery for ensuring environmental protection and for recommending ways to strengthen them. On the recommendations of this Empowered Committee, a separate Department of Environment was set up in 1980, which was subsequently upgraded to a full-fledged Ministry of Environment and Forests in 1985 to serve as the focal point in the administrative structure of the Government of India for the planning, promotion and co-ordination of environmental and forestry programmes.7. Flora and Fauna The Botanical Survey of India (BSI) was established in 1980, with its headquarters in Calcutta, is responsible for surveying and identifying plant resources of the country. The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) was established in 1916, with its headquarters in Calcutta, is responsible for carrying out surveys of the faunal resources of India. The Forest Survey of India (FSI) was established in 1981, with it headquarters in Dehradun, is entrusted with task of surveying the forest resources of India. The National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development, adopted by Government of India in June 1992, lays down strategies and actions for integration of environmental considerations in the development activities of various sectors of the country, thus paving the way of achieving sustainable development. 11 Biosphere reserves have been set up to preserve the genetic diversity in representative eco-system which are ; Nilgiri, Nanda Devi, Nokrek, Great Nicobar, Gulf of Mannar, Manas, Sunderbans, Similipal, Dibru Saikhowa, Dehong Deband and Pachmarhi.8. Wetland, mangroves and Coral Reefs
The system of conservation and management of mangroves was initiated in19§6. The main activities under the programme are survey and identificationof problems, protection and, conservation measures like natural re-generation, afforestation, nursery development, education, and awarenessprogrammes and research on various aspects of managrove ecosystems andcoral reef. It is an ongoing activity. Review meetings for both researchprojects and management action plans are periodically held to monitor theprogress.Four coral reefs have been identified for intensive conservation andmanagement. These include Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of Mannar, Andaman andNicobar Islands and Lakshadweep. The scheme on conservation andmanagement of wetland was initiated in 1987.India is one of the few countries which have Forest Policy since 1894, whichwas revised in 1952 and then in 1988. The main plank of the Forest Policyof 1988 is protection, conservation and development of forests. In order tooperationalize the National Forest Policy 1988, a National Forestry ActionProgramme (NFAP) is being prepared.Under the provisions of the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, prior approvalof the Central Government is required for the diversion of forest lands fornon forest purposes.Joint Forest Management (JFM) is being practiced in 21 states of thecountry.To help in controlling forest fire, UNDP-assisted Modern Forest FireControl Projects which was started in 1984 in Chandrapur (Maharastra) andHaldwani/Nainital (U.P), is in operation in 11 states of the country.At present the protected area network comprises 84 national parks and 447sanctuaries covering 4.5 per cent of total geographical area of the country.The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 adopted by all states except Jammu andKashmir (which has its own Act), governs wildlife conservation andprotection of endangered species. An Inter-State Committee has been set upto review the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 and other laws. India is asignatory to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species ofWild Flora and Fauna (CITES).Under Project Tiger, launched in April 1973, 25 Tiger Reserves have beenset up in 14 states.The Animal Welfare Board of India, established in 1962 under theprovisions of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 is anautonomous organization of the Ministry of Environment and Forestsworking for the cause of animal welfare in the country. Animal WelfareFortnight is celebrated from 14 January every year.
9. Environment A notification issued in January, 1994 makes Environment Impact Assessment statutory for 29 categories of developmental projects under various sections such as industrial, mining, irrigation, power etc. The Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification was amended in 1997. Authorities under Environment Protection Act, 1976 A National Environmental Appellate Authority has been constituted to hear appeals with respect to rejection of proposals from environmental angle. The policy statement on Abatement of Pollution, adopted in 1992, provides instruments in the form of legislation and regulation, fiscal incentives, voluntary agreements, educational programmes and information campaigns to prevent and control pollution of water, air and land. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is the national apex body for assessment, monitoring and control of water and air pollution. The Ministry of Environment and Forests is the nodal agency for the management and control of hazardous substances which include Hazardous chemicals, waste and micro-organisms. The following rules have been notified under the Environment Protection Act (1986): (i) Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals, 1989; (ii) Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1989; (iii) Manufacture, Use, Import and Export and Storage of Hazardous Micro-organisms/Genetically Engi- neered Organisms 4xr Cell, 1989 and (iv) Biomedical Waste Rules, 1998. A Crisis Alert System had been established. The sub-scheme entitled Industrial Pocket-wise Hazard Analysis has been in operation since the Eighth Five year Plan. India is a signatory to the UNEP sponsored convention on Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes which was adopted at Basel, Switzerland by 126 governments of the world in 1989. The Central Ganga Authority (CGA) established in 1985, lays down the policies for works to be taken up under the Ganga Action Plan (GAP). With the approval of the National River Conservation Plan (NRCP) in 1995, the CGA has been recontituted as the National River Conservation Authority (NRCA) and the Ganga Project Directorate has been redesigned as National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD). The Ganga Action Plan, Phase II has been merged with the NRCP through a government resolution. The National Wasteland Development Board (NWDP) established in May, 1985 was bifurcated into a new Department of Waste Land Development and a National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board (NAEB) in 1992.
An Environment Information System (ENVIS) was set up by the Ministry of Environment and Forest in 1982 as a decentralized information network for collection, storage, retrieval and dissemination of environmental in- formation. A new scheme, Paryavaran Vahini, was launched in 1992-93 to create environmental awareness and to ensure active public participation by involving the local people in activities relating to environmental protection. Paryavaran Vahinis are proposed to be constituted in 194 selected districts all over the country which have a high indicence of pollution and density of tribal and forest population. The National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) was set up in New Delhi in 1978, is concerned with the promotion of non-formal education in the area of environment and conservation.FACTOR AFFECTING ECOSYSTEM AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHThe natural environment in which we live is constantly deterioting because ofconstant change which are taking place in various ecosystem of our biosphere.Some changes are cyclic transient because of seasonal variation and changes likeflood ,drought etc .where are some other are irreversible and permanent eggeological transformation ,continental drift etc .There are number of man made and natural factor which are affecting ourecosystem and environmental health .Brief description of these factor are givenbelow-
Population explosion Industrialization Urbanization Auto mobiles Modern agricultural practices Deforestation Radioactive substances Natural calamitiesPOPULATION EXPLOSION-India population is increases very rapidly .Everyyear around 20 million new lives are added .This rapid increase in our populationis having harmful and unfavourable effect on our environment .It is creatingproblem due to overcrowding ,depletion of natural resources and development ofman made resources by industrialization ,green revolution.The rapid increase in our population is creating problem of waste management .INDUSTRIALIZATION-There has been industrial revolution in the twentienthcentury .The industries have multiplied not only in magnitude but also in variety.These include both small scale cottage industries and large scale cottage industries.All these industries generate lots of waste product such as gases ,effluents,solidmaterial ,thermal wastesURBANIZATION-There has been increase in urbanization of our population .It isdue to industrial revolution ,poverty,lack of resources and services in the village.People from village migrate from town to cities for employment ,educationresulting in overcrowding and slumsAUTOMOBILES-These could save time ,efforts and labour of people in theremobility from one place to another and transportation of all those thing which areused by people ,but exhaust release from automobiles is creating great havoc inatmosphereMODERN AGRICULTURE PRACTICES-Irrigation activities in rural areas oftenlead to logging of water which promotes the breeding of mosquitoes .at time incertain areas due to excessive irrigation from canal water ,the land becomesmarshy and useless for cultivationDEFORESTATION- Deforestation refers to removing the forest .Deforestation isthere because of fire wood require by human being ,demand of wood forconstruction of houses ,building etc.
NATURAL CALAMITIES-It includes the flood ,earthquakes ,cyclone,drought,volcano,landslides ,tidal volume .BIBLIOGRAPHY 1- Park.k ―Textbook of preventive and social medicine‘‘ 20th edition (2010),m/s banarsidas bhanot publishers , Jabalpur pp-24-28 2- Keshav swarankar ―community health nursing ― 3rd edition (2011) ,N.R brothers publishers .Indore pp- 67-69 3- Gulani k k ―Community health nursing‘‘ 9th edition (2009) , kumar publishing house .Delhi pp-21-23References Chapman, S.K., Hart, S.C., Cobb, N.S., Whitham, T.G., and Koch, G.W. (2003). "Insect herbivory increases litter quality and decomposition: an extension of the acceleration hypothesis". in: Ecology 84:2867-2876. Hagen, J.B. (1992). An Entangled Bank: The origins of ecosystem ecology. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, N.J. Odum, H.T. (1971). Environment, Power, and Society. Wiley- Interscience New York, N.Y. Odum, E.P 1969. "The strategy of ecosystem development". in: Science 164:262-270. Likens, G. E., F. H. Bormann, N. M. Johnson, D. W. Fisher and R. S. Pierce. (1970). "Effects of forest cutting and herbicide treatment on nutrient budgets in the Hubbard Brook watershed- ecosystem". in: Ecological Monographs 40:23-47. Chapin, F.S. III, B.H., Walker, R.J., Hobbs, D.U.,Hooper, J.H.,Lawton, O.E., Sala, and D., Tilman. (1997). "Biotic control over the functioning of ecosystems". in: Science 277:500-504. Defries, R.S., J.A. Foley, and G.P. Asner. (2004). "Land-use choices: balancing human needs and ecosystem function". in: Frontiers in ecology and environmental science. 2:249-257. Chrispeels, M.J. and Sadava, D. (1977). Plants, food, and people. W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.
Quinones, M.A., N.E. Borlaug, C.R. Dowswell. (1997). "A fertilizer-based green revolution for Africa". In: Replenishing soil fertility in Africa. Soil Science Society of America special publication number 51. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. INSTITUTIONAL AREA
SECTOR -62 NOIDA AN IN –DEPTH STUDY ON ECOLOGY AND ECOSYSTEMSUBMITTED TO- SUBMITTED BY-MISS (PROFF) KALPANA MANDAL JYOTI SHUKLAHOD ,CHN M.SC 1ST YEARNIN NINNURSES ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN PREVENTING OURECOSYSTEM AND ECOLOGY1-Educate and motivating families ,community leader and people at large scaleabout Prevention of smoke from various sources in homes ,neighbourhood and community Importance of cross ventilation ,wet sweeping and moping . Avoidance of cigrrate smoking in homes and public places Safe and proper storing of chemical fertilizer ,DDT and bleaching powder Surveillance of the occurrence of airborne, waterborn disease Importance of safe water Purification of water at house hold level Safe storage and use of water Notification of timely treatment of water born diseases Maintenance of environmental sanitation
Association of increasing community population with sanitation problem and acceptance of small family norms The controlled use of electronic devices in there homes Use of X-ray when it is essential2-Identifying air pollutant in the house ,neighbourhood ,village and town .Thismay include smoke from various sources ,exhaust from automobiles ,vapor andgases from chemical and pesticides3-Creating awareness among families ,community leader and people at large scaleabout these pollutant and thre adverse effect on human health ,animal and plants4-Identifying pollution of water at source of water supply ,while it is distributed,stored and used5-Creating awareness among families and community leaders about water pollutant,land pollution ,noise pollution and radioactive pollution6-Giving information if there is any color ,odor ,turbidity ,taste change to water tothe concern authority7-Create awareness regarding safe collection ,removal and disposle of dry andwaste water household ,neighbourhood and community8-Educate and motivate people regarding prevention and control of noise pollutionat there household ,community etc9-Identify source of noise pollution in there houses ,community10- Inform community about the harmful effect radioactive pollution on health11- The nurse sometime counsel the people who does not follow the norms of thesociety for the proper well being12- She will provide health education regarding deforestation ,how to preventecology and our ecosystem and the laws made by government to prevent ourecosystem.