The first class was only men that were born in Sparta These men were considered Spartan citizens.
Women were not allowed to become citizens, however, women were allowed to own land, were educated and could own businesses. Women were not tied to the home as much, which gave them more freedom than other Greek city-states.
The second class in Sparta was people who came from other city-states or other countries. They could own businesses but not become citizens.
Even though the city-states were often bitter rivals, they did unite when a foreign invader threatened the whole region. The Persians led numerous attempts to control ancient Greece. Athens and Sparta joined forces to battle them. The Persian Wars were won with the combined might of Sparta’s army and the Athenian navy.
Persian War Flow Chart Persian King Darius I Wanted to control all of Greece Sent advisors Greeks refused and killed advisors Darius I angry Battle of Marathon Persians lose Persian King Xerxes attacked the Greeks at Thermopylae 300 Spartans Burning of Athens 400vs1200 ships Spartans and Athenians join forces
After the Persian Wars, Athens headed an alliance called the Delian League, formed to protect Greece from further Persian invasions.
Sparta, part of an alliance of the southern city-states, felt threatened by Athens’ power. Sparta and her allies told Athens to loosen her control or go to war. When Athens refused, the Peloponnesian War began in 431 B.C.
The war lasted almost 30 years, with each side winning battles. Finally, Sparta won the war when the Persians provided Sparta with a fleet of ships.
The Spartans destroyed Athens’ fleet and then attacked Athens. The Athenians, forced to stay behind the city walls, were starved into surrendering in 404 B.C.
Shortly after, King Phillip II was assassinated before he could carry out his next plan to take over Persia. His son Alexander the Great, who would become one of the greatest military geniuses ever, took control at the age of 20.
Alexander the Great was not satisfied with just controlling Greece. He was hungry for more!
Hmm…I’m Hungry! Greece did not fill me up! I think I want to control all of Asia!