The Story of Ancient Greece: The Final Chapter Ancient Greece lasted from approximately 2000 B.C. to 146 B.C.
City-States <ul><li>Ancient Greece was divided into regions that contained many city-states. The two largest and most powerful city-states were Athens and Sparta. </li></ul>
Athens <ul><li>Athens was another important Greek city-state. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of Athens wanted to rule themselves and not have a king or queen. </li></ul><ul><li>Athens became the world’s first democracy around 508 B.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A democracy is a government in which all citizens can vote and have equal say in what happens. </li></ul></ul>
Democracy in Athens <ul><li>Athens was a democracy because all citizens could vote, but only half the people in Athens were citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Women, people born outside of Athens, and slaves could NOT vote. </li></ul>
Brains over Brawn <ul><li>Education was very important in Athens. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys went to school to learn reading, writing, math, history, and music. They also learned many sports. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys at age 18 would begin military training </li></ul><ul><li>Girls were not allowed to go to school or learn to play sports. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls learned household chores, weaving, and singing </li></ul>
Sparta <ul><li>Sparta was a Greek city-state. </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta was very powerful and had its own army. </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta conquered other city-states to gain wealth and power. </li></ul><ul><li>There were three classes of people in Sparta. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens, non-citizens, and slaves. </li></ul></ul>
Sparta’s Classes <ul><li>The first class was only men that were born in Sparta These men were considered Spartan citizens. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women were not allowed to become citizens, however, women were allowed to own land, were educated and could own businesses. Women were not tied to the home as much, which gave them more freedom than other Greek city-states. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The second class in Sparta was people who came from other city-states or other countries. They could own businesses but not become citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>The third class was slaves, or helots. </li></ul>
The Education of a Spartan <ul><li>Learning to read and write in Sparta was not very important. </li></ul><ul><li>Training to become good soldiers was important. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Babies who were considered sickly or weak were left on the sides of mountains and left to die. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Young boys were taken from their parents at the age of 7 and trained to be soldiers (military school). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barefoot, whippings, left in the wilderness, gauntlet of whippings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only at the age of thirty, did the Spartan become an "equal," and was allowed to live in his own house with his own family—although he continued to serve in the military </li></ul><ul><li>Military service ended at the age of sixty. </li></ul><ul><li>The life of a Spartan male was a life of discipline, self-denial, and simplicity. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls learned household chores from their mothers and often married at the age of 14 or 15. </li></ul>
Military Power <ul><li>Warfare was common in ancient Greece. Many internal and external conflicts led the Greeks to develop sophisticated armies and navies. </li></ul>
Persian War <ul><li>Even though the city-states were often bitter rivals, they did unite when a foreign invader threatened the whole region. The Persians led numerous attempts to control ancient Greece. Athens and Sparta joined forces to battle them. The Persian Wars were won with the combined might of Sparta’s army and the Athenian navy. </li></ul>Persian War Flow Chart Persian King Darius I Wanted to control all of Greece Sent advisors Greeks refused and killed advisors Darius I angry Battle of Marathon Persians lose Persian King Xerxes attacked the Greeks at Thermopylae 300 Spartans Burning of Athens 400vs1200 ships Spartans and Athenians join forces
<ul><li>After the Persian Wars, Athens headed an alliance called the Delian League, formed to protect Greece from further Persian invasions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta, part of an alliance of the southern city-states, felt threatened by Athens’ power. Sparta and her allies told Athens to loosen her control or go to war. When Athens refused, the Peloponnesian War began in 431 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>The war lasted almost 30 years, with each side winning battles. Finally, Sparta won the war when the Persians provided Sparta with a fleet of ships. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spartans destroyed Athens’ fleet and then attacked Athens. The Athenians, forced to stay behind the city walls, were starved into surrendering in 404 B.C. </li></ul>The Peloponnesian War
The Aftermath… <ul><li>The Peloponnesian War left the whole empire in a weakened state. </li></ul><ul><li>Phillip II of Macedonia (north of Greece) decided it was time for him to take control of Greece. So he and his army did! </li></ul>Macedonia
Alexander the Great <ul><li>Shortly after, King Phillip II was assassinated before he could carry out his next plan to take over Persia. His son Alexander the Great, who would become one of the greatest military geniuses ever, took control at the age of 20. </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander the Great was not satisfied with just controlling Greece. He was hungry for more! </li></ul>Hmm…I’m Hungry! Greece did not fill me up! I think I want to control all of Asia!
Alexander the Great <ul><li>Alexander the Great set off with his troops and his horse, Bucephalus, on a 2,000 mile journey and conquered Persia, Egypt, the Middle East and Northern India. </li></ul><ul><li>During the next 13 years, Alexander created the largest empire in the Western World! </li></ul><ul><li>He died at age 33 from malaria. </li></ul>
<ul><li>After Alexander’s death, his generals split up his empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Greece became vulnerable and the Romans swept in </li></ul><ul><li>In 146 B.C. Greece became a province of Rome. </li></ul>Map of Roman Empire
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