Wp topic1


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Instruction: Click to start video This presentation introduces the grand theories of human development (psychoanalytic, behaviorist,and cognitive theories), as well as those that are emergent (sociocultural and epigenetic theories).
  • Instruction: Click to reveal each question, then the answer. Please note, this page is available to use with a clicker system.
  • Instruction: Like every other science, developmental studies depend on theories, data, analysis, critical thinking, and sound methodology.
  • Instruction: Eating the same diet will affect individuals in different ways since each person has his or her own genetic vulnerability. That vulnerability, coupled with behaviors related to eating, affects an individual’s weight and health. Genetic vulnerability does not only apply to nutrition and eating. In a famous developmental study from New Zealand, a variant of the MAOA gene in boys, along with the kind of parental treatment they received, affected the likelihood of some subjects committing a violent crime (Caspi et al., 2002).
  • Instructions Click to start the video about Albert Bandura’s classical experiment. The video you’re about to see shows original footage from an experiment conducted by Albert Bandura in the early 1960s. How much of these children’s behavior is influenced by nature or nurture?
  • Instructions Click to reveal teratogens, their timing, and effects. There may be more than one factor (including genetic vulnerability) involved in teratogenic effects—and more than one kind of teratogenic damage. We know that tobacco increases the risk of malformation of limbs, the urinary tract, and may affect a baby’s lungs; untreated, a baby born with syphilis may experience brain and bone damage and eventual death. But, it is often difficult to tell which factor has caused a teratogenic effect. Tragically, between 1957 and 1961, thousands of newly pregnant women in 30 nations took thalidomide, an antinausea drug. Thalidomide disrupts a critical period of development between days 28 and 54. So women who took that medication during that time had newborns with malformed or absent limbs.
  • Instruction: Automatic animation. Up until about 50 years ago, developmental researchers mostly studied children up to about age 18. It is now apparent that adults of all ages, as well as children, are continually affected by one another and by life circumstances.
  • Instructions: Click to play video. As you’ll see in this video, at any age and life stage, gains can lead to losses and losses can lead to gains. Every change produces unexpected advances or retreats.
  • Instruction: Click to start video.
  • Instructions: Click each concentric circle to reveal details of the ecological model. In the 1970s, Urie Bronfenbrenner identified different levels and systems that interact over the life of an individual. He named this the ecological-systems approach , and then renamed it the bioecological theory toward the end of his life.
  • Instructions: Click to reveal a definition and an illustrative photograph. Unlike genetic differences, social constructions , which are the ideas created for a society , can change (Rothenberg, 2007). But being a member of an ethnic minority group does not mean you have a common cultural experience with all the other members of that group (McLoyd, 2006).
  • Instruction: Animation is automatic here. Researchers in various disciplines see important implications in the discovery of mirror neurons. For instance, social psychologists think mirror neurons help people empathize with one another. Cognitive psychologists suggest that mirror neurons explain newborns’ ability to imitate what they see (Decety & Meyer, 2008; Iacoboni, 2009).
  • Instruction: Here’s an example of what the flow chart shows: When one woman’s brain area for balance was destroyed (due to a prescription drug overdose), neuroscientists successfully reprogrammed her brain, which allowed her to move with balance again. But plasticity doesn’t mean that anything is possible, just that change may occur—for better or worse. Keep in mind that every trait within an individual can be altered at any point in the life span. Also remember that change is ongoing, although neither random nor easy.
  • Instruction: Click to reveal an explanation of each step. The scientific community accepts conclusions with replication , which is the repetition of a study, using different participants . So you can think of replication as a sixth step in the scientific method. Although reliance on evidence is intended to eliminate bias, scientists realize that any single study may include unknown distortions: therefore replication, elaboration, and analysis by other scientists are needed.
  • Instructions: Observations may take place in a natural setting, in a laboratory, or in searches of archival data. The purpose for being “unobtrusive” is to avoid influencing the behavior of the people you are watching.
  • Instruction: Click each block and reveal an important aspect of the survey. Elections would be easy to predict if people voted as they told survey takers they would! If we want our survey to accurately describe a population, the sample we survey should be selected randomly from the whole population, not just selected conveniently based on the people we come across.
  • Instruction: Click each colored shape (from left to right) to reveal design elements in an experiment. Participants are divided into two groups matched on important characteristics, especially the behavior that is the study focus.  To make sure the groups do not differ in any way besides the variable being tested, participants are randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group.   The dependent variable , which is the variable that depends on the independent variable.   Special treatment or intervention is given (the independent variable ) to one group (the experimental group).
  • Instruction: Click to begin animation. Cross-sectional studies confound age and cohort effects, so these results look more pessimistic than necessary. Longitudinal studies confound age and historical time, so you can’t tease out a number of differences related to subjects’ age between testing times. The cross-sectional study makes older folks look less intelligent; but those people were educated in a different era.
  • Instruction: Cross-sequential study will analyze data three ways: First, it will compare groups of the same ages studied at different times; any differences over time between groups who are the same age are probably cohort effects. The second analysis compares people within a group, as they get older; any differences are the result of time (not only age). The third analysis compares differences between the same people as they grow older, but after the cohort effects are taken into account (from the first analysis). Any remaining differences are almost certainly the result of age. You can find the cohort effects by following the diagonals. This is the most time-consuming and complex of research designs, but it yields the best information.
  • Instruction: Click to reveal the answers in the quiz. A correlation indicates that only two variables are related, not that one variable causes the other to occur. For instance, there is a correlation between immigrants in the United States (when compared with native-born in the same ethnic group) and having fewer low-birthweight babies. But the status of “immigrant” alone does not cause a woman to not have a low-birthweight baby. Always remember that correlation is not causation.
  • Instruction: Most institutions of higher education emphasize quantitative data. Sometimes scientists translate qualitative research into quantifiable data; sometimes they use qualitative studies to suggest hypotheses for quantifiable research.
  • Instruction: Most institutions of higher education emphasize quantitative data. Sometimes scientists translate qualitative research into quantifiable data; sometimes they use qualitative studies to suggest hypotheses for quantifiable research.
  • Wp topic1

    1. 1. 1. Introduction2. Fact or Fiction?3. Defining Development4. Four Characteristics of Development5. Developmental Study as a Science6. Cautions from Science7. Closing Thoughts 2
    2. 2. Introduction [Video: Introduction to Human Development] 3
    3. 3. Developmental Fact or Fiction? Fiction Fact1. The science of human development is the study of how andwhy people change as they grow older, as well as how and whythey remain the same.2. An experiment is always the best way to investigate adevelopmental issue.3. Developmental psychologists almost never base their researchon the study of one group of people over a long period of time.4. When two variables are correlated, it means that onecaused the other. 4
    4. 4. Science What causes people to change or remain the same over time? science of human development: Seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time. 5
    5. 5. InfluencesIs the question of nature or nurture moreabout how much rather than which factor? nature: Traits, capacities, limitations each individual inherits genetically from parents (at conception). nurture: All environmental influences that affect development (after conception). 6
    6. 6. Influences [Video: Albert Bandura’s classical experiment]
    7. 7. Connections Between Change and Time What happens when a potentially harmful agent — a teratogen — is introduced at a critical period of prenatal development? Teratogen Effects Timing Disrupted development of central nervous system. 8 to 15 weeks most critical Radiation Radiation Growth and developmental retardation 3 to 8 weeks most critical Microcephaly 3 to 38 weeks Limb malformation Tobacco use by mother 4 to 6 weeks Urinary tract damage Tobacco Tobacco use by father Low birthweight Late pregnancy (second-hand smoke) Reduction in weight by an average of 2 oz. critical period: When a Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) 3 to 8 weeks most critical particular type of Fetal Alcohol Effect Alcohol Alcohol development growth (in body Growth and developmental retardation 3 to 38 weeks Craniofacial dysmorphism or behavior) must happen if it Growth retardation is ever going to happen. 3 to 8 weeks Small head size sensitive period: When a Cocaine Premature birth certain type of development is Cocaine Problems with placenta After 17 weeks Low birth weight most likely, although it may Attention difficulties still happen later. for several years After birth Emotional regulation 8
    8. 8. Dynamic Systems Theory dynamic-systems theory: A view of human development as an ongoing, How do people interact with other ever-changing interaction between people, and do so continuously the physical and emotional being over time, each interaction and between the person and every affecting the other? aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society. 9
    9. 9. MultidirectionalHow do human characteristicschange in every direction to reflectdevelopment as multidirectional? life-span perspective: Study of human development that takes into account all phases of life. 10
    10. 10. Multidirectional [Video: Making the Most of Life During Adulthood] 11
    11. 11. Multicontextual How does the ecological- systems approach work? ecological-systems approach: The view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life. 12
    12. 12. Multicontextual culture ethnic group race A group of people who are regarded byThe enduring behaviors, People whose themselves or by othersideas, attitudes, and ancestors were born in as distinct from othertraditions shared by a the same region and groups on the basis oflarge group of people and who often share a physical appearance.transmitted from one language, culture, and (Social scientists thinkgeneration to the next. religion. race is a misleading concept.) 13
    13. 13. Multidisciplinary When monkey sees, why does monkey do? mirror neurons: Cells in an observer’s brain that respond to an action performed by someone else in the same way they would if the observer had actually performed that action. 14
    14. 14. PlasticityHow plastic (moldable) are the brain and personality? The brain Change may Brain is plastic, occur, some damage/ able to functions injury reassign may be neurons restored. plasticity: Human traits can be molded (as plastic can be), yet people maintain a certain durability of identity (as plastic does). 15
    15. 15. Steps of the Scientific MethodWhat is the five-step procedure used to answer questions with empirical researchand data-based conclusions? Curiosity 1 Develop hypothesis 2 Test hypothesis 3 Design and conduct A prediction that research; gather Raise a question can be tested empirical evidence Draw conclusions 4 Report results 5 Support or refute Share data, conclusions, hypothesis alternate explanations scientific method: A way to answer questions using empirical research and data-based conclusions. 16
    16. 16. Scientific Observation as a Way to Test HypothesesWhere do scientific observation: A method of testingscientific a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching andobservations recording participants’ behavior in atake place? systematic and objective manner. 17
    17. 17. The Survey as a Way to Test HypothesesWhat happens when a survey is taken? Randomly selected Information is collected from a Survey large number of people Acquiring valid survey data is not easy Survey answers are Some people influenced by wording lie and some and sequence of change their questions minds survey: A research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questions, or some other means. 18
    18. 18. The Experiment as a Way to Test Hypotheses independent variable: In an dependent variable: In an experiment, the variable that is experiment, the variable introduced to see what effect it has that may change as a result of on the dependent variable. whatever new condition or (Also called experimental variable.) situation the experimenter adds.How Do You Design an Experiment? Experimental Special treatment Significant change Many participants, group (independent in the dependent measured on many variable) variable characteristics, including the (two equal dependent groups) (predicted outcome) variable (the behavior being studied) Comparison No special No change in the (or control) group treatment variable 19
    19. 19. Studying Change Over Time Does one of these patterns T = Score cross-sectional research: accurately represent intelligence A research design that as people age? compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics. 65 Longitudinal longitudinal research: A 60 research design in which the 55 same individuals are followed over time and their 50 development is repeatedly 45 assessed. Cross-Sectional 40 cohort: A group defined by the 35 shared ages of its members. 30 25 32 39 46 55 60 67 74 81 88 Age Source: Schale, 1988 20
    20. 20. Studying Change Over Timecross-sequential research: A hybrid research design in which researchers first study severalgroups of people of different ages (a cross-sectional approach) and then follow those groupsover the years (a longitudinal approach). (Also called cohort-sequential research or time-sequential research.)How are cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs combined? Cross-sequential Total time: 16 years, plus double and triple analysis 2-year-olds 6-year-olds 10-year-olds 14-year-olds 18-year-olds [4 years later] [4 years later] [4 years later] [4 years later] For cohort 2-year-olds 6-year-olds 10-year-olds 14-year-olds effects compare [4 years later] [4 years later] [4 years later] groups on the diagonals (same age, 2-year-olds 6-year-olds 10-year-olds different years). [4 years later] [4 years later] Time 1 Time 1 + 4 years Time 1 + 8 years Time 1 + 12 years Time 1 + 16 years 21
    21. 21. Correlation and Causationcorrelation: How do variables correlate?A numberbetween +1.0 Quiz on Correlationand -1.0 thatindicates thedegree of Positive, Negative, Why? Two Variablesrelationship or Zero Correlation? (Third Variable)between twovariables, 1. Ice cream sales third variable:expressed in and murder rate Positive heatterms of theirlikelihood thatone variable 2. Learning to read and third variable: Negativewill (or will not) number of baby teeth ageoccur when theother variable no third variable: 3. Sex of adult and each child mustdoes (or does their average number Zeronot). have a parent of of offspring each sex 22
    22. 22. Quantity and Quality How is quantitative and qualitative research used? quantitative research: Research data expressed with numbers, such as ranks or scales. qualitative research: Research that considers qualities instead of quantities. 23
    23. 23. Ethics How do we ensure that research is done ethically? code of ethics: A set of moral and specific guidelines principles that members of a profession or group are expected to follow. Institutional Review Board (IRB): A group that exists within most educational and medical institutions whose purpose is to ensure that research follows established guidelines and remains ethical. 24
    24. 24. Closing Thoughts How does science make the study of human development possible? 25
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.