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Pet vocab-list Pet vocab-list Document Transcript

  • VOCABULARY LISTPreliminary English Test (PET)Preliminary English Test for Schools (PETfS)PET Vocabulary List©UCLES 2009
  • Introduction to the PET Vocabulary ListThe PET Vocabulary List gives teachers a guide to the vocabulary needed when preparingstudents for the PET and PET for Schools examinations.Background to the ListThe PET Vocabulary List was originally developed by Cambridge ESOL in consultationwith external consultants to guide item writers who produce materials for the PETexamination. It includes vocabulary from the Council of Europe’s Threshold (1990)specification and other vocabulary which corpus evidence shows is high-frequency.The list covers vocabulary appropriate to this level of English and includes receptivevocabulary (words that the candidate is expected to understand but which is not the focusof a question) and productive vocabulary (words that the candidate needs to know toanswer a question).The list does not provide an exhaustive list of all words which appear on the PET and PETfor Schools question papers and candidates should not confine their study of vocabulary tothe list alone.How the List is UpdatedThe vocabulary of English changes over time, with words being added and other wordsfalling into disuse. In order to maintain its currency, the PET Vocabulary List is updated onan annual basis by the addition and removal of words, using a corpus-based approach.Suggested additions to the list are collated and the frequency of these words is obtainedby reference to established corpora (electronic databases). The corpora in questionrepresent receptive and productive language in general contexts. The main corpora usedfor the validation of the PET Vocabulary List are:• the Cambridge Learner Corpus (CLC), which includes over 20 million words of written learner English at six levels;• the British National Corpus (BNC), which includes 100 million words of written and spoken native speaker data.Organisation of the List • Word setsSome categories of words that a learner at this level might be expected to know are notincluded in the alphabetical list but are listed separately. Words formed with commonaffixes, some compounds and words from some common word sets, e.g. days of the week,are described below and in Appendix 1. Although some ‘grammar words’ (pronouns,modals, etc.) are included, the ‘Language Specification’ section of the PET and PET forSchools Handbook (available from from www.cambridgeesol.org) should be consulted fora more complete listing. • ExemplificationExample phrases and sentences showing how words might be used are given only wherewords with different meanings need to be constrained, e.g. the use of case is limited to‘suitcase’: candidates are not expected to know other meanings, such as ‘a legal case’. Page 2
  • • Prefixes and SuffixesA list of possible prefixes and suffixes is provided in Appendix 2, and these may becombined with the vocabulary items in the list as appropriate. Words with an affix which isnot included in the appendix are listed separately in the alphabetical list. • Compound WordsCompound words are not included in the list where both individual words are present andthe meaning of the compound is literal and transparent, e.g. coursebook, schoolboy,shoemaker, underwater. A similar approach has been adopted with two-word andhyphenated compounds, for example coffee bar, leisure centre, home-made, open-air. • Multi-word VerbsMulti-word verbs are not included in the list if they have a literal meaning and arecomposed of verbs and particles already in the list. Examples of ‘literal’ multi-word verbsare come into, sit down, as in ‘Why not come into the kitchen and sit down?’ If the meaningof the verb is not transparent, e.g. put through, get along, then the verb is listed and anexample of usage given. • Topic ListsIn Appendix 3, words have been grouped together under common PET themes, such as‘House and Home’, ‘Sport’, and ‘Food and Drink’ etc.Unsuitable TopicsCambridge ESOL examinations must not contain anything that might offend or upsetcandidates, potentially affect their performance or distract them during the examination. Anumber of ‘sensitive’ topics are considered unsuitable for use in PET, for example, warand politics, and vocabulary relating to these is not included in the PET Vocabulary List.Personal VocabularyThe content of the PET Vocabulary List is general in nature and is unlikely to covercompletely the productive vocabulary that may be required by all candidates. Candidatesshould know the specific lexis they will need to describe themselves and their lives, forexample, work, hobbies, likes and dislikes.AbbreviationsAbbreviations used in the PET Vocabulary List are:abbrev abbreviation or acronym n nounadj adjective phr v phrasal verbadv adverb pl pluralAm Eng American English prep prepositionBr Eng British English prep phr prepositional phraseconj conjunction pron pronoundet determiner sing singularexclam exclamation v verbint interjectionSummary of Points to be noted • The list does not include every word that may appear on a PET paper. • The list covers receptive and productive vocabulary. • The list is updated every year. Page 3
  • afraid (adj) A after (prep) afternoon (n)ability (n) afterwards (adv)able (adj) again (adv)about (adv & prep) against (prep) • about 500 students (adv) age (n) • The film is about a small boy. (prep) aged (adj)above (prep) agent (n)abroad (adv) agency (n)absent (adj) ago (adv)accept (v) agree (v)access (n) ahead (adv) • disabled access aim (n & v) • internet access air (n)accident (n) air-conditioning (n)accommodation (n) air force (n)accompany (v) airline (n)according to (prep phr) airmail (n)account (n) airport (n)accurate (adj) alarm (n)ache (n & v) alarm clock (n)achieve (v) album (n)across (prep) alike (adv)act (n & v) alive (adj) • in the second act (of the play) (n) all (adj, adv, det & pron) • to act in a play (v) all right/alright (adv) • to act strangely (v) allow (v)action (n) almost (adv)active (adj) alone (adv & adj)activity (n) along (adv & prep)actor (n) aloud (adv)actress (n) alphabet (n)actual (adj) already (adv)ad (advertisement) (n) also (adv)add (v) although (conj)addition (n) altogether (adv) • in addition always (adv)additional (adj) a.m. (adv)address (n) amazed (adj)admire (v) amazing (adj)admission (n) ambassador (n) • charges/cost/price ambition (n)admit (v) ambulance (n)adult (adj & n) among (amongst) (prep)advanced (adj) amount (n)advantage (n) amusing (adj)adventure (n) ancient (adj)advert (n) and (conj)advertise (v) angry (adj)advertisement (n) animal (n)advice (n) ankle (n)advise (v) anniversary (n)aeroplane (n) announce (v)afford (v) announcement (n) annoy (v) Page 4
  • annual (adj) athletics (n)another (det & pron) atmosphere (n)answer (n & v) attach (v)answerphone (n) attack (n & v)antique (adj & n) attempt (v)anxious (adj) attend (v)any (det & pron) attention (n)anybody (pron) attitude (n)anyhow (adv) attract (v)anyone (pron) attraction (n)anything (pron) attractive (adj)anyway (adv) audience (n)anywhere (adv) aunt (n)apart from (prep) automatically (adv)apartment (n) available (adj)apologise (v) average (adj & n)apology (n) avoid (v)appear (v) awake (adj)appearance (n) away (adv)apple (n) awful (adj)application (n)apply (v)appointment (n)approach (v) Bapprove (v)architect (n) baby (n)area (n) back (adv, adj & n)argue (v) background (n)arm (n) backpack (n)armchair (n) backwards (adv)army (n) bad (adj)around (adv & prep) bag (n)arrange (v) baggage (n)arrest (v) bake (v)arrival (n) balance (n & v)arrive (v) balcony (n)art (n) bald (adj)article (n) ball (n)artist (n) ballet (n)as (conj & prep) balloon (n)as well (adv) banana (n)as well as (prep) band (n)ashamed (adj) bandage (n)ask (v) bank (n)asleep (adj) bank balance (n)aspirin (n) banknote (n)assistant (n) bar (n)at (prep) barbecue (n & v)at all (prep phr) bare (adj)at first (prep phr) base on (phr v)at last (prep phr) baseball (n)at least (prep phr) basement (n)at once (prep phr) basic (adj)at present (prep phr) basin (n)at the same time (prep phr) basket (n)athlete (n) basketball (n) Page 5
  • bat (n) bleed (v)bath (n & v) blind (adj & n)bathroom (n) block (n)battle (n) • block of flatsbay (n) blond(e) (adj & n)be (v) blood (n)beach (n) blouse (n)bean (n) blow (n & v)bear (n) blue (adj)beard (n) board (n & v)beat (v) boarding pass (n)beautiful (adj) boat (n)because (conj) body (n)because of (prep phr) boil (v)become (v) bold (adj)bed (n) bomb (n & v)bedroom (n) bone (n)bee (n) book (n & v)beef (n) booking office (n)before (prep, adv & conj) bookshelf (n)begin (v) bookshop (n)behave (v) boot (n)behind (prep & adv) • leather bootsbelieve (v) • the boot of the carbell (n) border (n)belong (v) bored (adj)belongings (n) boring (adj)below (adv & prep) born (adj)belt (n) borrow (v)bend (n & v) boss (n)beneath (adv & prep) both (pron & det)benefit (n & v) bottle (n)beside (prep) bottom (n)between (prep & adv) bowl (n)beyond (prep & adv) box (n & v)bicycle (n) boy (n)big (adj) boyfriend (n)bike (n) brain (n)bill (n) brake (n & v) • electricity bill branch (n)bin (n) brave (adj)biography (n) bread (n)biology (n) break (n & v)bird (n) break down (phr v)birth (n) • The car has broken down.birthday (n) break in (phr v)biscuit (n) • Someone broke in and stole thebit (n) computer.bite (n & v) break up (phr v)bitter (adj) • When does school break up?black (adj) • The pop group has broken up.blackboard (n) breakfast (n)blame (n & v) breath (n)blank (adj) breathe (v) • a blank piece of paper brick (n)blanket (n) Page 6
  • bridge (n) café/cafe (n)brief (adj) cage (n)bright (adj) cake (n)brilliant (adj) calculator (n)bring (v) calendar (n)bring up (phr v) call (n & v) • She was brought up in London. call for (phr v)broad (adj) • I’ll call for you at 7.brochure (n) call in (phr v)brother (n) • She called in to see a friend.brown (adj) calm (adj)brush (n & v) camel (n)bucket (n) camera (n)buffet (adj & n) camp (n & v)bug (n) campsite (n)build (v) can (n)building (n) canal (n)bulb (n) cancel (v) • light bulb candidate (n)bull (n) candle (n)bullet (n) canteen (n)bureau (n) cap (n)burger (n) capital (adj)burglar (n) • capital cityburglary (n) • capital letterburn (n & v) captain (n)bury (v) car (n)bus (n) carry out (phr v)business (n) car park (n)bus station (n) card (n)bus stop (n) • birthday cardbusy (adj) • credit cardbut (conj) • identity (ID) cardbutcher (n) • playing cardbutter (n) cardboard (adj & n)button (n) care (n & v)buy (v) • take care of someone (n)by (prep) • to care (about/for) someone/somethingby accident (prep phr) (v)by all means (prep phr) career (n)by hand (prep phr) carpet (n)by mistake (prep phr) carrot (n)by name (prep phr) carry (v) carry on (phr v) • He carried on walking despite the rain. cartoon (n) case (n) • suitcase cash (n & v) C cassette (n) cassette player/recorder (n) castle (n)cab (n) cat (n)cabbage (n) catch (v)cabin (n) cathedral (n)cable (n) Page 7
  • cauliflower (n) chips (n)cause (n & v) chocolate (n)cave (n) choice (n)CD (n) choose (v)CD-Rom (n) church (n)ceiling (n) cinema (n)celebrate (v) circle (n)celebration (n) circus (n)celery (n) city (n)cellar (n) clap (v)cent (n) class (n)centimetre (cm) (n) • language classcentral (adj) • first class, second classcentral heating (n) classical (adj)centre (n) • classical musiccentury (n) classroom (n)cereal (n) clean (adj & v)certain (adj) clear (adj & v)certificate (n) clever (adj)chain (n) click (v)chair (n & v) cliff (n)chalk (n) climate (n)challenge (n & v) climb (v)champion (n) clinic (n)chance (n) cloakroom (n)change (n & v) clock (n)changing room (n) close (adj, adv & v)channel (n) cloth (n)chapter (n) clothes (n pl)character (n) cloud (n)charge (n & v) club (n)chat (n) • to join a clubcheap (adj) coach (n)cheat (v) coal (n)check (n & v) coast (n)check in (phr v) coat (n) • They checked in to a hotel. cocoa (n)check out (phr v) coconut (n) • He checked out of the hotel at the end coffee (n) of his stay. coin (n)checkout (n) cola (n)cheerful (adj) cold (adj & n)cheers! (exclam) collar (n)cheese (n) colleague (n)chef (n) collect (v)chemist (n) collection (n)chemistry (n) college (n)cheque (n) colour (n & v)chess (n) comb (n & v)chest (n) come (v)chicken (n) come down (phr v)chief (adj) • The house had come down in price.child (n) come on (phr v)childhood (n) • Come on or well miss the bus.chimney (n) comedy (n)chin (n) Page 8
  • comedian (n) correction (n)comfort (n) corridor (n)comfortable (adj) cost (n & v)comic (adj & n) costume (n)command (v) cottage (n)commercial (adj) cotton (n)committee (n) cough (n & v)common (adj) count (v) • a common surname country (n) • have something in common countryside (n)communicate (v) couple (n)communication (n) courage (n)compact (adj) course (n)company (n) • English coursecompare (v) • main coursecomparison (n) • of course (exclam)compete (n) court (n)competition (n) • law courtcomplain (v) • tennis courtcomplaint (n) cousin (n)complete (v) cover (n & v)complicated (adj) cow (n)composition (n) crash (n & v)computer (n) crazy (adj)concentrate (v) cream (adj & n)concert (n) create (v)conclusion (n) creative (adj)condition (n) creature (n) • in good condition credit (n)conference (n) • credit cardconfident (adj) crew (n)confirm (v) crime (n)congratulations! (exclam) criminal (n)connect (v) cross (n & v)connection (n) crossing (n)consider (v) • pedestrian crossingconsist (v) cross out (phr v)consul (n) • Cross it out and write it again.consulate (n) crossroads (n)contact (n & v) crowd (n)contain (v) crowded (adj)contents (n) crown (n)continent (n) cruel (adj)continue (v) cruise (v)contract (n) cry (n & v)control (n & v) cucumber (n)convenient (adj) cultural (adj)conversation (n) culture (n)cook (n & v) cup (n)cooker (n) cupboard (n)cookie (n) (Am Eng) cure (n & v)cool (adj & v) curious (adj)copy (n & v) curly (adj)corn (n) currency (n)corner (n) current (adj)correct (adj & v) Page 9
  • curriculum (n) • a degree in mathscurriculum vitae/CV (n) delay (n & v)curry (n) delighted (adj)curtain (n) deliver (v)curve (n & v) delivery (n)cushion (n) demand (n & v)custom (n) demonstration (n)customs (n pl) dentist (n)customs officer (n) depart (v)customer (n) department (n)cut (n & v) departure (n)cut up (phr v) depend (v) • She cut up the cake into small pieces. • It depends on what you want to do.cute (adj) deposit (n)cycle (n & v) • pay a deposit depressed (adj) D depth (n) • the depth of the water describe (v)dad (n) description (n)daddy (n) desert (n)daily (adj & adv) deserve (v)damage (n & v) design (n & v)damp (adj) desk (n)dance (n & v) despite (prep)danger (n) dessert (n)dangerous (adj) destination (n)dark (adj & n) destroy (v)date (n & v) detail (n) • today’s date (n) detective (n)daughter (n) develop (v)day (n) diagram (n)dead (adj) dial (v)deaf (adj) diary (n)deal (with) (v) dictionary (n)dear (adj & exclam) die (v) • too dear to buy (adj) diet (n & v) • Dear Sir (adj) differ (v) • Oh dear! (exclam) difference (n)death (n) different (adj)decide (v) difficult (adj)decimal (adj & n) difficulty (n)decision (n) dig (v)declare (v) digital (adj)deck (n) dining room (n) • the deck of a boat dinner (n)decrease (n & v) diploma (n)deejay / DJ (n) direct (adj & v)deep (adj & adv) direction (n)defeat (n & v) director (n)defence (n) directory (n)defend (v) • a telephone directorydefinitely (adv) dirt (n)degree (n) disabled (adj) • 90 degrees disadvantage (n) Page 10
  • disagree (v) drum (n)disappear (v) dry (adj & v)disappoint (v) dry cleaning (n)disc/disk (n) duck (n) • compact disc/CD due (adj) • hard disk • The next bus is due in five minutes. • floppy disk due to (prep phr)disco(theque) (n) dull (adj)discount (n) during (prep)discover (v) dust (n & v)discuss (v) dustbin (n)discussion (n) duty (n)disease (n) duty-free (adj)disgusting (adj) duvet (n)dish (n) DVD (n)dishwasher (n) DVD player (n)dislike (n & v)display (n & v)distance (n) Edistant (adj)district (n) each (det & pron)disturb (v) ear (n)dive (v) earache (n)divide (v) early (adj)dizzy (adj) earn (v)do (v) earring (n)doctor/Dr (n) earth (n)document (n) east (adj, adv & n)documentary (adj & n) eastern (adj)dog (n) easy (adj)doll (n) eat (v)dollar (n) economics (n)dolphin (n) edge (n)door (n) educate (v)double (adj) education (n)doubt (n & v) effect (n)down (adv & prep) efficient (adj)download (n & v) effort (n)downstairs (adv) egg (n)dozen (n) either (adv, det, pron & conj)drama (n) elderly (n & adj)draw (v) elect (v) • to draw a picture of someone or election (n) something electric (adj) • to draw the curtains electrical (adj) • to draw near electricity (n)drawer (n) electronic (adj)dream (n & v) elementary (adj)dress (n & v) elephant (n)dressing (n) else (adv)drink (n & v) email (n & v)drive (n & v) embarrassed (adj)driving licence (n) embarrassing (adj)drop (n & v) embassy (n)drugstore (n) (Am Eng) emergency (n) employ (v) Page 11
  • employee (n) exciting (adj)employment (n) excuse (n & v)empty (adj & v) exercise (n & v)encourage (v) exhibition (n)end (n & v) exist (v)end up (phr v) exit (n)enemy (n) expect (v)engaged (adj) expedition (n) • to be engaged to someone expensive (adj) • The phone was engaged. experience (n)engine (n) experiment (n & v)engineer (n) expert (n)enjoy (v) explain (v)enormous (adj) explanation (n)enough (adv, det & pron) explode (v)enquiry (n) explore (v)enter (v) extra (adj & adv)entertain (v) extraordinary (adj)entertaining (adj) extremely (adv)entertainment (n) eye (n)entrance (n)entry (n)envelope (n) Fenvironment (n)equal (adj) face (n)equipment (n) • a sad look on his faceescalator (n) facility (n)escape (n & v) • The hotel has excellent facilities.especially (adv) fact (n)essay (n) factory (n)essential (adj) fail (v)euro/Euro (n) failure (n)even (adv) faint (adj & v) • He couldnt even do that. fair (adj & n)evening (n) fairly (adv)event (n) faithfully (adv)ever (adv) fall (n & v)every (adj) (n) (Am Eng) (Br Eng: autumn)everybody (pron) false (adj)everyone (pron) familiar (with) (adj)everything (pron) family (n)everywhere (adv) famous (adj)exact (adj) fan (n)examine (v) fantastic (adj)examination/exam (n) far (adv)example (n) fare (n)excellent (adj) • The return fare is £26.except (prep, conj) farm (n & v)excitement (n) fascinate (v)exchange (n) fashion (n) • an exchange visit fast (adj & adv) • in exchange for fasten (v)exchange (v) fat (adj & n)exchange rate (n) father (n)excited (adj) fault (n) favour (n) Page 12
  • favourite (adj & n) float (v)fax (n & v) flood (n & v)fear (n) floor (n)fee (n) flour (n)feed (v) flow (n & v)feel (v) flower (n)feel like (v) flu (n) • to feel like doing something flute (n)female (adj) fly (n & v)fence (n) fog (n)ferry (n) fold (v)festival (n) folk (adj & n)fetch (v) follow (v)fever (n) following (adj)few (adj) fond (adj)fiancé(e) (n) • to be fond of something/someonefiction (n) food (n)field (n) fool (n)fight (n & v) foot (n)figure (n) football (n)fill (v) for (prep)fill in (phr v) forbid (v) • You need to fill in a form. force (n)fill up (phr v) forecast (n & v) • He filled up the car with petrol. foreign (adj)film (n & v) foreigner (n)film maker (n) forest (n)film star (n) forever (adv)final (adj & n) forget (v)financial (adj) forgive (v)find (v) fork (n)find out (phr v) form (n) • I must find out when he’s arriving. former (adj)fine (adj, n & v) fortnight (n)finger (n) fortunately (adv)finish (n & v) forward(s) (adv)fire (n) fountain (n)firefighter (n) free (adj)firm (adj & n) freeze (v) • firm ground (adj) freezer (n) • a good firm to work for (n) French fries (n) (Am Eng)first (adj, adv & pron) frequent (adj) • first name (adj) fresh (adj) • first of all (adv) fridge (n) • He was the first. (pron) friend (n)fish (n & v) frighten (v)fit (adj & v) from (prep) • keep fit (adj) front (adj & n) • These shoes dont fit. (v) frontier (n)fitness (n) frost (n)fix (v) fruit (n)flag (n) fry (v)flat (adj & n) frying pan (n)flight (n) fuel (n)flight attendant (n) full (adj) full time (adv) Page 13
  • full-time (adj) • What time do you get up in thefun (n) morning?funny (adj) gift (n) • a funny story (amusing) giraffe (n) • a funny thing happened (strange) girl (n)furnished (adj) girlfriend (n)furniture (n) give (v)further (adv & adj) give back (phr v)future (adj & n) • Give me back this book on Tuesday, please. give in (phr v) G • Have you given in your homework yet? • Do you give in?gallery (n) give out (phr v) • an art gallery • Will you give out these papers for me,gain (v) please? • gain experience give up (phr v)game (n) • Has David given up playing tennis?gap (n) give way (phr v)garage (n) • You must give way to traffic at agarden (n) roundabout.gas (n) glad (adj) • a gas cooker glance (n & v) • to put some gas in the car (Am Eng) glass (n) (Br Eng: petrol) glasses (n pl)gate (n) global warming (n)general (adj) glove (n)generation (n) go (v)generous (adj) go for (phr v)gentle (adj) • He went for the job.gentleman (n) • The dog went for the man.geography (n) go off (phr v)get (v) • They went off to Australia.get along (with) (phr v) • Suddenly the lights went off. • How do you get along with Harry? go on (phr v)get back (phr v) • The meeting went on until six oclock. • When did you get back from New • Whats going on? York? go out (phr v)get down (phr v) • The fire has gone out. • Get down at once! • Are you going out with Thomas • Did you get all the notes down? tonight?get in (phr v) go with (phr v) • Can you get in through the window? • Your tie doesnt go with your shirt.get off (phr v) goal (n) • We get off at the next stop. goat (n)get on (phr v) gold (adj & n) • Get your coat on and then we can golf (n) leave. good (adj) • How are you getting on now? • The film was very good.get on (with) (phr v) • to be good at maths • She got on with her work. goodbye (exclam) • I’m getting on well with French. good-looking (adj) • Do you get on well with Sam? goodnight (exclam)get rid of (phr v) goods (n pl)get up (phr v) govern (v) Page 14
  • government (n) hammer (n & v)grade (n) hand (n & v)gram(me) (n) hand-held (adj)grammar (n) hand in (phr v)grandchild (n) • Please hand in the answer sheet whengrand(d)ad (n) you’ve finished.granddaughter (n) hand out (phr v)grandfather (n) • Hand out the books please, Tom.grandma (n) handbag (n)grandmother (n) handkerchief (n)grandpa (n) handle (n & v)grandparent (n) handsome (adj)grandson (n) handwriting (n)grant (n) hang (v) • He was given a grant to study in • to hang a picture Australia. (n) hang out (phr v)grape (n) • to hang out with friendsgrass (n) hang up (phr v)grateful (adj) • She hung up at the end of the phonegreat (adj) call.green (adj) happen (v)greengrocer (n) happy (adj)grey (adj) harbour (n)grill (n & v) hard (adj & adv)grocer (n) hardly (adv)ground (adj & n) • hardly any timegroup (n & v) • He could hardly wait.grow (v) hat (n)grow up (phr v) hate (n & v) • Children grow up fast. have (v)guard (n & v) have got (v)guess (n & v) he (pron)guest (n) head (n & v)guest-house (n) • to hit ones head (n)guide (n & v) • the head of the company (n)guidebook (n) • The child was sent to see the Headguilty (adj) Teacher. (n)guitar (n) • to head a ball (v)gum (n) headache (n) • chewing gum headline (n) • sore gums health (n)gun (n) hear (v)guy (n) heart (n)gym(nastics) (n) heat (n & v) hedge (n) H heavy (adj) height (n) helicopter (n)habit (n) hello/hallo (exclam)hair (n) helmet (n)haircut (n) help (n & v)hairdresser (n) her (det & pron)hairdryer (n) here (adv)half (adj, adv & n) hero (n)hall (n) hers (pron)hallo/hello (exclam) Page 15
  • herself (pron)hide (v) Ihigh (adj & adv)hill (n) I (pron)him (pron) ice (n)himself (pron) ice cream (n)hire (v & n) ice hockey (n) • to hire a boat (v) idea (n) • for hire (n) identity (n)his (det & pron) • identity (ID) cardhistoric (adj) if (conj)historical (adj) ill (adj)history (n) illness (n)hit (n & v) imagination (n) • The song was a great hit. (n) imagine (v) • to hit the ball (v) immediate (adj)hitch-hike (v) immediately (adv)hobby (n) immigration (n)hockey (n) import (v)hold (v) importance (n)hold up (phr v) important (adj) • He was held up in the heavy traffic for impossible (adj) over two hours. improve (v)hole (n) in (adv & prep)holiday (n) in advance (prep phr)home (adv & n) in any case (prep phr)homepage (n) in case of (prep phr)homework (n) • in case of firehonest (adj) • in case of delayshoney (n) in danger (prep phr)hope (n & v) in the end (prep phr)horrible (adj) in fact (prep phr)horse (n) in front of (prep phr)hospital (n) in half (prep phr)hostel (n) in ink (prep phr)hot (adj) in love (prep phr)hotel (n) in order (prep phr)hour (n) in order to (prep phr)house (n) in pencil (prep phr)housewife (n) in pieces (prep phr)housework (n) in place (prep phr)hovercraft (n) in private (prep phr)how (adv) in public (prep phr)how much (adv) in stock (prep phr)however (adv) in time (prep phr)huge (adj) in turn (prep phr)human (adj & n) in two (prep phr)hunger (n) include (v)hungry (adj) income (n)hurry (n & v) incorrect (adj)hurt (adj & v) increase (n & v)husband (n) indeed (adv)hut (n) independent (adj)hydrofoil (n) index (n) • the index of a book individual (adj & n) Page 16
  • indoor (adj)indoors (adv)industry (n) Jinfluence (n & v)inform (v) jacket (n)information (n) jail (n) (Am Eng) (Br. Eng: prison)ingredients (n) jam (n)inhabitant (n) • strawberry jaminitial (n) • traffic jam • His initials are J.B.H. jar (n)injure (v) jazz (n)ink (n) jealous (adj)inn (n) jeans (n pl)inquiry (n) jet (n)insect (n) • to go by jet (plane)inside (adv, prep & n) jewellery (n)insist (v) job (n)instance (n) jog (v)instead (adv) • to go jogginginstead of (prep phr) join (v)instruction(s) (n) • The rivers join there.instructor (n) • to join the armyinstrument (n) • to join (in) a game • musical instrument joke (n & v)insurance (n) journalism (n)insure (v) journalist (n)intelligent (adj) journey (n)intend (v) judge (n & v) • to intend to do something jug (n)interest (n & v) juice (n)intermediate (adj) jump (n & v)international (adj) jury (n)internet (n) just (adv)interpret (v)interrupt (v)interval (n) K • an interval in a playinterview (n & v) kangaroo (n)into (prep) keen (adj)introduce (v) • Hes keen on cycling.introduction (n) • to be keen to do somethinginvade (v) keep (v)invasion (n) keep in (phr v)invent (v) • She kept the children in as it was soinvention (n) cold.invitation (n) keep on (phr v)invite (v) • He kept on talking.involve (v) keep up (phr v)iron (n & v) • Keep up the good work!island (n) kettle (n)issue (n) key (n)IT (Information Technology) (n) • key to a lockit (pron) • key to successitem (n) keyboard (n)its (det) • computer keyboarditself (pron) Page 17
  • • keyboard music lazy (adj)kick (n & v) lead (v)kids (n pl) • to lead someone by the handkilo(gram[me]) (kg) (n) • Where does this road lead?kilometre (km) (n) leaf (n)kill (v) learn (v)kind (adj & n) least (adj & adv)king (n) • the least amount (adj)kiosk (n) • at least (adv)kiss (n & v) leather (n)kitchen (n) leave (v)kitten (n) leave out (phr v)knee (n) • He left out several important facts.kneel (v) lecture (n & v)knife (n) left (n, adj & adv)knit (v) leg (n)knock (n & v) leisure (n)knock down (phr v) lemon (n) • He was knocked down by the car as lemonade (n) he stepped into the road. lend (v)knock out (phr v) length (n) • The fall knocked him out. less (det, adj, adv & pron)know (v) lesson (n)knowledge (n) let (v) • Let her do it. L • Let me think. • Let’s go out tonight. letter (n)laboratory (lab) (n) letter-box (n)labourer (n) lettuce (n)lack (n & v) level (adj & n)ladder (n) library (n)lady (n) licence (n)lake (n) • a driving/marriage/TV licencelamb (n) lie (n & v)lamp (n) life (n)land (n & v) lift (n & v)landlady (n) • Can you give me a lift, please? (n)landlord (n) • The lift is going up. (n)landscape (n) • Please help me to lift this table. (v)language (n) light (adj, n & v)laptop (computer) (n) lighter (n)large (adj) • a cigarette lighterlaser (n) lightning (n)last (adj, adv & v) like (adv, prep & v)late (adj & adv) likely (adj)lately (adv) limit (n & v)later (adj & adv) line (n)latest (adj) • a line on a pagelaugh (n & v) • a clothes linelaundry (n) • a railway linelavatory (n) link (n)law (n) • a link to a websitelawn (n) lion (n)lawyer (n) lip (n)lay (v) Page 18
  • lipstick (n)liquid (n) Mlist (n)listen (v) machine (n)literature (n) mad (adj)litre (n) Madam (n)litter (n) made of (adj)little (adj & pron) magazine (n)live (v) magic (adj & n)live (adj) magnificent (adj) • live music/sport mail (n & v)lively (adj) main (adj)living (adj) majority (n)living room (n) make (v)load (n & v) make-up (n)loaf (n) make sure (phr v)loan (n) male (adj & n)local (adj) man (n)location (n) manage (v)lock (n & v) • to manage a businesslocker (n) • to manage to do something (succeedlonely (adj) in)long (adj) manner (n)look (n & v) many (adj & pron)look after (phr v) map (n) • Whos looking after your baby now? mark (n & v)look forward to (phr v) market (n) • I’m looking forward to the party! • to buy something from a marketlook like (v) marriage (n) • She looks like her sister. marry (v)look out (phr v) master (n) • Look out or youll have an accident. match (n & v)look up (phr v) • a box of matches (n) • Look up the meaning of the word in • a tennis match (n) your dictionary. • This tie matches your shirt. (v)loose (adj) mate (n)lorry (n) material (n)lose (v) mathematics/math(s) (n)lost property office (n) matter (n & v)lot (n) • Is anything the matter? (n)loud (adj) • It doesnt matter. (v)lounge (n) maximum (adj & n)love (n & v) maybe (adv)lovely (adj) me (pron)low (adj & adv) meal (n)lower (v) mean (v)luck (n) • What do you mean?luggage (n) • What does it mean?lump (n) means (n)lunch (n) measure (v)lunchtime (n) mechanic (n)lung (n) meat (n)luxury (n) medicine (n) medium (adj) meet (v) Page 19
  • melon (n) monkey (n)melt (v) month (n)member (n) moon (n)membership (n) more (adj, adv & pron)memory (n) morning (n) • to have a good/poor memory mosque (n) • happy memories most (adj, adv & pron) • computer memory mother (n)mend (v) motor (n)mention (v) motorbike (n)menu (n) motorcycle (n)merry (adj) motor-racing (n)message (n) motorway (n)metal (n) mountain (n)method (n) mouse (n) • modern methods of teaching moustache (n)metre (m) (n) mouth (n)microwave (n) move (v)midday (n) movie (n) (Am Eng) (Br Eng: film)middle (adj & n) movie theatre (n) (Am Eng) (Br Eng:midnight (n) cinema)mild (adj) movie star (n) (Am Eng) (Br Eng:mile (n) film star)milk (n) MP3 player (n)millimetre (mm) (n) Mr (n)mind (n & v) Mrs (n) • His mind was on other things. (n) Ms (n) • Would you mind if I called much (adj, adv & pron) tomorrow? (v) mug (n) • I don’t mind. (v) multiply (v) • Mind your head! (v) mum (n) • Whos minding the baby for you? (v) mummy (n)mine (pron) murder (n & v)mineral (adj) museum (n)mineral water (n) mushroom (n)minimum (adj & n) music (n)minister (n) musical (adj & n) • government minister musician (n)minute (n) mustard (n)mirror (n) my (det)miserable (adj) myself (pron)miss (n & v) mystery (n)Miss (n)mist (n)mistake (n) Nmix (v)mobile (phone) (n) nail (n)model (adj & n) • fingernail • a model railway (adj) • hammer and nails • Its cheap because its last years name (n & v) model. (n) narrow (adj) • She’s a fashion model. (n) nasty (adj)modern (adj) national (adj)moment (n) nationality (n)money (n) natural (adj) nature (n) Page 20
  • • nature studies novel (n)near (adv, prep & adj) now (adv)nearby (adj & adv) nowadays (adv)nearly (adv) nowhere (adv)neat (adj) number (n)necessary (adj) • numbers 5 to 7neck (n) • a large number of carsneed (v) • What’s your (phone) number?needle (n) nurse (n & v)negative (adj) nut (n)neighbour (n)neighbourhood (n)neither (pron, adv, conj & det) Onephew (n)nervous (adj) object (n) • a nervous person obvious (adj) • to feel nervous occasion (n)net (n) occasional (adj)network (n) occupation (n)never (adv) ocean (n)new (adj) o’clock (adv)news (n) of (prep)newsagent (n) of course (adv)newspaper (n) off (adv & prep)next (adj, adv & pron) • It fell off the table. (prep)next to (prep) • The meeting is off. (adv)nice (adj) • I’ve got the afternoon off. (adv)niece (n) offer (n & v)night (n) office (n)nightclub (n) officer (n)no (adv & det) often (adv)nobody (pron) oh! (int)noise (n) oh dear! (int)none (pron) oil (n)nonsense (n) OK/O.K./okay (adj)noon (n) old (adj)no one (pron) old-fashioned (adj)nor (conj) omelette (n)normal (adj) on (adv & prep)north (adj, adv & n) on board (prep phr)northeast (adj & n) on business (prep phr)northwest (adj & n) on fire (prep phr)nose (n) on foot (prep phr)not (adv) on holiday (prep phr)note (n & v) on loan (prep phr) • to write a note (n) on purpose (prep phr) • a ten-pound note (n) on request (prep phr) • Please note. (v) on sale (prep phr)notebook (n) on time (prep phr)notepaper (n) once (adv)nothing (pron) • once a yearnotice (n & v) • I once saw him dancing. • to read a notice (n) one (pron & det) • until further notice (n) oneself (pron) • Did you notice anything wrong? (v) one-way (adj) Page 21
  • onion (n)online (adv & adj) • to book/buy something online (adv) P • an online facility (adj)only (adj & adv) pack (n & v)onto (prep) • an information pack (n)open (adj & v) • to pack a case (v)opening hours (n pl) packet (n)opera (n) page (n)operate (v) pain (n)operation (n) paint (n & v)operator (n) pair (n)opinion (n) palace (n)opportunity (n) pale (adj)opposite (adj, n, prep & adv) pan (n)option (n) pants (n) (Am Eng) (Br Eng: trousers)or (conj) paper (n)orange (adj & n) • a sheet of paperorchestra (n) • a (news)paperorder (conj, n & v) parcel (n) • in order to (conj) pardon (n) (int) • to put something in order (n) • Pardon? I didn’t hear what you said. • to order a meal (v) parent (n)ordinary (adj) park (n & v)organisation (n) • a public park (n)organise (v) • to park a car (v)original (adj) parliament (n)other (adj, pron & det) part (n & v)our (det) • a part of something (n)ours (pron) • to part from someone (v)ourselves (pron) partly (adv)out (adv) particular (adj)out of (prep) partner (n)out of date (prep phr) part time (adv)out of doors (prep phr) part-time (adj)out of order (prep phr) party (n)out of stock (prep phr) • a birthday partyout of work (prep phr) • a political partyoutdoor (adj) pass (v)outdoors (adv) • Several cars passed.outside (adv, n, prep & adj) • to pass the sugaroven (n) • to pass an examinationover (adv & prep) passenger (n) • I’m going over the road. (prep) passport (n) • over 40 people (more than) (adv) password (n) • to be over (finished) (adv) past (adj, n & prep) • Several birds were flying over the roof • the past few weeks. (adj) of the school. (prep) • in the past. (n)overnight (adj & adv) • It’s half past one. (prep)overtake (v) pasta (n)owe (v) pastry (n)own (adj & v) path (n) • my own pen (adj) patient (adj & n) • to own a car (v) • to be patient (adj)owner (n) • a hospital patient (n) Page 22
  • pattern (n) • a piece of cheesepause (n & v) • to break into small piecespavement (n) • a piece of furniture/advicepay (n & v) pig (n)pea (n) pile (n)peace (n) pill (n)peanut (n) pillow (n)pear (n) pilot (n & v)pedestrian (n) pin (n & v)peel (n & v) pink (adj)pen (n) pipe (n)pence (n pl) pity (n)pencil (n) pizza (n)pencil case (n) place (n & v)pen-friend (n) • a safe place (n)penknife (n) • I’ve lost my place in the book. (n)penny (n) • third place in a race (n)pension (n) • to place something on the table (v)people (n pl) • London is a big place. (n)pepper (n) plain (adj) • to pass the pepper (spice) • It’s plain to me. (clear) • red peppers (vegetable) • a plain T-shirt (no design)per (prep) plan (n & v)per cent (n) • a street plan (n)perfect (adj) • a plan to do something (n)perform (v) plane (n)performance (n) planet (n)perfume (n) plant (n & v)perhaps (adv) plastic (adj & n)period (n) plate (n)permanent (adj) platform (n)permission (n) play (n & v)permitted (adj) • a play at the theatre (n)person (n) • children playing (v)personal (adj) • to play football (v)persuade (v) • to play the guitar (v)pet (n) • to play a record/cassette/CD (v)petrol (n)petrol station (n) • to play the part of someone (act) (v)pharmacy (n) player (n)phone (n & v) playground (n)photo (n) playing cards (n pl)photocopy (n) pleasant (adj)photograph (n) please (int & v)photography (n) • Come in, please. (int)physician (n) • to please someone (v)physics (n) pleasure (n)piano (n) plenty (pron)pick (v) plug (n)pick up (phr v) • a plug for the bath • I picked up a pencil. • an electrical plug • I’ll pick up my sister from the station. plug in (phr v)picnic (n & v) p.m. (adv)picture (n) pocket (n)pie (n) pocket money (n)piece (n) poem (n) Page 23
  • poet (n) • to be present (adj)poetry (n) • at the present time (adj)point (n & v) • That will be all for the present. (n) • to point at something (v) • I got some lovely birthday presents. (n) • The pencil has no point to it. (n) presenter (n)police (n) president (n)policeman (n) press (v)police officer (n) • to press a buttonpolicewoman (n) • to press a suitpolice station (n) pretty (adj)polite (adj) prevent (v)political (adj) previous (adj)politics (n) price (n)politician (n) priest (n)pollution (n) primary (adj)pool (n) • primary school • a swimming-pool prime minister (n)poor (adj) prince (n) • She is very poor. (financial) princess (n) • The poor man. (sympathy) principal (adj)pop (adj & n) print (n & v) • pop song/music/star/group • in large print (n)popular (adj) • print a document (v)population (n) • to print your name in capitals (v)port (n) prison (n)porter (n) prisoner (n)position (n) private (adj)positive (adj) prize (n)possibility (n) probable (adj)possible (adj) probably (adv)post (n & v) problem (n) • to post a letter (v) produce (v) • to send it by post (n) product (n)post office (n) profession (n)postage (n) professional (adj & n)postcard (n) professor (n)poster (n) program(me) (n)postman (n) • TV programmepot (n) • computer programpotato (n) progress (n)pound (£) (n) project (n)pour (v) promise (n & v)poverty (n) • to promise to do something (v)powder (n) • to keep a promise (n)power (n) pronounce (v)practice (n) • to pronounce a word correctlypractise (v) (n = Am Eng) pronunciation (n)pray (v) proper (adj)prayer (n) property (n)prefer (v) protect (v)preparation (n) proud (adj)prepare (v) prove (v)prescription (n) provide (v) • medicine on a prescription public (adj & n)present (adj & n) • public opinion (adj) Page 24
  • • to make something public (adj) quiet (adj) • to be open to the public (n) quit (v)publish (v) quite (adv)pull (n & v) • Are you quite sure?pullover (n) • quite oldpump (n) quiz (n) • petrol/bike pumppunctual (adj)punish (v) Rpunishment (n)pupil (n) rabbit (n)pure (adj) race (n & v)purple (adj) • to win a race (n)purpose (n) • to race against fast runners (compete) • He did it on purpose. (deliberately) (v)purse (n) • to race home quickly (run) (v)push (n & v) racket (n)put (v) • tennis racketput away (phr v) radio (n) • He put the book away. rail (n)put down (phr v) • to go by rail • She put her name down. railway (n)put off (phr v) rain (n & v) • The meeting was put off until the raincoat (n) following week. rainforest (n)put on (phr v) raise (v) • He put on a suit. • to raise your arm • Can you put on the light? • to raise prices • He didn’t want to put on weight. range (n)put out (phr v) rank (n) • The fire was quickly put out. • a taxi rankput through (phr v) rare (adj) • Can you put me through to the rarely (adv) manager, please? rather (adv & prep)put up (phr v) • rather earlier than usual (adv) • The company was forced to put up its • I’d prefer to drink water rather than fruit prices. juice. (prep)pyjamas (n pl) raw (adj) • raw meat Q razor (n) reach (v) read (v)qualification (n) ready (adj)qualify (v) real (adj)quality (n) realise (v)quantity (n) • He realised it was true.quarter (n) realistic (adj)quay (n) really (adv)queen (n) reason (n)question (n) reasonable (adj) • to ask a question receipt (n) • the question being discussed (subject) receive (v)questionnaire (n) recent (adj)queue (n & v) reception (n)quick (adj) recipe (n) Page 25
  • recognise (v) respect (n & v)recommend (v) responsible (adj) • to recommend someone/something rest (n & v)record (n & v) • a rest from work (n) • to keep a record (n) • the rest of them (n) • to break a record (n) • The doctor told her to rest. (v) • to record a song (v) restaurant (n)recording (n) result (n)recover (v) retire (v) • to recover from an illness return (n & v)recycle (v) • to return home (v) • I don’t recycle as much as I should. • a return (ticket) (n)recycled (adj) review (n & v)recycling (n) revise (v)red (adj) reward (n & v)reduce (v) rice (n)refreshments (n) rich (adj & n)refrigerator (n) ride (n & v)refund (n & v) right (adj, adv & n)refuse (v) • the right time (correct) (adj)regarding (prep) • the right person for the job (suitable)region (n) (adj)register (n & v) • my right foot (adj) • He took the class register. (n) • Everything will be all right. (adj) • He registered with a new doctor. (v) • Go right there. (directly) (adv)registration (n) • Fill it right to the top. (completely)regret (n & v) (adv)regular (adj) • the right to vote (n)relation (n) ring (n & v) • to visit a relation • stand in a ring (n)relationship (n) • a wedding ring (n)relative (n) • Give me a ring tomorrow. (phone) (n) • a relative came to stay • Suddenly the bell rang. (v)relax (v) ring back (phr v)relaxation (n) ring off (phr v)reliable (adj) ring up (phr v)religion (n) ripe (adj)remain (v) rise (v)remember (v) • The sun rises in the East.remind (v) • Prices are rising.remove (v) river (n)rent (n & v) road (n)repair (n & v) roast (adj & v)repeat (v) rob (v)replace (v) robbery (n)reply (n & v) rock (n)report (n & v) • rock (music) (n)request (n & v) • a hard piece of rock (n)require (v) role (n)rescue (n & v) roll (n & v)research (n & v) • a roll of film (n)reservation (n) • a bread roll (n)reserve (n & v) • to roll into a ball (v) • She was a reserve for the team. (n) roof (n) • to reserve a seat (v) room (n) Page 26
  • • the sitting room • to save money • There’s lots of room in here. • to save timerose (n) say (v)rough (adj) • to say something to someone • a rough road • I really can’t say. (give an opinion) • a rough idea scene (n) • rough work scenery (n)round (adj, adv & prep) school (n) • a round object (adj) science (n) • the wrong way round (adv) science fiction (n) • to sit round a table (prep) scientific (adj)roundabout (n) scientist (n)route (n) scissors (n)row (n) scooter (n) • a row of seats score (n & v)rubber (adj & n) • The score was 3-0. (n) • rubber tyres (adj) • to score a goal (v) • a rubber (eraser) (n) scream (n & v)rubbish (n) screen (n)rude (adj) sculpture (n)rugby (n) sea (n)ruin (n) search (n & v)rule (n & v) seaside (n) • the rules of grammar (n) season (n) • to rule a country (v) seat (n)ruler (n) seat belt (n) • draw a line using a ruler second (adj & n)run (v) • to be second in the race (adj) • to run in a race • sixty seconds in a minute (n) • to run a business secondary (adj)run out of (phr v) • secondary school • He ran out of time and didn’t finish. secret (adj & n) secretary (n) security (n) S see (v) • to see something (with the eyes)sad (adj) • to see the joke (understand)safe (adj) • to see someone about a problem • to be safe from harm (consult)safety (n) seem (v)sail (n & v) seldom (adv)salad (n) select (v)salary (n) self-service (adj)sale (n) sell (v)salesman/saleswoman (n) send (v)salt (n) sensible (adj)same (adj, pron & adv) sentence (n)sand (n) • words in a sentencesandwich (n) separate (adj & v)satisfactory (adj) series (n)satisfied (adj) • a TV seriessaucer (n) serious (adj)sausage (n) • a serious personsave (v) • a serious illness • to save someone servant (n) Page 27
  • serve (v) shore (n) • to serve in a shop short (adj)service (n) shorts (n pl) • a bus service • a pair of shorts • customer service shoulder (n)session (n) shout (n & v) • in a school, gym show (n & v)set (v) • a film show (n)set free (phr v) • Show it to me. (v)set off (phr v) • The picture shows a village. (v) • She set off early for work. • It shows that they care. (v)set out (phr v) shower (n) • They set out on the long journey. • a shower of rainset up (phr v) • to have a shower • Her mother helped her to set up in shut (adj & v) business. shy (adj)several (adj & det) sick (adj)sew (v) side (n)sex (n) sight (n) • the male/female sex • Her sight is better with glasses.sh! (int) • in sight, out of sightshade (n) sightseeing (n) • to sit in the shade sign (n & v)shadow (n) • a road sign (n)shake (n & v) • to sign a document (v)shallow (adj) • no sign of life (n)shame (n) • signs of winter (n)shampoo (n) signal (n & v)shape (n) signature (n)share (n & v) signpost (n)shark (n) silence (n)sharp (adj) silent (adj) • a sharp knife silk (adj & n) • a sharp corner silly (adj) • a sharp picture silver (adj & n)shave (n & v) similar (adj)she (pron) simple (adj)sheep (n) since (conj & prep)sheet (n) sincerely (adv) • sheets on a bed • Yours sincerely • a sheet of paper sing (v) • information sheet single (n & adj)shelf (n) • a single (ticket) to Cambridge (n)shine (v) • to be single (unmarried) (adj)ship (n) • a single room (adj)shirt (n) sink (n & v)shock (n & v) • a kitchen sink (n) • to suffer from shock (n) • The ship began to sink. (v) • The film shocked me. (v) Sir (n)shoe (n) sister (n)shoot (v) sit (v) • to shoot at the goal site (n)shop (n & v) sitting room (n)shop assistant (n) situated (adj)shopkeeper (n) situation (n) Page 28
  • size (n) son (n)skateboard (n & v) song (n)ski (n & v) soon (adv)skill (n) • I’ll come soon.skilled (adj) • as soon as I canskin (n) sore (adj)skirt (n) sorry (adj)sky (n) sort (n)sleep (n & v) • the same sortsleeve (n) sort out (phr v)slice (n) • We need to sort out this problem.slim (adj) sound (n & v)slip (v) • the sound of music (n) • to slip on the ice • It sounds like/as if…(v)slope (n) soup (n) • mountain/ski slope sour (adj)slow (adj) • a sour tastesmall (adj) south (adj & adv, n)smart (adj) southeast (adj & n) • a smart idea (Am Eng) southwest (adj, adv & n) • smart clothes souvenir (n)smell (n & v) space (n)smile (n & v) • a parking spacesmoke (n & v) • write in the spacessmooth (adj) • not enough space • a smooth surface (level) • outer space • a smooth ride in the new car spade (n) (comfortable) spare (adj & v)snack (n) • spare cash, spare time (adj)snake (n) • to spare the time (v)snow (n & v) speak (v)snowball (n) special (adj)snowboard (n & v) speech (n)snowman (n) speed (n)snowstorm (n) spell (v)so (adv & conj) spend (v)so-so (adj) • to spend money/timesoap (n) spill (v)social (adj) spinach (n)society (n) spite (n)sock (n) • in spite of (prep phr)sofa (n) spoil (v)soft (adj) spoon (n) • a soft material sport (n) • a soft drink spot (n)software (n) spy (n & v)soil (n) square (adj & n)soldier (n) • a square room (adj)solid (adj) • a market square (n)some (adj, det & pron) squash (n)somebody (pron) stadium (n)someone (pron) staff (n)something (pron) stage (n)sometimes (adv) • to perform on a stagesomewhere (adv) stain (n & v) Page 29
  • stairs (n pl) • a department store (n)stall (n) • to store things in a cupboard (v) • market stall storm (n)stamp (n) story (n) • a postage stamp straight (adj & adv)stand (v) • to go straight on (adv)standard (n) • a straight road (adj)star (n) strange (adj) • stars in the sky (n) stranger (n) • a film star (n) strawberry (n)start (n & v) stream (n) • a good start (n) street (n) • to start a race (v) stress (n & v)state (adj & n) • to stress the importance of something • a state school (n) (v)statement (n) • He didn’t want the stress of a new job.station (n) (n) • a bus/fire/radio station strict (adj)statue (n) strike (n & v)stay (n & v) • to go on strike (n) • to stay to dinner (v) • to strike something (v) • to stay with friends (v) strong (adj) • to stay looking young (v) student (n) • a two-night stay (n) studio (n)stay behind (phr v) • TV/artists/recording studio • She stayed behind after the lesson to study (n & v) speak to the teacher. • to study physics (v)steak (n) • to study the map (v)steal (v) • Social Studies (n)steam (n) stupid (adj)steel (n) style (n)steep (adj) subject (n)step (n) • the subject of a discussion • two steps forward (n) • the subject of a sentence • to climb the steps (n) • a school subjectstick (n & v) subtract (v) • a walking stick (n) subway (n) • to stick two things together (v) • New York subway (Am Eng) (Br Eng:sticky (adj) underground)stiff (adj) succeed (v)still (adv) success (n) • Sit still. (adv) such (adj & det) • She’s still here. (adv) sudden (adj)stir (v) sugar (n)stomach (n) suggest (v)stone (n) suit (n) • a large stone • to wear a suit • a stone bridge suitable (adj)stop (n & v) suitcase (n) • a bus stop (n) sum (n) • The car stopped. (v) sum up (v) • It’s stopped raining. (v) sun (n) • The rain stopped me from going out. sunbathe (v) (v) sunlight (n)store (n & v) sunrise (n) Page 30
  • sunset (n) take off (phr v)sunshine (n) • Do you want to take off your coat?supermarket (n) • The plane takes off at 6.supply (v) take part (in) (phr v)support (v) • Everybody took part in the meeting. • to support a weight take place (phr v) • to support a team • The meeting took place at six.suppose (v) take up (phr v) • I suppose it’s true. • He decided to take up a new hobby. • You aren’t supposed to drive fast. talent (n) • It’s supposed to be a good film. talk (n & v)sure (adj) tall (adj) • I’m sure you’re right. tap (n) • to make sure • a cold-water tap (n)surfing (n) tape (adj, n & v)surname (n) • a tape recorder (adj)surprise (n & v) • a cassette tape (n)surround (v) • to tape a conversation (v) • The cottage is surrounded by beautiful taste (n & v) countryside. • to have good taste (n)sweater (n) • to taste food (v)sweatshirt (n) • It tastes good. (v)sweep (v) tax (n & v) • to sweep the floor taxi (n)sweet (adj & n) tea (n) • sweet food (adj) teach (v) • a sweet face (adj) team (n) • a sweet smell (adj) tear (n) • to eat a sweet (n) • Tears ran down her cheeks.swim (n & v) tear (v)swimming costume (n) • to tear a piece of paperswing (n & v) technique (n) • to play on a swing technology (n) • to swing backwards and forwards teenage (n)switch (n & v) telegram (n) • light switch (n) telephone (n & v) • to switch on a machine (v) television (TV) (n)system (n) tell (v) • to tell a story • to tell someone something T • to tell someone to do something • you can’t always telltable (n) temperature (n)table-cloth (n) • to have a temperaturetable-tennis (n) • air temperaturetablet (n) temporary (adj)take (v) tennis (n) • to take someone’s hand tent (n) • to take someone’s things (steal/ term (n) borrow) terminal (n) • to take a photo terrible (adj) • to take a long time test (n & v) • to take a holiday text (n)take away (phr v) than (conj & prep) • Take 15 away from 78. thank (v) Page 31
  • thank you (int) • to wait till the end (prep)thanks (n) • till he comes (conj)that (adv, conj, det & pron) time (n)theft (n) • What time is it?their (det) • It took a long time.theirs (pron) • the last timethem (pron) • Is it time yet?themselves (pron) • Four times five is twenty.then (adv) timetable (n)there (adv & pron) tin (n)therefore (adv) • a tin of peasthermometer (n) • made of tinthese (det & pron) tin-opener (n)they (pron) tiny (adj)thick (adj) tip (n)thief (n) • the tip of the pencilthin (adj) • a tip for the waitressthing (n) tired (adj)think (v) title (n) • to think about something to (prep) • I think he’s left. toast (n) • What did you think of the film? • toast for breakfast • I think I’ll go. today (adv & n) • I’m thinking of going. toe (n)thirst (n) together (adv)this (det & pron) toilet (n)those (det & pron) tomato (n)though (conj & adv) tomorrow (adv & n)thought (n) ton(ne) (n) • to have thoughts about something tongue (n) • to be deep in thought tonight (adv & n)thriller (n) too (adv)throat (n) • I’ve been there, too.through (prep) • It’s too heavy to lift.throughout (prep) tool (n)throw (v) tooth/teeth (n)throw away (phr v) toothache (n) • He threw away the old TV. toothbrush (n)thumb (n) toothpaste (n)thunder (n) top (n)thunderstorm (n) • top of the classtick (n & v) • at the top of his voiceticket (n) topic (n)tidy (adj & v) total (adj & n)tidy up (phr v) touch (v) • Please tidy up when you’ve finished. tour (n & v)tie (n & v) tourism (n) • a shirt and tie (n) tourist (n) • to tie with string (v) toward(s) (prep)tiger (n) towel (n)tight (adj) tower (n) • tight shoes town (n)tights (n pl) toy (n) • a pair of tights track (n)till (conj & prep) • a race track Page 32
  • track suit (n) • Can you turn on the TV?trade (n) turn out (phr v)traditional (adj) • He turned out the lights.traffic (n) turn up (phr v)traffic jam (n) • Turn up the radio - I can hardly hear it.traffic light(s) (n) turning (n)train (n & v) • the first turning on the left • to travel by train twice (adv) • to train in a skill twin (n)trainers (n pl) type (n & v) • a pair of trainers • a type of person (n)tram (n) • to type a letter (v)transfer (v) typical (adj)translate (v) tyre (n)translation (n)transport (n & v)travel (v) Utravel agent (n)traveller’s cheque (n) ugly (adj)tree (n) umbrella (n)trip (n) unable (adj) • a weekend trip uncle (n)trouble (n) under (prep)trousers (n pl) • under the bedtruck (Am Eng) (Br Eng: lorry) • under £10.00true (adj) underground (adj & n) • Is it true? • underground trains (adj) • a true friend • to travel by underground (n)trumpet (n) underpants (n)trust (v) understand (v) • to trust someone uniform (n)truth (n) universe (n)try (v) university (n) • to try to do something unleaded (adj) • to try (out) something unless (conj)try on (v) until (prep & conj) • to try on shoes up (adv & prep)T-shirt (n) • to walk up the hill (prep)tube (n) • Are you up yet? (awake and dressed) • a tube of toothpaste (adv)tune (n) • Lift your head up. (adv)tunnel (n) • Speak up, please. (adv)turkey (n) up to (prep phr)turn (n & v) • up to six people • to turn your head (v) up to date (prep phr) • to turn the page (v) update (n & v) • It’s my turn. (n) upon (prep) • The wheels began to turn. (v) upset (adj)turn down (phr v) upstairs (adv) • Could you turn down the music? urgent (adj)turn into (phr v) us (pron) • The water had turned into ice. use (n & v)turn off (phr v) • Can you use a computer? (v) • She turned off the engine. • It’s for the use of teachers only. (n)turn on (phr v) • Is this any use to you? (n) Page 33
  • used to (v) wash (n & v) • I used to cycle a lot when I was wash-basin (n) younger. wash up (v)usual (adj) washing machine (n) washing up (n) • to do the washing up V waste (adj & v) wastepaper basket (n)valley (n) watch (n & v)value (n) • My watch keeps good time. (n)van (n) • I watched TV last night. (v)vanilla (n) water (n & v)variety (n) waterfall (n)various (adj) wave (n & v)vase (n) • waves at seaveal (n) • to wave goodbyevegetable (n & adj) way (n)vegetarian (n & adj) • Is this the way?vehicle (n) • the wrong wayvery (adv) • a long wayvenue (n) • to stand in the wayvictim (n) • That’s the way to do it.victory (n) • way of lifevideo (n & v) • way in, way outvideo recorder (n) WC (n)videotape (n) we (pron)view (n) weak (adj) • a beautiful view • to feel weakvillage (n) • a weak excuseviolin (n) wear (v)visa (n) • to wear a dressvisit (n & v) wear off (phr v)visitor (n) • Has the pain worn off yet?vocabulary (n) wear out (phr v & adj)voice (n)volleyball (n) • You’ll wear out those shoes. (v)vote (n & v) weather (n)voyage (n) web (n) website (n) wedding (n) W week (n) weekday (n)wage(s) (n) weekend (n)wait (n & v) weekly (adj & adv)waiter (n) • a weekly magazine (adj)waiting-room (n) • to phone home twice weekly (adv)waitress (n) weigh (v)wake (up) (v) weight (n)walk (n & v) welcome (n & v)wall (n) • a warm welcome (n)wallet (n) • Welcome to London! (v)want (v) welfare (n)war (n) well (adj, adv & int)ward (n) • I’m very well, thanks. (adj)warm (adj) • to behave very well (adv)warn (v) • Shake the bottle well. (adv) Page 34
  • • Well, here we are. (int) without (prep)Well done! (int) witness (n & v)well known (adv) woman (n)well-known (adj) wonder (v)well made (adv) • I wonder what he said.well-made (adj) wonderful (adj)west (adj, adv & n) wood (n)wet (adj) • to be made of wood • wet clothes • in a large wood • wet weather wooden (adj)whale (n) wool (n)what (pron) word (n)whatever (pron & det) • words in a sentencewheel (n & v) • He didn’t say a word.wheelchair (n) work (n & v)when (adv) • school work (n)whenever (adv & conj) • to work for a living (v)where (adv) • hard work (n)wherever (adv & conj) • to be out of work (n)whether (conj) working hours (n pl)which (pron & det) world (n)whichever (pron & det) worry (n & v)while, whilst (conj) worse (adj & adv)white (adj) worst (adj & adv)who, whom (pron) worth (adj)whoever (pron) wound (n & v)whole (adj & n) wrap (up) (v)whose (pron) • to wrap (up) a parcelwhy (adv) write (v)wide (adj & adv) write out (phr v) • a wide road (adj) • Please write out your name in full. • with his mouth wide open (adv) wrong (adj) • to feel wide awake (adv)width (n)wife (n)wild (adj)wildlife (n)win (n & v) Ywind (n) • A strong wind was blowing. (n) year (n)wind (v) yearly (adj & adv) • Wind up the car windows. (v) yellow (adj)window (n) yes (int)windscreen (n) yesterday (adv & n)windsurfing (n) yet (adv)wing (n) you (pron) • a bird’s wing you know (int) • the wing of an aeroplane young (adj & n)wire (n) your (det) • an electrical wire yours (pron) • a wire fence yourself (pron)wise (adj) youth (n)wish (n & v)with (prep)within (adv & prep) Page 35
  • Zzebra (n)zero (n)zone (n)zoo (n) Page 36
  • Appendix 1Word setsIn addition to the words in the alphabetical list, PET and PET for Schools candidatesare expected to know:Cardinal numbersone, two, three, etc.Ordinal numbersfirst, second, third, fourth, etc.Days of the weekMonday, Tuesday, etc.Months of the yearJanuary, February, etc.Seasons of the yearspring, summer, autumn, winterCountries, languages and nationalitiesNames of countries, nationalities and languages, for example, Brazil/Brazilian, Canada/Canadian,China/Chinese, France/French, Ireland/Irish, India/Indian, Italy/Italian, Spain/Spanish, etc.ContinentsAfrica, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America. Page 37
  • Appendix 2AffixesThe words in the alphabetical list may be extended by the use of one or more of these affixes:mini- with nouns, sometimes without a hyphen, e.g. minibus, mini-tournon- with nouns and adjectives, e.g. non-essentialre- with verbs and their related nouns, usually without a hyphen, e.g. rename, renamingself- with nouns and adjectives, e.g. self-importance, self-confidentun- negative prefix, e.g. unsafe-able with verbs, to form adjectives, e.g. affordable-ed (-d) with verbs, to form adjectives, e.g. limited, used-er (-r) with verbs, to form nouns, e.g. teacher, advertiser; shopper, also comparative forms, e.g. brighter-ese for nationalities/languages, e.g. Japanese-ess referring to a woman or female animal, e.g. princess, lioness N.B. it is less common to refer to women in this way nowadays, and usually safer to use the ‘standard’ form e.g. actor, author-est superlative forms, e.g. tallest-ful with nouns, for amount contained, e.g. spoonful; with nouns to form adjectives denoting characteristics or qualities, e.g. painful, peaceful-ing with verbs, for activity or state, e.g. reading, frightening-ish for nationalities or languages, e.g. Swedish; with nouns to form adjectives, e.g. childish-ist with nouns, for occupations, e.g. novelist, guitarist-less with nouns to form adjectives, e.g. breathless-ly with adjectives to form adverbs, e.g. seriously; with nouns to form adjectives, e.g. friendly-ment with verbs to form nouns, e.g. enjoyment-or with verbs to form nouns, for people, e.g. inventor-y with nouns to form adjectives, e.g. hairy, sunny Page 38
  • Appendix 3Topic ListsClothes and Accessoriesbackpack glove pattern swimmingbelt go with (phr v) perfume costumeblouse handbag plastic take offboot handkerchief pocket tiebutton hat pullover tightscap jacket put on tracksuitcloth jeans pyjamas trainers(rain) coat jewellery raincoat trouserscollar knit shirt T-shirtcotton laundry shoe sweatshirtdress leather shorts swimsuitdry cleaning lipstick silk try onearring make-up size underpantsfashion match (v) skirt umbrellafasten material sleeve(less) uniformfit (v) old-fashioned socks wear (out)fold (v) (adj) suit wool(len)glasses pants sweater sweatshirtColours(dark/light/pale) gold pink yellowblack green purple whiteblue grey redbrown orange silverCommunications and Technologyaccess digital invention postcardaddress directory IT printairmail disc/disk keyboard printerby post download (n & laptop program(me)calculator v) (computer) replycall (v) DVD (player) laser ringcall back electronic(s) machine ring upCD (player) email message screenCD-Rom engaged mobile phone softwarechat (v) enter mouse switch onchat room envelope mouse mat switch offclick (v) equipment network telephonecomputer fax online textconnect hang up operator text messageconnection headline parcel turn offdelete homepage password turn ondial internet phonedial up invent postage Page 39
  • Educationabsent composition handwriting photographyadvanced corridor homework physicsarithmetic course intermediate primary schoolart curriculum instructor qualificationbell degree IT qualifybiology desk laboratory (lab) registerblackboard dictionary languages scienceboard diploma lesson secondarybreak(time) drama mark (v) schoolbreak up economics mathematics state schoolcertificate educate math(s) study (v)chemistry elementary music subjectclass essay nature studies technologyclassroom geography notice boardcollege history pencil caseEntertainment and Mediaact (v) classical music film star pop musicaction comedy folk music programmeactor comedian headline quizadventure comic hero recordingadmission commercial hit song reviewadvert concert interview(er) rock musicadvertisement costume interval romanticarticle dance jazz music rowaudience disc journalist sceneballet disco magazine screenband display magic seriesbook deejay / DJ MP3 player stagecamera documentary music starcartoon drama news studiocassette (player) DVD (player) newspaper televisionCD (player) entrance opera thrillerCD-Rom exhibition orchestra venuechannel exit perform videocinema festival performancecircus film play film maker poemEnvironmentbottle bank litter public transport recyclingclimate change petrol recycle rubbish (bin)gas (Am Eng) pollution recycled traffic (jam) Page 40
  • Food and Drinkapple cooker jam potatobake (v) cookie jug recipebanana corn juice refreshmentsbarbecue (n & cream knife rice v) cucumber lamb roast (v & adj)bean cup lemon rollbiscuit curry lemonade saladbitter (adj) dessert lettuce saltboil (v) diet loaf sandwichbowl dinner lunch saucerbread dish meat sausagebreakfast drink melon slice (n)buffet duck menu snackbutter eat microwave (n) soft drinkcabbage egg milk soupcake fish mineral water sourcan (of beans) flour mushroom spinachcandy fork mustard spooncanteen French fries oil steakcarrot fresh omelette strawberrycauliflower fruit onion sugarcelery fruit juice orange sweet (adj & n)cereal fry pan tastecheese frying pan pasta teachicken glass pastry thirstychips grape pea toastchocolate grill (n & v) peanut tomatococoa honey pear turkeycoconut hot pepper vanillacoffee hungry pie vegetablecola ice cream pizza vegetariancook (v) ingredients plateHealth, Medicine and Exerciseaccident clean headache recoverache cold (n) hospital runambulance cough (n & v) hurt shoulderankle cut ill skinappointment damage illness sore throataspirin dentist injure stomach achebalance diet keep fit stressbandage dressing knee swimbend earache medicine tabletbleed (v) emergency operate take exerciseblood (n) faint operation temperaturebone feel better/ill/sick pain thumbbreak fever painful toesbreath flu patient (n) toothachebreathe get better/worse pharmacy walkchemist go jogging pill wound (n & v)chin gym(nastics) prescription Page 41
  • Hobbies and Leisurebarbecue cruise hang out paintingcamera dancing hire picniccamp doll jogging playgroundcamping drawing join in playing cardscampsite facilities keen on quizchess fan member(ship) sculptureclub fiction model sightseeingcollect(or) keep fit museum slidecollection gallery music swingscomputer guitar opening hours sunbathe tentHouse and Homeaccommodation computer hi-fi repairaddress cooker house roofair-conditioning corridor housewife roomalarm (fire/car) cottage housework roommatealarm clock cupboard iron rubbishantique curtain jug seatapartment cushion kettle sheetarmchair desk kitchen shelfbalcony digital (adj) ladder showerbasement dining room lamp sinkbasin dish landlady sitting roombath dishwasher landlord sofabathroom door laptop stairsbed downstairs (computer) stepbedroom drawer laundry surroundbell dustbin lavatory switchbin duvet lawn tableblanket DVD (player) lift table-clothblind electric(al) light tapblock (of flats) entrance (clothes) line telephone(notice) board fan living-room televisionbookshelf fence lock toiletbrick flat lounge toolbrush flatmate microwave (n) towelbucket floor mirror towerbulb freezer mug toycandle fridge neighbour TV (screen/set)carpet frying pan oil upstairs (adv)cassette player furnished oven vaseceiling furniture pan videocellar garage path video recordercentral heating garden pillow videotapechair gas pipe wallchannel (with gate plant wash-basin TV) grill plug washingchest of drawers ground (floor) plug in machinechimney hall property wastepaper basketcloakroom handle radio WCclock heat (v) refrigerator windowcoal hedge rent Page 42
  • Languageadvanced elementary meaning shoutanswer email mention speakargue grammar message talkask intermediate pronounce tellbeginner interpret pronunciation translatechat joke question translationcommunicate letter say vocabularycommunication mean sentence wordPersonal Feelings, Opinions and Experiences (Adjectives)able delighted jealous richafraid depressed keen rudeamazed difficult lazy sadamazing disappointed lucky satisfiedamusing dizzy mad seriousangry easy merry skilledannoyed embarrassed miserable slimanxious embarrassing negative smartashamed excited nervous specialawful exciting noisy strangebored fantastic normal strongboring fit old-fashioned stupidbossy fond ordinary surebrave frightened original surprisedbrilliant funny patient terriblecalm generous personal tiredchallenging gentle pleasant truecheerful glad positive typicalclever guilty punctual unableconfident happy realistic unusualcrazy hard reasonable wellcruel healthy relaxed wonderfulcurious intelligent reliablePlaces: Buildingsapartment block/ college kiosk shop block of flats cottage library sports centrebank department mosque stadiumbookshop store museum supermarketcafé factory office block swimming poolcastle gallery palace theatrecathedral garage police station towerchurch guest-house post office universitycinema house prisonclinic hospital ruinclub hotel school Page 43
  • Places: Countrysidearea forest port seabay harbour quay seasidebeach hill railway skycanal island rainforest soilcliff lake region streamdesert land river valleyearth mountain rock villagefarm ocean sand waterfallfield path scenery woodPlaces: Town and Cityairport crossroads road taxi rankbridge fountain roundabout tunnelbus station market route turningbus stop motorway shopping centre undergroundcar park park signpost zoocity centre pavement squarecorner petrol station stationcrossing playground subwayServicesbank dry cleaner hotel sports centrecafé gallery library swimming poolcinema garage museum theatredentist guest-house post officedoctor hairdresser restaurantShoppingadvertise choose expensive receiptassistant collect hire reducebill complain inexpensive reducedbook cost luxury rentbuy credit card money reservecash customer order returnchange dear pay savecheap deposit price sellcheque exchange reasonable Page 44
  • Sportathlete fitness motor-racing shortsathletics football net skateboardball game point(s) skiingbaseball goal practice squashbasketball golf practise stadiumbat gym(nastics) prize surfingboxing high jump race swimmingchampion hit (v) race track table-tennischanging room hockey racing take partclimbing horse-riding racket teamcoach ice hockey reserve (n) tenniscompete instructor riding trackcompetition jogging rugby track suitcourt join in running trainer(s)cycling kick (v) sail (n & v) train(ing)dancing locker (room) sailing volleyballdiving long jump score water skiingenter match seasonfishing motorcycling shoot(ing)Travel and Transportabroad car alarm duty-free luggageaccommodation car park embassy map(aero)plane case euro motorbike/bicycle/bike catch (v) exchange rate motorcycleairline change (v) facilities motorwayairport charter fare nationalityambulance check in (v) ferry on boardannouncement check out (v) flight on businessarrival check-in (n) fly on footarrive coach foreign on holidayat sea confirm fuel on timebackpack consul(ate) gate on vacationbag crossing guide operatorbaggage crossroads guidebook overnightboard (v) currency guest overtakeboarding pass customs guest-house parking lotboat customs officer handlebars parking spaceborder cycle (n & v) harbour passengerbrochure cyclist helicopter passportbus deck (of ship) hitch-hike pathbus station delay hotel petrolbus stop deliver hovercraft petrol stationby air depart hydrofoil petrol pumpby land departure immigration pilotby rail destination inn platformby road direction interpret(er) railroadby sea document(s) jet railwaycab dollar journey receptioncabin double room land (v) reservationcanal drive lorry reservecapital city driving licence lost property returncar due (office) ride Page 45
  • road sign speed traffic lights undergroundroundabout subway train trainroute suitcase tram unleadedsail (v) take off translate vehiclescooter taxi translation visaseat belt taxi rank traveller’s cheque visit(or)(bus) service terminal trip voyageship tour tunnel waiting-roomsightseeing tourist tyre/tire windscreensignpost traffic undergroundsingle room traffic jamThe Natural Worldanimal environment mouse/mice summerautumn fall (Am Eng) nature sunbeach farmland planet sunlightbird field plant sunrisebranch fish pollution sunsetbush flood rabbit sunshinecave flower rainforest tigercliff forest range treeclimate freeze river valleycoal giraffe rock waterfallcoast hill sand wavescontinent lake scenery wildcountryside land shark wildlifedesert leaf sky winterdolphin lion soil zebraduck monkey springearth moon starelephant mountain stoneWeatherblow frost lightning sunshinecentigrade fog mild temperaturecloud foggy rain thermometercloudy gale shower thunder(storm)cold get wet snow wetcool heat snowfall winddegrees hot storm windydry ice sunforecast icy sunny Page 46
  • Work and Jobs(travel) agent dancer labourer priestactor dentist lawyer professionactress department lecturer professionalapplication designer librarian professorapply detective manager (computer)architect diploma mechanic programmerarmy director model publisherartist diver musician qualificationassistant doctor newsagent quitathlete employ (v) novelist reporterbanker employee nurse retireboss employer occupation retirementbusinessman employment office sailorbusinesswoman engineer officer (e.g. salarybutcher farmer prison/police) sales assistantcameraman film star operator salesmancandidate fireman out of work saleswomancanteen flight attendant owner scientistcaptain full time part time secretarycareer factory pension(er) security guardchef farm photographer servantchemist flight attendant physician shopkeeper/colleague greengrocer pilot shop assistantcomedian grocer poet soldiercompany guard policeman staffconference hairdresser police officer taxi driverconsul/consulate housewife policewoman teachercontract housework politician tradecook instructor porter unemployedcrew interpreter postman wage(s)curriculum vitae journalist presenter (e.g. waiter/waitress / CV judge TV/radio)customs officer laboratory president Page 47
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