Pet vocab-list

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Pet vocab-list

  1. 1. VOCABULARY LISTPreliminary English Test (PET)Preliminary English Test for Schools (PETfS)PET Vocabulary List©UCLES 2009
  2. 2. Introduction to the PET Vocabulary ListThe PET Vocabulary List gives teachers a guide to the vocabulary needed when preparingstudents for the PET and PET for Schools examinations.Background to the ListThe PET Vocabulary List was originally developed by Cambridge ESOL in consultationwith external consultants to guide item writers who produce materials for the PETexamination. It includes vocabulary from the Council of Europe’s Threshold (1990)specification and other vocabulary which corpus evidence shows is high-frequency.The list covers vocabulary appropriate to this level of English and includes receptivevocabulary (words that the candidate is expected to understand but which is not the focusof a question) and productive vocabulary (words that the candidate needs to know toanswer a question).The list does not provide an exhaustive list of all words which appear on the PET and PETfor Schools question papers and candidates should not confine their study of vocabulary tothe list alone.How the List is UpdatedThe vocabulary of English changes over time, with words being added and other wordsfalling into disuse. In order to maintain its currency, the PET Vocabulary List is updated onan annual basis by the addition and removal of words, using a corpus-based approach.Suggested additions to the list are collated and the frequency of these words is obtainedby reference to established corpora (electronic databases). The corpora in questionrepresent receptive and productive language in general contexts. The main corpora usedfor the validation of the PET Vocabulary List are:• the Cambridge Learner Corpus (CLC), which includes over 20 million words of written learner English at six levels;• the British National Corpus (BNC), which includes 100 million words of written and spoken native speaker data.Organisation of the List • Word setsSome categories of words that a learner at this level might be expected to know are notincluded in the alphabetical list but are listed separately. Words formed with commonaffixes, some compounds and words from some common word sets, e.g. days of the week,are described below and in Appendix 1. Although some ‘grammar words’ (pronouns,modals, etc.) are included, the ‘Language Specification’ section of the PET and PET forSchools Handbook (available from from www.cambridgeesol.org) should be consulted fora more complete listing. • ExemplificationExample phrases and sentences showing how words might be used are given only wherewords with different meanings need to be constrained, e.g. the use of case is limited to‘suitcase’: candidates are not expected to know other meanings, such as ‘a legal case’. Page 2
  3. 3. • Prefixes and SuffixesA list of possible prefixes and suffixes is provided in Appendix 2, and these may becombined with the vocabulary items in the list as appropriate. Words with an affix which isnot included in the appendix are listed separately in the alphabetical list. • Compound WordsCompound words are not included in the list where both individual words are present andthe meaning of the compound is literal and transparent, e.g. coursebook, schoolboy,shoemaker, underwater. A similar approach has been adopted with two-word andhyphenated compounds, for example coffee bar, leisure centre, home-made, open-air. • Multi-word VerbsMulti-word verbs are not included in the list if they have a literal meaning and arecomposed of verbs and particles already in the list. Examples of ‘literal’ multi-word verbsare come into, sit down, as in ‘Why not come into the kitchen and sit down?’ If the meaningof the verb is not transparent, e.g. put through, get along, then the verb is listed and anexample of usage given. • Topic ListsIn Appendix 3, words have been grouped together under common PET themes, such as‘House and Home’, ‘Sport’, and ‘Food and Drink’ etc.Unsuitable TopicsCambridge ESOL examinations must not contain anything that might offend or upsetcandidates, potentially affect their performance or distract them during the examination. Anumber of ‘sensitive’ topics are considered unsuitable for use in PET, for example, warand politics, and vocabulary relating to these is not included in the PET Vocabulary List.Personal VocabularyThe content of the PET Vocabulary List is general in nature and is unlikely to covercompletely the productive vocabulary that may be required by all candidates. Candidatesshould know the specific lexis they will need to describe themselves and their lives, forexample, work, hobbies, likes and dislikes.AbbreviationsAbbreviations used in the PET Vocabulary List are:abbrev abbreviation or acronym n nounadj adjective phr v phrasal verbadv adverb pl pluralAm Eng American English prep prepositionBr Eng British English prep phr prepositional phraseconj conjunction pron pronoundet determiner sing singularexclam exclamation v verbint interjectionSummary of Points to be noted • The list does not include every word that may appear on a PET paper. • The list covers receptive and productive vocabulary. • The list is updated every year. Page 3
  4. 4. afraid (adj) A after (prep) afternoon (n)ability (n) afterwards (adv)able (adj) again (adv)about (adv & prep) against (prep) • about 500 students (adv) age (n) • The film is about a small boy. (prep) aged (adj)above (prep) agent (n)abroad (adv) agency (n)absent (adj) ago (adv)accept (v) agree (v)access (n) ahead (adv) • disabled access aim (n & v) • internet access air (n)accident (n) air-conditioning (n)accommodation (n) air force (n)accompany (v) airline (n)according to (prep phr) airmail (n)account (n) airport (n)accurate (adj) alarm (n)ache (n & v) alarm clock (n)achieve (v) album (n)across (prep) alike (adv)act (n & v) alive (adj) • in the second act (of the play) (n) all (adj, adv, det & pron) • to act in a play (v) all right/alright (adv) • to act strangely (v) allow (v)action (n) almost (adv)active (adj) alone (adv & adj)activity (n) along (adv & prep)actor (n) aloud (adv)actress (n) alphabet (n)actual (adj) already (adv)ad (advertisement) (n) also (adv)add (v) although (conj)addition (n) altogether (adv) • in addition always (adv)additional (adj) a.m. (adv)address (n) amazed (adj)admire (v) amazing (adj)admission (n) ambassador (n) • charges/cost/price ambition (n)admit (v) ambulance (n)adult (adj & n) among (amongst) (prep)advanced (adj) amount (n)advantage (n) amusing (adj)adventure (n) ancient (adj)advert (n) and (conj)advertise (v) angry (adj)advertisement (n) animal (n)advice (n) ankle (n)advise (v) anniversary (n)aeroplane (n) announce (v)afford (v) announcement (n) annoy (v) Page 4
  5. 5. annual (adj) athletics (n)another (det & pron) atmosphere (n)answer (n & v) attach (v)answerphone (n) attack (n & v)antique (adj & n) attempt (v)anxious (adj) attend (v)any (det & pron) attention (n)anybody (pron) attitude (n)anyhow (adv) attract (v)anyone (pron) attraction (n)anything (pron) attractive (adj)anyway (adv) audience (n)anywhere (adv) aunt (n)apart from (prep) automatically (adv)apartment (n) available (adj)apologise (v) average (adj & n)apology (n) avoid (v)appear (v) awake (adj)appearance (n) away (adv)apple (n) awful (adj)application (n)apply (v)appointment (n)approach (v) Bapprove (v)architect (n) baby (n)area (n) back (adv, adj & n)argue (v) background (n)arm (n) backpack (n)armchair (n) backwards (adv)army (n) bad (adj)around (adv & prep) bag (n)arrange (v) baggage (n)arrest (v) bake (v)arrival (n) balance (n & v)arrive (v) balcony (n)art (n) bald (adj)article (n) ball (n)artist (n) ballet (n)as (conj & prep) balloon (n)as well (adv) banana (n)as well as (prep) band (n)ashamed (adj) bandage (n)ask (v) bank (n)asleep (adj) bank balance (n)aspirin (n) banknote (n)assistant (n) bar (n)at (prep) barbecue (n & v)at all (prep phr) bare (adj)at first (prep phr) base on (phr v)at last (prep phr) baseball (n)at least (prep phr) basement (n)at once (prep phr) basic (adj)at present (prep phr) basin (n)at the same time (prep phr) basket (n)athlete (n) basketball (n) Page 5
  6. 6. bat (n) bleed (v)bath (n & v) blind (adj & n)bathroom (n) block (n)battle (n) • block of flatsbay (n) blond(e) (adj & n)be (v) blood (n)beach (n) blouse (n)bean (n) blow (n & v)bear (n) blue (adj)beard (n) board (n & v)beat (v) boarding pass (n)beautiful (adj) boat (n)because (conj) body (n)because of (prep phr) boil (v)become (v) bold (adj)bed (n) bomb (n & v)bedroom (n) bone (n)bee (n) book (n & v)beef (n) booking office (n)before (prep, adv & conj) bookshelf (n)begin (v) bookshop (n)behave (v) boot (n)behind (prep & adv) • leather bootsbelieve (v) • the boot of the carbell (n) border (n)belong (v) bored (adj)belongings (n) boring (adj)below (adv & prep) born (adj)belt (n) borrow (v)bend (n & v) boss (n)beneath (adv & prep) both (pron & det)benefit (n & v) bottle (n)beside (prep) bottom (n)between (prep & adv) bowl (n)beyond (prep & adv) box (n & v)bicycle (n) boy (n)big (adj) boyfriend (n)bike (n) brain (n)bill (n) brake (n & v) • electricity bill branch (n)bin (n) brave (adj)biography (n) bread (n)biology (n) break (n & v)bird (n) break down (phr v)birth (n) • The car has broken down.birthday (n) break in (phr v)biscuit (n) • Someone broke in and stole thebit (n) computer.bite (n & v) break up (phr v)bitter (adj) • When does school break up?black (adj) • The pop group has broken up.blackboard (n) breakfast (n)blame (n & v) breath (n)blank (adj) breathe (v) • a blank piece of paper brick (n)blanket (n) Page 6
  7. 7. bridge (n) café/cafe (n)brief (adj) cage (n)bright (adj) cake (n)brilliant (adj) calculator (n)bring (v) calendar (n)bring up (phr v) call (n & v) • She was brought up in London. call for (phr v)broad (adj) • I’ll call for you at 7.brochure (n) call in (phr v)brother (n) • She called in to see a friend.brown (adj) calm (adj)brush (n & v) camel (n)bucket (n) camera (n)buffet (adj & n) camp (n & v)bug (n) campsite (n)build (v) can (n)building (n) canal (n)bulb (n) cancel (v) • light bulb candidate (n)bull (n) candle (n)bullet (n) canteen (n)bureau (n) cap (n)burger (n) capital (adj)burglar (n) • capital cityburglary (n) • capital letterburn (n & v) captain (n)bury (v) car (n)bus (n) carry out (phr v)business (n) car park (n)bus station (n) card (n)bus stop (n) • birthday cardbusy (adj) • credit cardbut (conj) • identity (ID) cardbutcher (n) • playing cardbutter (n) cardboard (adj & n)button (n) care (n & v)buy (v) • take care of someone (n)by (prep) • to care (about/for) someone/somethingby accident (prep phr) (v)by all means (prep phr) career (n)by hand (prep phr) carpet (n)by mistake (prep phr) carrot (n)by name (prep phr) carry (v) carry on (phr v) • He carried on walking despite the rain. cartoon (n) case (n) • suitcase cash (n & v) C cassette (n) cassette player/recorder (n) castle (n)cab (n) cat (n)cabbage (n) catch (v)cabin (n) cathedral (n)cable (n) Page 7
  8. 8. cauliflower (n) chips (n)cause (n & v) chocolate (n)cave (n) choice (n)CD (n) choose (v)CD-Rom (n) church (n)ceiling (n) cinema (n)celebrate (v) circle (n)celebration (n) circus (n)celery (n) city (n)cellar (n) clap (v)cent (n) class (n)centimetre (cm) (n) • language classcentral (adj) • first class, second classcentral heating (n) classical (adj)centre (n) • classical musiccentury (n) classroom (n)cereal (n) clean (adj & v)certain (adj) clear (adj & v)certificate (n) clever (adj)chain (n) click (v)chair (n & v) cliff (n)chalk (n) climate (n)challenge (n & v) climb (v)champion (n) clinic (n)chance (n) cloakroom (n)change (n & v) clock (n)changing room (n) close (adj, adv & v)channel (n) cloth (n)chapter (n) clothes (n pl)character (n) cloud (n)charge (n & v) club (n)chat (n) • to join a clubcheap (adj) coach (n)cheat (v) coal (n)check (n & v) coast (n)check in (phr v) coat (n) • They checked in to a hotel. cocoa (n)check out (phr v) coconut (n) • He checked out of the hotel at the end coffee (n) of his stay. coin (n)checkout (n) cola (n)cheerful (adj) cold (adj & n)cheers! (exclam) collar (n)cheese (n) colleague (n)chef (n) collect (v)chemist (n) collection (n)chemistry (n) college (n)cheque (n) colour (n & v)chess (n) comb (n & v)chest (n) come (v)chicken (n) come down (phr v)chief (adj) • The house had come down in price.child (n) come on (phr v)childhood (n) • Come on or well miss the bus.chimney (n) comedy (n)chin (n) Page 8
  9. 9. comedian (n) correction (n)comfort (n) corridor (n)comfortable (adj) cost (n & v)comic (adj & n) costume (n)command (v) cottage (n)commercial (adj) cotton (n)committee (n) cough (n & v)common (adj) count (v) • a common surname country (n) • have something in common countryside (n)communicate (v) couple (n)communication (n) courage (n)compact (adj) course (n)company (n) • English coursecompare (v) • main coursecomparison (n) • of course (exclam)compete (n) court (n)competition (n) • law courtcomplain (v) • tennis courtcomplaint (n) cousin (n)complete (v) cover (n & v)complicated (adj) cow (n)composition (n) crash (n & v)computer (n) crazy (adj)concentrate (v) cream (adj & n)concert (n) create (v)conclusion (n) creative (adj)condition (n) creature (n) • in good condition credit (n)conference (n) • credit cardconfident (adj) crew (n)confirm (v) crime (n)congratulations! (exclam) criminal (n)connect (v) cross (n & v)connection (n) crossing (n)consider (v) • pedestrian crossingconsist (v) cross out (phr v)consul (n) • Cross it out and write it again.consulate (n) crossroads (n)contact (n & v) crowd (n)contain (v) crowded (adj)contents (n) crown (n)continent (n) cruel (adj)continue (v) cruise (v)contract (n) cry (n & v)control (n & v) cucumber (n)convenient (adj) cultural (adj)conversation (n) culture (n)cook (n & v) cup (n)cooker (n) cupboard (n)cookie (n) (Am Eng) cure (n & v)cool (adj & v) curious (adj)copy (n & v) curly (adj)corn (n) currency (n)corner (n) current (adj)correct (adj & v) Page 9
  10. 10. curriculum (n) • a degree in mathscurriculum vitae/CV (n) delay (n & v)curry (n) delighted (adj)curtain (n) deliver (v)curve (n & v) delivery (n)cushion (n) demand (n & v)custom (n) demonstration (n)customs (n pl) dentist (n)customs officer (n) depart (v)customer (n) department (n)cut (n & v) departure (n)cut up (phr v) depend (v) • She cut up the cake into small pieces. • It depends on what you want to do.cute (adj) deposit (n)cycle (n & v) • pay a deposit depressed (adj) D depth (n) • the depth of the water describe (v)dad (n) description (n)daddy (n) desert (n)daily (adj & adv) deserve (v)damage (n & v) design (n & v)damp (adj) desk (n)dance (n & v) despite (prep)danger (n) dessert (n)dangerous (adj) destination (n)dark (adj & n) destroy (v)date (n & v) detail (n) • today’s date (n) detective (n)daughter (n) develop (v)day (n) diagram (n)dead (adj) dial (v)deaf (adj) diary (n)deal (with) (v) dictionary (n)dear (adj & exclam) die (v) • too dear to buy (adj) diet (n & v) • Dear Sir (adj) differ (v) • Oh dear! (exclam) difference (n)death (n) different (adj)decide (v) difficult (adj)decimal (adj & n) difficulty (n)decision (n) dig (v)declare (v) digital (adj)deck (n) dining room (n) • the deck of a boat dinner (n)decrease (n & v) diploma (n)deejay / DJ (n) direct (adj & v)deep (adj & adv) direction (n)defeat (n & v) director (n)defence (n) directory (n)defend (v) • a telephone directorydefinitely (adv) dirt (n)degree (n) disabled (adj) • 90 degrees disadvantage (n) Page 10
  11. 11. disagree (v) drum (n)disappear (v) dry (adj & v)disappoint (v) dry cleaning (n)disc/disk (n) duck (n) • compact disc/CD due (adj) • hard disk • The next bus is due in five minutes. • floppy disk due to (prep phr)disco(theque) (n) dull (adj)discount (n) during (prep)discover (v) dust (n & v)discuss (v) dustbin (n)discussion (n) duty (n)disease (n) duty-free (adj)disgusting (adj) duvet (n)dish (n) DVD (n)dishwasher (n) DVD player (n)dislike (n & v)display (n & v)distance (n) Edistant (adj)district (n) each (det & pron)disturb (v) ear (n)dive (v) earache (n)divide (v) early (adj)dizzy (adj) earn (v)do (v) earring (n)doctor/Dr (n) earth (n)document (n) east (adj, adv & n)documentary (adj & n) eastern (adj)dog (n) easy (adj)doll (n) eat (v)dollar (n) economics (n)dolphin (n) edge (n)door (n) educate (v)double (adj) education (n)doubt (n & v) effect (n)down (adv & prep) efficient (adj)download (n & v) effort (n)downstairs (adv) egg (n)dozen (n) either (adv, det, pron & conj)drama (n) elderly (n & adj)draw (v) elect (v) • to draw a picture of someone or election (n) something electric (adj) • to draw the curtains electrical (adj) • to draw near electricity (n)drawer (n) electronic (adj)dream (n & v) elementary (adj)dress (n & v) elephant (n)dressing (n) else (adv)drink (n & v) email (n & v)drive (n & v) embarrassed (adj)driving licence (n) embarrassing (adj)drop (n & v) embassy (n)drugstore (n) (Am Eng) emergency (n) employ (v) Page 11
  12. 12. employee (n) exciting (adj)employment (n) excuse (n & v)empty (adj & v) exercise (n & v)encourage (v) exhibition (n)end (n & v) exist (v)end up (phr v) exit (n)enemy (n) expect (v)engaged (adj) expedition (n) • to be engaged to someone expensive (adj) • The phone was engaged. experience (n)engine (n) experiment (n & v)engineer (n) expert (n)enjoy (v) explain (v)enormous (adj) explanation (n)enough (adv, det & pron) explode (v)enquiry (n) explore (v)enter (v) extra (adj & adv)entertain (v) extraordinary (adj)entertaining (adj) extremely (adv)entertainment (n) eye (n)entrance (n)entry (n)envelope (n) Fenvironment (n)equal (adj) face (n)equipment (n) • a sad look on his faceescalator (n) facility (n)escape (n & v) • The hotel has excellent facilities.especially (adv) fact (n)essay (n) factory (n)essential (adj) fail (v)euro/Euro (n) failure (n)even (adv) faint (adj & v) • He couldnt even do that. fair (adj & n)evening (n) fairly (adv)event (n) faithfully (adv)ever (adv) fall (n & v)every (adj) (n) (Am Eng) (Br Eng: autumn)everybody (pron) false (adj)everyone (pron) familiar (with) (adj)everything (pron) family (n)everywhere (adv) famous (adj)exact (adj) fan (n)examine (v) fantastic (adj)examination/exam (n) far (adv)example (n) fare (n)excellent (adj) • The return fare is £26.except (prep, conj) farm (n & v)excitement (n) fascinate (v)exchange (n) fashion (n) • an exchange visit fast (adj & adv) • in exchange for fasten (v)exchange (v) fat (adj & n)exchange rate (n) father (n)excited (adj) fault (n) favour (n) Page 12
  13. 13. favourite (adj & n) float (v)fax (n & v) flood (n & v)fear (n) floor (n)fee (n) flour (n)feed (v) flow (n & v)feel (v) flower (n)feel like (v) flu (n) • to feel like doing something flute (n)female (adj) fly (n & v)fence (n) fog (n)ferry (n) fold (v)festival (n) folk (adj & n)fetch (v) follow (v)fever (n) following (adj)few (adj) fond (adj)fiancé(e) (n) • to be fond of something/someonefiction (n) food (n)field (n) fool (n)fight (n & v) foot (n)figure (n) football (n)fill (v) for (prep)fill in (phr v) forbid (v) • You need to fill in a form. force (n)fill up (phr v) forecast (n & v) • He filled up the car with petrol. foreign (adj)film (n & v) foreigner (n)film maker (n) forest (n)film star (n) forever (adv)final (adj & n) forget (v)financial (adj) forgive (v)find (v) fork (n)find out (phr v) form (n) • I must find out when he’s arriving. former (adj)fine (adj, n & v) fortnight (n)finger (n) fortunately (adv)finish (n & v) forward(s) (adv)fire (n) fountain (n)firefighter (n) free (adj)firm (adj & n) freeze (v) • firm ground (adj) freezer (n) • a good firm to work for (n) French fries (n) (Am Eng)first (adj, adv & pron) frequent (adj) • first name (adj) fresh (adj) • first of all (adv) fridge (n) • He was the first. (pron) friend (n)fish (n & v) frighten (v)fit (adj & v) from (prep) • keep fit (adj) front (adj & n) • These shoes dont fit. (v) frontier (n)fitness (n) frost (n)fix (v) fruit (n)flag (n) fry (v)flat (adj & n) frying pan (n)flight (n) fuel (n)flight attendant (n) full (adj) full time (adv) Page 13
  14. 14. full-time (adj) • What time do you get up in thefun (n) morning?funny (adj) gift (n) • a funny story (amusing) giraffe (n) • a funny thing happened (strange) girl (n)furnished (adj) girlfriend (n)furniture (n) give (v)further (adv & adj) give back (phr v)future (adj & n) • Give me back this book on Tuesday, please. give in (phr v) G • Have you given in your homework yet? • Do you give in?gallery (n) give out (phr v) • an art gallery • Will you give out these papers for me,gain (v) please? • gain experience give up (phr v)game (n) • Has David given up playing tennis?gap (n) give way (phr v)garage (n) • You must give way to traffic at agarden (n) roundabout.gas (n) glad (adj) • a gas cooker glance (n & v) • to put some gas in the car (Am Eng) glass (n) (Br Eng: petrol) glasses (n pl)gate (n) global warming (n)general (adj) glove (n)generation (n) go (v)generous (adj) go for (phr v)gentle (adj) • He went for the job.gentleman (n) • The dog went for the man.geography (n) go off (phr v)get (v) • They went off to Australia.get along (with) (phr v) • Suddenly the lights went off. • How do you get along with Harry? go on (phr v)get back (phr v) • The meeting went on until six oclock. • When did you get back from New • Whats going on? York? go out (phr v)get down (phr v) • The fire has gone out. • Get down at once! • Are you going out with Thomas • Did you get all the notes down? tonight?get in (phr v) go with (phr v) • Can you get in through the window? • Your tie doesnt go with your shirt.get off (phr v) goal (n) • We get off at the next stop. goat (n)get on (phr v) gold (adj & n) • Get your coat on and then we can golf (n) leave. good (adj) • How are you getting on now? • The film was very good.get on (with) (phr v) • to be good at maths • She got on with her work. goodbye (exclam) • I’m getting on well with French. good-looking (adj) • Do you get on well with Sam? goodnight (exclam)get rid of (phr v) goods (n pl)get up (phr v) govern (v) Page 14
  15. 15. government (n) hammer (n & v)grade (n) hand (n & v)gram(me) (n) hand-held (adj)grammar (n) hand in (phr v)grandchild (n) • Please hand in the answer sheet whengrand(d)ad (n) you’ve finished.granddaughter (n) hand out (phr v)grandfather (n) • Hand out the books please, Tom.grandma (n) handbag (n)grandmother (n) handkerchief (n)grandpa (n) handle (n & v)grandparent (n) handsome (adj)grandson (n) handwriting (n)grant (n) hang (v) • He was given a grant to study in • to hang a picture Australia. (n) hang out (phr v)grape (n) • to hang out with friendsgrass (n) hang up (phr v)grateful (adj) • She hung up at the end of the phonegreat (adj) call.green (adj) happen (v)greengrocer (n) happy (adj)grey (adj) harbour (n)grill (n & v) hard (adj & adv)grocer (n) hardly (adv)ground (adj & n) • hardly any timegroup (n & v) • He could hardly wait.grow (v) hat (n)grow up (phr v) hate (n & v) • Children grow up fast. have (v)guard (n & v) have got (v)guess (n & v) he (pron)guest (n) head (n & v)guest-house (n) • to hit ones head (n)guide (n & v) • the head of the company (n)guidebook (n) • The child was sent to see the Headguilty (adj) Teacher. (n)guitar (n) • to head a ball (v)gum (n) headache (n) • chewing gum headline (n) • sore gums health (n)gun (n) hear (v)guy (n) heart (n)gym(nastics) (n) heat (n & v) hedge (n) H heavy (adj) height (n) helicopter (n)habit (n) hello/hallo (exclam)hair (n) helmet (n)haircut (n) help (n & v)hairdresser (n) her (det & pron)hairdryer (n) here (adv)half (adj, adv & n) hero (n)hall (n) hers (pron)hallo/hello (exclam) Page 15
  16. 16. herself (pron)hide (v) Ihigh (adj & adv)hill (n) I (pron)him (pron) ice (n)himself (pron) ice cream (n)hire (v & n) ice hockey (n) • to hire a boat (v) idea (n) • for hire (n) identity (n)his (det & pron) • identity (ID) cardhistoric (adj) if (conj)historical (adj) ill (adj)history (n) illness (n)hit (n & v) imagination (n) • The song was a great hit. (n) imagine (v) • to hit the ball (v) immediate (adj)hitch-hike (v) immediately (adv)hobby (n) immigration (n)hockey (n) import (v)hold (v) importance (n)hold up (phr v) important (adj) • He was held up in the heavy traffic for impossible (adj) over two hours. improve (v)hole (n) in (adv & prep)holiday (n) in advance (prep phr)home (adv & n) in any case (prep phr)homepage (n) in case of (prep phr)homework (n) • in case of firehonest (adj) • in case of delayshoney (n) in danger (prep phr)hope (n & v) in the end (prep phr)horrible (adj) in fact (prep phr)horse (n) in front of (prep phr)hospital (n) in half (prep phr)hostel (n) in ink (prep phr)hot (adj) in love (prep phr)hotel (n) in order (prep phr)hour (n) in order to (prep phr)house (n) in pencil (prep phr)housewife (n) in pieces (prep phr)housework (n) in place (prep phr)hovercraft (n) in private (prep phr)how (adv) in public (prep phr)how much (adv) in stock (prep phr)however (adv) in time (prep phr)huge (adj) in turn (prep phr)human (adj & n) in two (prep phr)hunger (n) include (v)hungry (adj) income (n)hurry (n & v) incorrect (adj)hurt (adj & v) increase (n & v)husband (n) indeed (adv)hut (n) independent (adj)hydrofoil (n) index (n) • the index of a book individual (adj & n) Page 16
  17. 17. indoor (adj)indoors (adv)industry (n) Jinfluence (n & v)inform (v) jacket (n)information (n) jail (n) (Am Eng) (Br. Eng: prison)ingredients (n) jam (n)inhabitant (n) • strawberry jaminitial (n) • traffic jam • His initials are J.B.H. jar (n)injure (v) jazz (n)ink (n) jealous (adj)inn (n) jeans (n pl)inquiry (n) jet (n)insect (n) • to go by jet (plane)inside (adv, prep & n) jewellery (n)insist (v) job (n)instance (n) jog (v)instead (adv) • to go jogginginstead of (prep phr) join (v)instruction(s) (n) • The rivers join there.instructor (n) • to join the armyinstrument (n) • to join (in) a game • musical instrument joke (n & v)insurance (n) journalism (n)insure (v) journalist (n)intelligent (adj) journey (n)intend (v) judge (n & v) • to intend to do something jug (n)interest (n & v) juice (n)intermediate (adj) jump (n & v)international (adj) jury (n)internet (n) just (adv)interpret (v)interrupt (v)interval (n) K • an interval in a playinterview (n & v) kangaroo (n)into (prep) keen (adj)introduce (v) • Hes keen on cycling.introduction (n) • to be keen to do somethinginvade (v) keep (v)invasion (n) keep in (phr v)invent (v) • She kept the children in as it was soinvention (n) cold.invitation (n) keep on (phr v)invite (v) • He kept on talking.involve (v) keep up (phr v)iron (n & v) • Keep up the good work!island (n) kettle (n)issue (n) key (n)IT (Information Technology) (n) • key to a lockit (pron) • key to successitem (n) keyboard (n)its (det) • computer keyboarditself (pron) Page 17
  18. 18. • keyboard music lazy (adj)kick (n & v) lead (v)kids (n pl) • to lead someone by the handkilo(gram[me]) (kg) (n) • Where does this road lead?kilometre (km) (n) leaf (n)kill (v) learn (v)kind (adj & n) least (adj & adv)king (n) • the least amount (adj)kiosk (n) • at least (adv)kiss (n & v) leather (n)kitchen (n) leave (v)kitten (n) leave out (phr v)knee (n) • He left out several important facts.kneel (v) lecture (n & v)knife (n) left (n, adj & adv)knit (v) leg (n)knock (n & v) leisure (n)knock down (phr v) lemon (n) • He was knocked down by the car as lemonade (n) he stepped into the road. lend (v)knock out (phr v) length (n) • The fall knocked him out. less (det, adj, adv & pron)know (v) lesson (n)knowledge (n) let (v) • Let her do it. L • Let me think. • Let’s go out tonight. letter (n)laboratory (lab) (n) letter-box (n)labourer (n) lettuce (n)lack (n & v) level (adj & n)ladder (n) library (n)lady (n) licence (n)lake (n) • a driving/marriage/TV licencelamb (n) lie (n & v)lamp (n) life (n)land (n & v) lift (n & v)landlady (n) • Can you give me a lift, please? (n)landlord (n) • The lift is going up. (n)landscape (n) • Please help me to lift this table. (v)language (n) light (adj, n & v)laptop (computer) (n) lighter (n)large (adj) • a cigarette lighterlaser (n) lightning (n)last (adj, adv & v) like (adv, prep & v)late (adj & adv) likely (adj)lately (adv) limit (n & v)later (adj & adv) line (n)latest (adj) • a line on a pagelaugh (n & v) • a clothes linelaundry (n) • a railway linelavatory (n) link (n)law (n) • a link to a websitelawn (n) lion (n)lawyer (n) lip (n)lay (v) Page 18
  19. 19. lipstick (n)liquid (n) Mlist (n)listen (v) machine (n)literature (n) mad (adj)litre (n) Madam (n)litter (n) made of (adj)little (adj & pron) magazine (n)live (v) magic (adj & n)live (adj) magnificent (adj) • live music/sport mail (n & v)lively (adj) main (adj)living (adj) majority (n)living room (n) make (v)load (n & v) make-up (n)loaf (n) make sure (phr v)loan (n) male (adj & n)local (adj) man (n)location (n) manage (v)lock (n & v) • to manage a businesslocker (n) • to manage to do something (succeedlonely (adj) in)long (adj) manner (n)look (n & v) many (adj & pron)look after (phr v) map (n) • Whos looking after your baby now? mark (n & v)look forward to (phr v) market (n) • I’m looking forward to the party! • to buy something from a marketlook like (v) marriage (n) • She looks like her sister. marry (v)look out (phr v) master (n) • Look out or youll have an accident. match (n & v)look up (phr v) • a box of matches (n) • Look up the meaning of the word in • a tennis match (n) your dictionary. • This tie matches your shirt. (v)loose (adj) mate (n)lorry (n) material (n)lose (v) mathematics/math(s) (n)lost property office (n) matter (n & v)lot (n) • Is anything the matter? (n)loud (adj) • It doesnt matter. (v)lounge (n) maximum (adj & n)love (n & v) maybe (adv)lovely (adj) me (pron)low (adj & adv) meal (n)lower (v) mean (v)luck (n) • What do you mean?luggage (n) • What does it mean?lump (n) means (n)lunch (n) measure (v)lunchtime (n) mechanic (n)lung (n) meat (n)luxury (n) medicine (n) medium (adj) meet (v) Page 19
  20. 20. melon (n) monkey (n)melt (v) month (n)member (n) moon (n)membership (n) more (adj, adv & pron)memory (n) morning (n) • to have a good/poor memory mosque (n) • happy memories most (adj, adv & pron) • computer memory mother (n)mend (v) motor (n)mention (v) motorbike (n)menu (n) motorcycle (n)merry (adj) motor-racing (n)message (n) motorway (n)metal (n) mountain (n)method (n) mouse (n) • modern methods of teaching moustache (n)metre (m) (n) mouth (n)microwave (n) move (v)midday (n) movie (n) (Am Eng) (Br Eng: film)middle (adj & n) movie theatre (n) (Am Eng) (Br Eng:midnight (n) cinema)mild (adj) movie star (n) (Am Eng) (Br Eng:mile (n) film star)milk (n) MP3 player (n)millimetre (mm) (n) Mr (n)mind (n & v) Mrs (n) • His mind was on other things. (n) Ms (n) • Would you mind if I called much (adj, adv & pron) tomorrow? (v) mug (n) • I don’t mind. (v) multiply (v) • Mind your head! (v) mum (n) • Whos minding the baby for you? (v) mummy (n)mine (pron) murder (n & v)mineral (adj) museum (n)mineral water (n) mushroom (n)minimum (adj & n) music (n)minister (n) musical (adj & n) • government minister musician (n)minute (n) mustard (n)mirror (n) my (det)miserable (adj) myself (pron)miss (n & v) mystery (n)Miss (n)mist (n)mistake (n) Nmix (v)mobile (phone) (n) nail (n)model (adj & n) • fingernail • a model railway (adj) • hammer and nails • Its cheap because its last years name (n & v) model. (n) narrow (adj) • She’s a fashion model. (n) nasty (adj)modern (adj) national (adj)moment (n) nationality (n)money (n) natural (adj) nature (n) Page 20
  21. 21. • nature studies novel (n)near (adv, prep & adj) now (adv)nearby (adj & adv) nowadays (adv)nearly (adv) nowhere (adv)neat (adj) number (n)necessary (adj) • numbers 5 to 7neck (n) • a large number of carsneed (v) • What’s your (phone) number?needle (n) nurse (n & v)negative (adj) nut (n)neighbour (n)neighbourhood (n)neither (pron, adv, conj & det) Onephew (n)nervous (adj) object (n) • a nervous person obvious (adj) • to feel nervous occasion (n)net (n) occasional (adj)network (n) occupation (n)never (adv) ocean (n)new (adj) o’clock (adv)news (n) of (prep)newsagent (n) of course (adv)newspaper (n) off (adv & prep)next (adj, adv & pron) • It fell off the table. (prep)next to (prep) • The meeting is off. (adv)nice (adj) • I’ve got the afternoon off. (adv)niece (n) offer (n & v)night (n) office (n)nightclub (n) officer (n)no (adv & det) often (adv)nobody (pron) oh! (int)noise (n) oh dear! (int)none (pron) oil (n)nonsense (n) OK/O.K./okay (adj)noon (n) old (adj)no one (pron) old-fashioned (adj)nor (conj) omelette (n)normal (adj) on (adv & prep)north (adj, adv & n) on board (prep phr)northeast (adj & n) on business (prep phr)northwest (adj & n) on fire (prep phr)nose (n) on foot (prep phr)not (adv) on holiday (prep phr)note (n & v) on loan (prep phr) • to write a note (n) on purpose (prep phr) • a ten-pound note (n) on request (prep phr) • Please note. (v) on sale (prep phr)notebook (n) on time (prep phr)notepaper (n) once (adv)nothing (pron) • once a yearnotice (n & v) • I once saw him dancing. • to read a notice (n) one (pron & det) • until further notice (n) oneself (pron) • Did you notice anything wrong? (v) one-way (adj) Page 21
  22. 22. onion (n)online (adv & adj) • to book/buy something online (adv) P • an online facility (adj)only (adj & adv) pack (n & v)onto (prep) • an information pack (n)open (adj & v) • to pack a case (v)opening hours (n pl) packet (n)opera (n) page (n)operate (v) pain (n)operation (n) paint (n & v)operator (n) pair (n)opinion (n) palace (n)opportunity (n) pale (adj)opposite (adj, n, prep & adv) pan (n)option (n) pants (n) (Am Eng) (Br Eng: trousers)or (conj) paper (n)orange (adj & n) • a sheet of paperorchestra (n) • a (news)paperorder (conj, n & v) parcel (n) • in order to (conj) pardon (n) (int) • to put something in order (n) • Pardon? I didn’t hear what you said. • to order a meal (v) parent (n)ordinary (adj) park (n & v)organisation (n) • a public park (n)organise (v) • to park a car (v)original (adj) parliament (n)other (adj, pron & det) part (n & v)our (det) • a part of something (n)ours (pron) • to part from someone (v)ourselves (pron) partly (adv)out (adv) particular (adj)out of (prep) partner (n)out of date (prep phr) part time (adv)out of doors (prep phr) part-time (adj)out of order (prep phr) party (n)out of stock (prep phr) • a birthday partyout of work (prep phr) • a political partyoutdoor (adj) pass (v)outdoors (adv) • Several cars passed.outside (adv, n, prep & adj) • to pass the sugaroven (n) • to pass an examinationover (adv & prep) passenger (n) • I’m going over the road. (prep) passport (n) • over 40 people (more than) (adv) password (n) • to be over (finished) (adv) past (adj, n & prep) • Several birds were flying over the roof • the past few weeks. (adj) of the school. (prep) • in the past. (n)overnight (adj & adv) • It’s half past one. (prep)overtake (v) pasta (n)owe (v) pastry (n)own (adj & v) path (n) • my own pen (adj) patient (adj & n) • to own a car (v) • to be patient (adj)owner (n) • a hospital patient (n) Page 22
  23. 23. pattern (n) • a piece of cheesepause (n & v) • to break into small piecespavement (n) • a piece of furniture/advicepay (n & v) pig (n)pea (n) pile (n)peace (n) pill (n)peanut (n) pillow (n)pear (n) pilot (n & v)pedestrian (n) pin (n & v)peel (n & v) pink (adj)pen (n) pipe (n)pence (n pl) pity (n)pencil (n) pizza (n)pencil case (n) place (n & v)pen-friend (n) • a safe place (n)penknife (n) • I’ve lost my place in the book. (n)penny (n) • third place in a race (n)pension (n) • to place something on the table (v)people (n pl) • London is a big place. (n)pepper (n) plain (adj) • to pass the pepper (spice) • It’s plain to me. (clear) • red peppers (vegetable) • a plain T-shirt (no design)per (prep) plan (n & v)per cent (n) • a street plan (n)perfect (adj) • a plan to do something (n)perform (v) plane (n)performance (n) planet (n)perfume (n) plant (n & v)perhaps (adv) plastic (adj & n)period (n) plate (n)permanent (adj) platform (n)permission (n) play (n & v)permitted (adj) • a play at the theatre (n)person (n) • children playing (v)personal (adj) • to play football (v)persuade (v) • to play the guitar (v)pet (n) • to play a record/cassette/CD (v)petrol (n)petrol station (n) • to play the part of someone (act) (v)pharmacy (n) player (n)phone (n & v) playground (n)photo (n) playing cards (n pl)photocopy (n) pleasant (adj)photograph (n) please (int & v)photography (n) • Come in, please. (int)physician (n) • to please someone (v)physics (n) pleasure (n)piano (n) plenty (pron)pick (v) plug (n)pick up (phr v) • a plug for the bath • I picked up a pencil. • an electrical plug • I’ll pick up my sister from the station. plug in (phr v)picnic (n & v) p.m. (adv)picture (n) pocket (n)pie (n) pocket money (n)piece (n) poem (n) Page 23
  24. 24. poet (n) • to be present (adj)poetry (n) • at the present time (adj)point (n & v) • That will be all for the present. (n) • to point at something (v) • I got some lovely birthday presents. (n) • The pencil has no point to it. (n) presenter (n)police (n) president (n)policeman (n) press (v)police officer (n) • to press a buttonpolicewoman (n) • to press a suitpolice station (n) pretty (adj)polite (adj) prevent (v)political (adj) previous (adj)politics (n) price (n)politician (n) priest (n)pollution (n) primary (adj)pool (n) • primary school • a swimming-pool prime minister (n)poor (adj) prince (n) • She is very poor. (financial) princess (n) • The poor man. (sympathy) principal (adj)pop (adj & n) print (n & v) • pop song/music/star/group • in large print (n)popular (adj) • print a document (v)population (n) • to print your name in capitals (v)port (n) prison (n)porter (n) prisoner (n)position (n) private (adj)positive (adj) prize (n)possibility (n) probable (adj)possible (adj) probably (adv)post (n & v) problem (n) • to post a letter (v) produce (v) • to send it by post (n) product (n)post office (n) profession (n)postage (n) professional (adj & n)postcard (n) professor (n)poster (n) program(me) (n)postman (n) • TV programmepot (n) • computer programpotato (n) progress (n)pound (£) (n) project (n)pour (v) promise (n & v)poverty (n) • to promise to do something (v)powder (n) • to keep a promise (n)power (n) pronounce (v)practice (n) • to pronounce a word correctlypractise (v) (n = Am Eng) pronunciation (n)pray (v) proper (adj)prayer (n) property (n)prefer (v) protect (v)preparation (n) proud (adj)prepare (v) prove (v)prescription (n) provide (v) • medicine on a prescription public (adj & n)present (adj & n) • public opinion (adj) Page 24
  25. 25. • to make something public (adj) quiet (adj) • to be open to the public (n) quit (v)publish (v) quite (adv)pull (n & v) • Are you quite sure?pullover (n) • quite oldpump (n) quiz (n) • petrol/bike pumppunctual (adj)punish (v) Rpunishment (n)pupil (n) rabbit (n)pure (adj) race (n & v)purple (adj) • to win a race (n)purpose (n) • to race against fast runners (compete) • He did it on purpose. (deliberately) (v)purse (n) • to race home quickly (run) (v)push (n & v) racket (n)put (v) • tennis racketput away (phr v) radio (n) • He put the book away. rail (n)put down (phr v) • to go by rail • She put her name down. railway (n)put off (phr v) rain (n & v) • The meeting was put off until the raincoat (n) following week. rainforest (n)put on (phr v) raise (v) • He put on a suit. • to raise your arm • Can you put on the light? • to raise prices • He didn’t want to put on weight. range (n)put out (phr v) rank (n) • The fire was quickly put out. • a taxi rankput through (phr v) rare (adj) • Can you put me through to the rarely (adv) manager, please? rather (adv & prep)put up (phr v) • rather earlier than usual (adv) • The company was forced to put up its • I’d prefer to drink water rather than fruit prices. juice. (prep)pyjamas (n pl) raw (adj) • raw meat Q razor (n) reach (v) read (v)qualification (n) ready (adj)qualify (v) real (adj)quality (n) realise (v)quantity (n) • He realised it was true.quarter (n) realistic (adj)quay (n) really (adv)queen (n) reason (n)question (n) reasonable (adj) • to ask a question receipt (n) • the question being discussed (subject) receive (v)questionnaire (n) recent (adj)queue (n & v) reception (n)quick (adj) recipe (n) Page 25
  26. 26. recognise (v) respect (n & v)recommend (v) responsible (adj) • to recommend someone/something rest (n & v)record (n & v) • a rest from work (n) • to keep a record (n) • the rest of them (n) • to break a record (n) • The doctor told her to rest. (v) • to record a song (v) restaurant (n)recording (n) result (n)recover (v) retire (v) • to recover from an illness return (n & v)recycle (v) • to return home (v) • I don’t recycle as much as I should. • a return (ticket) (n)recycled (adj) review (n & v)recycling (n) revise (v)red (adj) reward (n & v)reduce (v) rice (n)refreshments (n) rich (adj & n)refrigerator (n) ride (n & v)refund (n & v) right (adj, adv & n)refuse (v) • the right time (correct) (adj)regarding (prep) • the right person for the job (suitable)region (n) (adj)register (n & v) • my right foot (adj) • He took the class register. (n) • Everything will be all right. (adj) • He registered with a new doctor. (v) • Go right there. (directly) (adv)registration (n) • Fill it right to the top. (completely)regret (n & v) (adv)regular (adj) • the right to vote (n)relation (n) ring (n & v) • to visit a relation • stand in a ring (n)relationship (n) • a wedding ring (n)relative (n) • Give me a ring tomorrow. (phone) (n) • a relative came to stay • Suddenly the bell rang. (v)relax (v) ring back (phr v)relaxation (n) ring off (phr v)reliable (adj) ring up (phr v)religion (n) ripe (adj)remain (v) rise (v)remember (v) • The sun rises in the East.remind (v) • Prices are rising.remove (v) river (n)rent (n & v) road (n)repair (n & v) roast (adj & v)repeat (v) rob (v)replace (v) robbery (n)reply (n & v) rock (n)report (n & v) • rock (music) (n)request (n & v) • a hard piece of rock (n)require (v) role (n)rescue (n & v) roll (n & v)research (n & v) • a roll of film (n)reservation (n) • a bread roll (n)reserve (n & v) • to roll into a ball (v) • She was a reserve for the team. (n) roof (n) • to reserve a seat (v) room (n) Page 26
  27. 27. • the sitting room • to save money • There’s lots of room in here. • to save timerose (n) say (v)rough (adj) • to say something to someone • a rough road • I really can’t say. (give an opinion) • a rough idea scene (n) • rough work scenery (n)round (adj, adv & prep) school (n) • a round object (adj) science (n) • the wrong way round (adv) science fiction (n) • to sit round a table (prep) scientific (adj)roundabout (n) scientist (n)route (n) scissors (n)row (n) scooter (n) • a row of seats score (n & v)rubber (adj & n) • The score was 3-0. (n) • rubber tyres (adj) • to score a goal (v) • a rubber (eraser) (n) scream (n & v)rubbish (n) screen (n)rude (adj) sculpture (n)rugby (n) sea (n)ruin (n) search (n & v)rule (n & v) seaside (n) • the rules of grammar (n) season (n) • to rule a country (v) seat (n)ruler (n) seat belt (n) • draw a line using a ruler second (adj & n)run (v) • to be second in the race (adj) • to run in a race • sixty seconds in a minute (n) • to run a business secondary (adj)run out of (phr v) • secondary school • He ran out of time and didn’t finish. secret (adj & n) secretary (n) security (n) S see (v) • to see something (with the eyes)sad (adj) • to see the joke (understand)safe (adj) • to see someone about a problem • to be safe from harm (consult)safety (n) seem (v)sail (n & v) seldom (adv)salad (n) select (v)salary (n) self-service (adj)sale (n) sell (v)salesman/saleswoman (n) send (v)salt (n) sensible (adj)same (adj, pron & adv) sentence (n)sand (n) • words in a sentencesandwich (n) separate (adj & v)satisfactory (adj) series (n)satisfied (adj) • a TV seriessaucer (n) serious (adj)sausage (n) • a serious personsave (v) • a serious illness • to save someone servant (n) Page 27
  28. 28. serve (v) shore (n) • to serve in a shop short (adj)service (n) shorts (n pl) • a bus service • a pair of shorts • customer service shoulder (n)session (n) shout (n & v) • in a school, gym show (n & v)set (v) • a film show (n)set free (phr v) • Show it to me. (v)set off (phr v) • The picture shows a village. (v) • She set off early for work. • It shows that they care. (v)set out (phr v) shower (n) • They set out on the long journey. • a shower of rainset up (phr v) • to have a shower • Her mother helped her to set up in shut (adj & v) business. shy (adj)several (adj & det) sick (adj)sew (v) side (n)sex (n) sight (n) • the male/female sex • Her sight is better with glasses.sh! (int) • in sight, out of sightshade (n) sightseeing (n) • to sit in the shade sign (n & v)shadow (n) • a road sign (n)shake (n & v) • to sign a document (v)shallow (adj) • no sign of life (n)shame (n) • signs of winter (n)shampoo (n) signal (n & v)shape (n) signature (n)share (n & v) signpost (n)shark (n) silence (n)sharp (adj) silent (adj) • a sharp knife silk (adj & n) • a sharp corner silly (adj) • a sharp picture silver (adj & n)shave (n & v) similar (adj)she (pron) simple (adj)sheep (n) since (conj & prep)sheet (n) sincerely (adv) • sheets on a bed • Yours sincerely • a sheet of paper sing (v) • information sheet single (n & adj)shelf (n) • a single (ticket) to Cambridge (n)shine (v) • to be single (unmarried) (adj)ship (n) • a single room (adj)shirt (n) sink (n & v)shock (n & v) • a kitchen sink (n) • to suffer from shock (n) • The ship began to sink. (v) • The film shocked me. (v) Sir (n)shoe (n) sister (n)shoot (v) sit (v) • to shoot at the goal site (n)shop (n & v) sitting room (n)shop assistant (n) situated (adj)shopkeeper (n) situation (n) Page 28
  29. 29. size (n) son (n)skateboard (n & v) song (n)ski (n & v) soon (adv)skill (n) • I’ll come soon.skilled (adj) • as soon as I canskin (n) sore (adj)skirt (n) sorry (adj)sky (n) sort (n)sleep (n & v) • the same sortsleeve (n) sort out (phr v)slice (n) • We need to sort out this problem.slim (adj) sound (n & v)slip (v) • the sound of music (n) • to slip on the ice • It sounds like/as if…(v)slope (n) soup (n) • mountain/ski slope sour (adj)slow (adj) • a sour tastesmall (adj) south (adj & adv, n)smart (adj) southeast (adj & n) • a smart idea (Am Eng) southwest (adj, adv & n) • smart clothes souvenir (n)smell (n & v) space (n)smile (n & v) • a parking spacesmoke (n & v) • write in the spacessmooth (adj) • not enough space • a smooth surface (level) • outer space • a smooth ride in the new car spade (n) (comfortable) spare (adj & v)snack (n) • spare cash, spare time (adj)snake (n) • to spare the time (v)snow (n & v) speak (v)snowball (n) special (adj)snowboard (n & v) speech (n)snowman (n) speed (n)snowstorm (n) spell (v)so (adv & conj) spend (v)so-so (adj) • to spend money/timesoap (n) spill (v)social (adj) spinach (n)society (n) spite (n)sock (n) • in spite of (prep phr)sofa (n) spoil (v)soft (adj) spoon (n) • a soft material sport (n) • a soft drink spot (n)software (n) spy (n & v)soil (n) square (adj & n)soldier (n) • a square room (adj)solid (adj) • a market square (n)some (adj, det & pron) squash (n)somebody (pron) stadium (n)someone (pron) staff (n)something (pron) stage (n)sometimes (adv) • to perform on a stagesomewhere (adv) stain (n & v) Page 29

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