The History of ECE
Who’s Who?
Objectives
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To give students a sense of the evolution, significant
events, and basic theories in early childhoo...
European Influences
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John Comenius
John Locke
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Johann Pestalozzi
Freidrich Froebel
Mari...
John Amos Comenius
1592-1670
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Fostered the belief that education should “follow the
natural order of things”
C...
John Locke
1632-1714
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Considered to be the founder of modern educational philosophy
Fostered the idea of “tabula...
Jean Jacques Rousseau
1712-1778
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Theorized a revolutionary idea-that children were “naturally
good” and that e...
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
1746-1827
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Stressed the idea of “integrated curriculum” that would develop
the who...
Freidrich Wilhelm Froebel
1782-1852
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Advocated the radical thought that children should be able to
play, to ha...
Maria Montessori
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First female physician in Italy
Montessori concept is both a philosophy of child development
a...
Rudolf Steiner
1861-1925
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A German educator whose method of education is known today
as the Waldorf School of...
John Dewey:1858-1952
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The Progressive movement
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Children are valuable and childhood is an
important part of thei...
Non-traditional Perspectives
Perspective

Roots

In Early Childhood Practice

Harmony

Asian

Kinship networks

African

T...
Four Themes in ECE
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Importance of Childhood
 The concept of the child as a special part of the human
existence ...
Developmental and Learning
Theories
The Who, What and How
Theory 1A-Basic Child
Development Theory
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Psychosocial Theory-Freud, Erikson
Behaviorist Theory-Watson, Ski...
Psychosocial Theory
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Emphasize the critical importance of relationships
with people and the sequence, or stages,...
Psycho-social Theory-Erikson
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Development is described in terms of
eight stages that span childhood and
adulthood, each ...
Age

Stage

Focus/Strength

Birth-18 months

Trust vs. mistrust

Needs must be met
consistently

18 months-3
years

Autono...
Behaviorist Theory-Skinner,
Watson, Thorndike, Bandura
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Based on tabula rasa-”clean slate”
“Stimulus-response” t...
Behaviorist Learning Process
Classical
Operant
Social
Conditioning Conditioning Learning
Kind of
behavior

Reflexive

Volu...
Cognitive Theory-Piaget
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Also called “constructionist” because he
believed that children “construct” their
k...
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
Development
Stage of Development Approximate Age
Sensori-motor

Birth-2 years

Key concept-Ob...
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
Development
Age

Stage

Behaviors

Birth-18 months

Sensorimotor

Learn through senses
Learn ...
Sociohistorical Theory-Vygotsky
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Focuses on how values, beliefs, skills and
traditions are transmitted to th...
Multiple Intelligences TheoryGardner
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Intelligence is the ability to solve a problem
or to create a product that i...
Multiple Intelligences
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Music
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Logical-Mathmatical
Linguistic
Spatial
Interpersonal
Intr...
Maturation Theory-Gesell
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Physical and mental growth are determined
by heredity
Maturation sequence occurs in a ...
Humanistic Theory-Maslow
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Focuses on what people need to become and
stay healthy.
Centered on people’s needs, goal...
Application of Theories



Montessori Programs
The Bank Street Approach:




The Cognitively Oriented Approach:




...
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Rationale supporting-early-childhood-education892 (1)

  1. 1. The History of ECE Who’s Who?
  2. 2. Objectives     To give students a sense of the evolution, significant events, and basic theories in early childhood education To demonstrate the interdisciplinary nature of the early childhood field, particularly the connections between psychology and early childhood education To identify important people as well as articulate several key themes in early childhood To show how current events, such as political, social, and economic changes and pressures, affect both the field of education and the realities of child care
  3. 3. European Influences        John Comenius John Locke Jean Jacques Rousseau Johann Pestalozzi Freidrich Froebel Maria Montessori Rodolf Steiner
  4. 4. John Amos Comenius 1592-1670      Fostered the belief that education should “follow the natural order of things” Children’s development follows a timetable of its own and their education should reflect that fact Children should be allowed to learn at their own pace Learning by doing Three most important contributions are:  Books with illustrations  Education with the senses  Social reform-educate the poor as well as the rich
  5. 5. John Locke 1632-1714     Considered to be the founder of modern educational philosophy Fostered the idea of “tabula rosa”-the belief that the child is born neutral, rather then evil, and is a “clean slate’ of which experiences are written One of the first to discuss individual differences and that education needs to take the individual learner into account Three most important contributions are:  Individual differences  Giving children reasons  Theory of the “clean slate’
  6. 6. Jean Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778      Theorized a revolutionary idea-that children were “naturally good” and that education should reflect this goodness and allow spontaneous interests and activities of the children The true object of education should not be vocational Children really only learn from first hand knowledge Distinct phases of development of a child’s mind and these should coincide with the various stages of education Most important contributions    Free play Children’s inherent goodness and ability to choose what they need to learn Using concrete rather than abstract materials
  7. 7. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi 1746-1827      Stressed the idea of “integrated curriculum” that would develop the whole child Education should be the “hand, head and heart of the child” Proposed teaching in groups as opposed to using a tutor with an individual child Blending of Rousseau’s romantic ideals with his own egalitarian attitude that built skills and independence in an atmosphere much like that of a firm and loving home Most important contributions  Integrated curriculum  Group teaching
  8. 8. Freidrich Wilhelm Froebel 1782-1852      Advocated the radical thought that children should be able to play, to have toys, and to be with trained teachers Developed the first educational toys “Father of Kindergarten” Child’s first educational experiences should be a garden full of pleasant discoveries and delightful adventures Most important contributions  Organization of educational thought  Ideas about learning, curriculum, and teacher training
  9. 9. Maria Montessori     First female physician in Italy Montessori concept is both a philosophy of child development and a plan for guiding growth believing that education begins at birth and the early years are of the utmost importance “Sensitive periods’ in which children’s curiosity makes them ready for acquiring certain skills and knowledge Great emphasis on the environment     A sense of order A place for everything A clear rationale Most important contributions  A prepared environment  Self-correcting and sequential materials  Teaching based on observation  A trust in children’ innate ability to learn
  10. 10. Rudolf Steiner 1861-1925      A German educator whose method of education is known today as the Waldorf School of Education Childhood is a phase of life important into its own self and has three periods:  The “will” (0-7)  The “heart” (7-14)  The “head” (14+0) Child has a natural willingness to learn and initiate and the classroom needs to support this self-regulation Emphasized the whole child Most important contribution is the thought that the people with whom the child interacts are of central importance
  11. 11. John Dewey:1858-1952  The Progressive movement    Children are valuable and childhood is an important part of their lives Belief in the innate goodness of children and education should be integrated with life and provide a training ground for cooperative living Child-oriented schools
  12. 12. Non-traditional Perspectives Perspective Roots In Early Childhood Practice Harmony Asian Kinship networks African Ties with nature Respect for elders Native American Pacific islands Cooperative work Hispanic Expressiveness Europ-Am Provide an unhurried environment; be aware of tension spots Encourage family participation; make family trees Provide strong outdoor program, include nature walks Invite elders into class; include in dramatic play, puzzles, books; manners Encourage small group projects, teamwork, older children helping, familial ties Encourage self-expression; teach about feelings and how to show
  13. 13. Four Themes in ECE     Importance of Childhood  The concept of the child as a special part of the human existence and, therefore a valuable part of the lifecycle. The early years form the foundation for later development Ethics of Social Reform  Expects that the education of young children will lead to social reform Professionalism Transmitting Values  What children should ultimately do and be is at the core of all child rearing practices-whether it be at home or child care
  14. 14. Developmental and Learning Theories The Who, What and How
  15. 15. Theory 1A-Basic Child Development Theory        Psychosocial Theory-Freud, Erikson Behaviorist Theory-Watson, Skinner Thorndike, Bloom, Bandura Cognitive Theory-Piaget Sociohistoric Theory-Vygotsky Multiple Intelligences-Gardner Maturation Theory-Gesell, Humanist-Maslow
  16. 16. Psychosocial Theory     Emphasize the critical importance of relationships with people and the sequence, or stages, of personality development About personality and emotional development Life is a series of stages through which each person passes, with each stage growing from the previous ones Personality and emotional development of utmost importance, even more so than language, perception or cognitive development
  17. 17. Psycho-social Theory-Erikson  Development is described in terms of eight stages that span childhood and adulthood, each offering opportunities for personality growth and development. Each stage focuses on specific tasks that need to emerge for healthy development in each stage.
  18. 18. Age Stage Focus/Strength Birth-18 months Trust vs. mistrust Needs must be met consistently 18 months-3 years Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3-5 years Initiative vs. guilt 6-12 years Industry vs. inferiority Hope Independence Willpower Exploration and learning about the world. Rules and expectations are established Purpose The development of competence
  19. 19. Behaviorist Theory-Skinner, Watson, Thorndike, Bandura     Based on tabula rasa-”clean slate” “Stimulus-response” technique wherein a stimulus will recall a response in a person this forms learned habits All behavior is under the control of one or more aspects of the environment Terms associated with behaviorism:classical conditioning; operant conditioning; positive reinforcer, negative reinforcer, modeling
  20. 20. Behaviorist Learning Process Classical Operant Social Conditioning Conditioning Learning Kind of behavior Reflexive Voluntary Voluntary Type of learning Learning through association Role of the learner Passive Learning Learning through through reinforcement observation and imitation Active or Active Passive
  21. 21. Cognitive Theory-Piaget      Also called “constructionist” because he believed that children “construct” their knowledge through experiences Higher skills are developed through developmental stages Relies on maturational and environmental factors Thinking and learning is a process of interaction between the learner and the environment Terms associated with Cognitive theory: assimilation, accommodation, equilibration, schemas
  22. 22. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Stage of Development Approximate Age Sensori-motor Birth-2 years Key concept-Object Permanence Preoperational 2-6 or 7 years Key Concept-Symbolic play and language Concrete Operational 6-12 years Reasoning Formal Operational 12 years to adulthood
  23. 23. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Age Stage Behaviors Birth-18 months Sensorimotor Learn through senses Learn through reflexes 18 months-6 years Preoperational Manipulate materials Form ideas based on their perceptions Can only focus on one variable at a time 6 years-12 years 12 years and older Concrete Operational Fomal operations Overgeneralize based on limited experience Form ideas based on reasoning Limit thinking to objects and familiar events Think conceptually and hypothetically
  24. 24. Sociohistorical Theory-Vygotsky      Focuses on how values, beliefs, skills and traditions are transmitted to the next generation The connection between culture and development is paramount-especially between the child and other important people in their lives Emphasized play, family and social interaction as primary influences in children’s lives Zone of proximal development-the belief that a child on the edge of learning a new concept can benefit from the interaction with a teacher or a classmate Learning and development are interrelated from the child’s very first day of life
  25. 25. Multiple Intelligences TheoryGardner    Intelligence is the ability to solve a problem or to create a product that is in culture. Solving a problem includes the ability to do so in a a particular cultural setting or community. The skill needed or developed depends on the context in which the child lives.
  26. 26. Multiple Intelligences         Music Bodily-Kinesthetic Logical-Mathmatical Linguistic Spatial Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist
  27. 27. Maturation Theory-Gesell     Physical and mental growth are determined by heredity Maturation sequence occurs in a predictable stable and orderly way. Growth is genetically determined from birth Two vital points to remember   The sequence of development is universal, the rate at which a child moves through the stages varies tremendously Growth is uneven. Children grow in spurts.
  28. 28. Humanistic Theory-Maslow    Focuses on what people need to become and stay healthy. Centered on people’s needs, goals and successes Based on a hierarchy (or pyramid) of basic and growth needs
  29. 29. Application of Theories   Montessori Programs The Bank Street Approach:   The Cognitively Oriented Approach:   Based on the theory of Piaget and revolves around activities that help children learn specific cognitive concepts The Bereiter-Englemann Approach:   Developmental Interactionist Behavior theory and uses a direct-instruction approach The Reggio-Emilia Approach  Designed to foster interactions, exploration, and problem solving
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