La navegación


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La navegación

  1. 1. TYPES OF BOATS (In chronological order)
  2. 2. SAILING <ul><li>Man has always felt the need of sailing in his eagerness to conquer new lands/places, to transport merchandise or to travel for pleasure. </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus discovered America with the ship called Santa Maria. </li></ul>
  3. 3. THE FIRST SHIPS <ul><li>It is difficult to know when men started sailing. Probably it happened before the wheel was invented. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>At the beginning man started sailing getting in on a trunk moved by his arms. </li></ul><ul><li>Step by step men were thinking about other types of complex ships, so they had to use oars or paddles and sails for sailing faster. </li></ul>
  6. 6. THE SAIL <ul><li>The first sails had a square shape and they were only useful when the wind blew behind them. When the wind blew in the opposite way, the sails were taken down and the ship was moved by rowers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Latin sail came up in the Mediterranean area at the beginning of the Middle Ages. Ships could sail with this kind of sail when the wind blew in the opposite way. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>In the 14th century, sails with a square shape and the Latin sails were used again until steamships were invented. </li></ul>1 Flying jib 2 Outer jib 3 Iiner jib 4 Fore topmast staysail 5 Fore royal 6 Fore upper topgallant sail 7 Fore lower topgallant sail 8 Fore upper topsail 9 Fore lower topsail 10 Fore course 11 Main royal staysail 12 Main topgallant satysail 13 Main topmast staysail 14 Main royal 15 Main upper topgallant sail 16 Main lower topgallant sail 17 Main upper topsail 18 Main lower topsail 19 Main course 20 Mizzen royal staysail 21 Mizzen topgallant staysail 22 Mizzen topmas staysail 23 Mizzen royal 24 Mizen upper topgallant sail 25 Mizzen lower topgallant sail 26 Mizzen upper topsail 27 Mizzen lower topsail 28 Crossjack 29 Spanker 30 Foremast 31 Mainmast 32 Mizzenmast
  8. 8. STEAMSHIPS <ul><li>At the beginning of the 19th century, ships sailed using steam power. Ships had wheels with paddles moved by a steam machine. The invention of the propeller and the steam turbine at the end of the century was a good advance for the sailing evolution. </li></ul>
  9. 9. MERCHANT SHIPS <ul><li>The merchant ship is a group of ships which transport people or merchandise. This last one is the main way for international merchandise transport because it is cheaper and bigger than other ways of transport. Nowadays people take planes to travel instead of taking ships. </li></ul><ul><li>There are lots of types of ships but the most important one is the oil tanker, the biggest ship sailing the ocean. It can transport 500.000 tons of goods. </li></ul>
  10. 10. AIRCRAFT CARRIER <ul><li>The first aircraft carriers were cruisers that added a platform. The first aircraft carrier, which was called Hermes, was launched in Great Britain in 1919. The big modern aircraft carriers are air force bases measuring more than 300 metres long. They carry almost 100.000 tons and use nuclear energy. </li></ul>
  11. 11. OCEAN LINER <ul><li>The term ocean liner is used for cruisers that transport tourists. The Golden age for this kind of ship was after the II World War when people emigrated to America. Today due to the air traffic, these ocean liners have disappeared as a mean of transport, but they are used as a luxury floating hotels to travel all around the world. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>During its first cruise the Titanic crashed into an iceberg and sunk the 14th April, 1912. </li></ul>
  13. 13. SUBMARINE <ul><li>A submarine is a type of ship designed to sail underwater. Only the nuclear submarines can be called real submarines because the previous ships needed electric batteries for sailing and they had to go to the surface to be charged. </li></ul><ul><li>During the World War I Germany developed the U-9 submarine, the most dangerous enemy for allies. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The bathyscaphe is a kind of submarine which can reach the deepest places under the sea. This one is the Trieste (Italy) which descended in 1960 to 10.916 metres in the Pacific Ocean. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Primary students of C.R.A. Lena (Asturias- Spain) Teacher: Rocío Jiménez Cadenas