Instructional DesignMonica ValdezInstructional Design-IMED 2301Instructor: Susan EscobarJune 10. 2012
Instructional DesignInstructional design is the preparation and creation of material thatis shared with a particular audience for the purpose of learning andgaining knowledge on a particular subject.The instructional designed content can be directed towardspedagogically (children learning) and andragogically (adult learning)learning.There are many instructional design models. Many include phases ofanalysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.The outcome of this instructional design may be reflected in aassessment or can be completely informational.
Instructional Design ModelsWhat is a model? A model is a mental picture that helps us understand something we cannot see or experience directly.(Dorin, Demmin & Gabel, 1990)Instructional Design Models are based on these theorys of learning: Behaviorism: Based on observable changes in behavior. Behaviorism focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic. Cognitivism: Based on the thought process behind the behavior. Changes in behavior are observed, and used as indicators as to what is happening inside the learners mind. Constructivism: Based on the premise that we all construct our own perspective of the world, through individual experiences and schema. Constructivism focuses on preparing the learner to problem solve in ambiguous situations.(Schuman, 1996)
Instructional Design ModelsTwo examples of Instructional Design Models are: Gagnes Conditions of Learning Rapid Prototyping
Gagne’s Conditions of LearningWhat is learning to Gagné? Learning is cumulative. Learning is the mechanism . Learning results in different kinds of human behaviors.
Gagné Five Major Categories of LearningTypes of Competences Conditions Principles for Instructional ActionsVerbal Information • Pre-existing of organized • Provide meaningful context of knowledge information for encoding • Strategies for processing the • Organize information so that it new information can be learned in chunksIntellectual Skills • Concrete and defined concepts • Provide varied concrete • Rule using examples and rules • Provide opportunities for interacting with examples in different waysCognitive Strategies • Task specific • Provide opportunities for • General strategy specific practice with support and feedbackAttitude • An internal state • Provide respected models who enact positive behavior and reinforce the modelMotor Skills • Learning the sequence of the • Arrange several repetitions of movement skills with correct feedback • Practicing the movement
Gagne’s Conditions of LearningStrengths and Weaknesses of this model? Goal-directed: instruction is designed for specified goals and objectives A closed-loop process: a iterative process of design, try out, and revision to achieved the desired goals.Either one can be a Strength or a Weaknesses depending on the type of resultthe intended learning is expected to achieve.
Rapid PrototypingThe development of learning experiences in acontinual design-evaluation cycle that continuesthroughout the life of the project.Cycle/spiral cycle or layered approach that showsimprovement as the cycle continues.
Two Types of Prototypes1. Vertical Prototypes - in-depth functionality for a few features2. Horizontal Prototypes - entire screen with no underlying functionality
Cycle Approach Concept DefinitionImplementation Implementation of refined of a skeletal requirements systemUser evaluation User evaluation and concept and concept refinement refinement Implementation of refined requirements
Rapid PrototypingStrengths and Weaknesses of this model? Repetitive methods provide experience and expertise Repetitive cycle does not provide room for improvement
Compare and ContrastGagne’s Conditions of Learning – Open to change to obtain adesired result vs.Rapid Prototyping – Repetitive learning to practice andenforce desired resultThese are two very different model types. Good in their ownway for the appropriate learning need.
ReferencesGagné, R. M. (1965). The conditions of learning and theory ofinstruction ( 1st ed.). New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Gagné, R. M., & Briggs, L. J. (1974). The principles of instructionaldesign ( 1st ed.). New York, NY: Holt.Gagné, R. M. (1985). The conditions of learning and theory ofinstruction ( 4th ed.). New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Bralla, J.G. (ed.) (1986), Handbook of Product Design forManufacturing, McGraw-Hill (New York).Chua, C.K., Leong, K.F., Kai, C.C. (1998), Rapid Prototyping Principlesand Applications in Manufacturing, John Wiley and Sons (New York).