Introduction to
Sharding
Agenda
• Scaling Data
• MongoDB's Approach
• Architecture
• Configuration
• Mechanics
Scaling Data
Examining Growth
• User Growth
– 1995: 0.4% of the world‟s population
– Today: 30% of the world is online (~2.2B)
– Emergi...
Read/Write Throughput Exceeds I/O
Working Set Exceeds Physical
Memory
Vertical Scalability (Scale Up)
Horizontal Scalability (Scale Out)
Data Store Scalability
• Custom Hardware
– Oracle
• Custom Software
– Facebook + MySQL
– Google
Data Store Scalability Today
• MongoDB Auto-Sharding
• A data store that is
– Free
– Publicly available
– Open Source (htt...
MongoDB's Approach
to Sharding
Partitioning
• User defines shard key
• Shard key defines range of data
• Key space is like points on a line
• Range is a ...
Data Distribution
• Initially 1 chunk
• Default max chunk size: 64mb
• MongoDB automatically splits & migrates chunks
when...
Routing and Balancing
• Queries routed to specific
shards
• MongoDB balances cluster
• MongoDB migrates data to
new nodes
MongoDB Auto-Sharding
• Minimal effort required
– Same interface as single mongod
• Two steps
– Enable Sharding for a data...
Architecture
What is a Shard?
• Shard is a node of the cluster
• Shard can be a single mongod or a replica set
• Config Server
– Stores cluster chunk ranges and locations
– Can have only 1 or 3 (production must have 3)
– Not a replic...
Routing and Managing Data
• Mongos
– Acts as a router / balancer
– No local data (persists to config database)
– Can have ...
Sharding infrastructure
Configuration
Example Cluster
• Don’t use this setup in production!
- Only one Config server (No FaultTolerance)
- Shard not in a replic...
Starting the Configuration Server
• mongod --configsvr
• Starts a configuration server on the default port (27019)
Start the mongos Router
• mongos --configdb <hostname>:27019
• For 3 configuration servers:
mongos--configdb<host1>:<port1...
Start the shard database
• mongod --shardsvr
• Starts a mongod with the default shard port (27018)
• Shard is not yet conn...
Add the Shard
• On mongos:
- sh.addShard(„<host>:27018‟)
• Adding a replica set:
- sh.addShard(„<rsname>/<seedlist>‟)
Verify that the shard was added
• db.runCommand({ listshards:1 })
{ "shards" :
[{"_id”:"shard0000”,"host”:”<hostname>:2701...
Enabling Sharding
• Enable sharding on a database
sh.enableSharding(“<dbname>”)
• Shard a collection with the given key
sh...
Tag Aware Sharding
• Tag aware sharding allows you to control the
distribution of your data
• Tag a range of shard keys
– ...
Mechanics
Partitioning
• Remember it's based on ranges
Chunk is a section of the entire range
Chunk splitting
• Achunk is split once it exceeds the maximum size
• There is no split point if all documents have the sam...
Balancing
• Balancer is running on mongos
• Once the difference in chunks between the most dense shard
and the least dense...
Acquiring the Balancer Lock
• The balancer on mongos takes out a “balancer lock”
• To see the status of these locks:
use c...
Moving the chunk
• The mongos sends a moveChunk command to source shard
• The source shard then notifies destination shard...
Committing Migration
• When complete, destination shard updates config server
- Provides new locationsof the chunks
Cleanup
• Source shard deletes moved data
- Must wait for open cursors to either close or time out
- NoTimeoutcursors may ...
Routing Requests
Cluster Request Routing
• Targeted Queries
• Scatter Gather Queries
• Scatter Gather Queries with Sort
Cluster Request Routing: Targeted
Query
Routable request received
Request routed to appropriate shard
Shard returns results
Mongos returns results to client
Cluster Request Routing: Non-Targeted
Query
Non-Targeted Request Received
Request sent to all shards
Shards return results to mongos
Mongos returns results to client
Cluster Request Routing: Non-Targeted
Query with Sort
Non-Targeted request with sort
received
Request sent to all shards
Query and sort performed locally
Shards return results to mongos
Mongos merges sorted results
Mongos returns results to client
Shard Key
Shard Key
• Shard key is immutable
• Shard key values are immutable
• Shard key must be indexed
• Shard key limited to 512...
Shard Key Considerations
• Cardinality
• Write Distribution
• Query Isolation
• Reliability
• Index Locality
Conclusion
Read/Write Throughput Exceeds I/O
Working Set Exceeds Physical
Memory
Sharding Enables Scale
• MongoDB‟sAuto-Sharding
– Easy to Configure
– Consistent Interface
– Free and Open Source
• What‟s next?
– [ Insert Related Talks ]
– [ Insert Upcoming Webinars ]
– MongoDB User Group
• Resources
https://educatio...
Software Engineer, 10gen
Speaker Name
• #hashtag
Thank You
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Webinar: Sharding

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Sharding allows you to distribute load across multiple servers and keep your data balanced across those servers. This session will review MongoDB’s sharding support, including an architectural overview, design principles, and automation.

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  • Ops will be most interested in ConfigurationDev will be most interested in Mechanics
  • The goal here is to talk about data growth in general as setup for the problem that sharding solves.Take this slide and toss it out the window for the combined sharding talk. It’s a nice intro, but it’s more effective to spend time talking about tag aware and shard keys if you’re trying to go beyond the intro talk.
  • Indexes should be contained in working set.
  • From mainframes, to RAC Oracle servers... People solved problems by adding more resources to a single machine.
  • Large scale operation can be combined with high performance on commodity hardware through horizontal scalingBuild - Document oriented database maps perfectly to object oriented languagesScale - MongoDB presents clear path to scalability that isn&apos;t ops intensive - Provides same interface for sharded cluster as single instance
  • In the past, you’ve had two ways to achieve datastore scalability:Lots of money to purchase custom hardwareLots of money to develop custom software
  • Today, MongoDB helps you achieve scalability without the need for custom software of specialized hardware.
  • MongoDB 2.2 and later only need &lt;host&gt; and &lt;port&gt; for one member of the replica set
  • This can be skipped for the intro talk, but might be good to include if you’re doing the combined sharding talk. Totally optional, you don’t really have enough time to do this topic justice but it might be worth a mention.
  • Quick review from earlier.
  • Once chunk size is reached, mongos asks mongod to split a chunk + internal function called splitVector()mongod counts number of documents on each side of split + based on avg. document size `db.stats()`Chunk split is a **logical** operation (no data has moved)Max on first chunk should be 14
  • Balancer lock actually held on config server.
  • Moved chunk on shard2 should be gray
  • How do the other mongoses know that their configuration is out of date? When does the chunk version on the shard itself get updated?
  • The mongos does not have to load the whole set into memory since each shard sorts locally. The mongos can just getMore from the shards as needed and incrementally return the results to the client.
  • _id could be unique across shards if used as shard key.we could only guarantee uniqueness of (any) attributes if the keys are used as shard keys with unique attribute equals true
  • Cardinality – Can your data be broken down enough?Query Isolation - query targeting to a specific shardReliability – shard outagesA good shard key can:Optimize routingMinimize (unnecessary) trafficAllow best scaling
  • This section can be skipped for the intro talk, but might be good to include if you’re doing the combined sharding talk.
  • Reliability = if we lost an entire shard what would be the effect on the system?For most frequently used/largest indexes, how are they partitioned across shards?
  • Reliability = if we lost an entire shard what would be the effect on the system?For most frequently used/largest indexes, how are they partitioned across shards?
  • Reliability = if we lost an entire shard what would be the effect on the system?For most frequently used/largest indexes, how are they partitioned across shards?
  • Reliability = if we lost an entire shard what would be the effect on the system?For most frequently used/largest indexes, how are they partitioned across shards?
  • Compound shard key, utilize already existing (used) index, partition chunk for &quot;power&quot; users.For those users more than one shard *may* need to be queried in a targeted query.Reliability = if we lost an entire shard what would be the effect on the system?For most frequently used/largest indexes, how are they partitioned across shards?
  • Indexes should be contained in working set.
  • Webinar: Sharding

    1. 1. Introduction to Sharding
    2. 2. Agenda • Scaling Data • MongoDB's Approach • Architecture • Configuration • Mechanics
    3. 3. Scaling Data
    4. 4. Examining Growth • User Growth – 1995: 0.4% of the world‟s population – Today: 30% of the world is online (~2.2B) – Emerging Markets & Mobile • Data Set Growth – Facebook‟s data set is around 100 petabytes – 4 billion photos taken in the last year (4x a decade ago)
    5. 5. Read/Write Throughput Exceeds I/O
    6. 6. Working Set Exceeds Physical Memory
    7. 7. Vertical Scalability (Scale Up)
    8. 8. Horizontal Scalability (Scale Out)
    9. 9. Data Store Scalability • Custom Hardware – Oracle • Custom Software – Facebook + MySQL – Google
    10. 10. Data Store Scalability Today • MongoDB Auto-Sharding • A data store that is – Free – Publicly available – Open Source (https://github.com/mongodb/mongo) – Horizontally scalable – Application independent
    11. 11. MongoDB's Approach to Sharding
    12. 12. Partitioning • User defines shard key • Shard key defines range of data • Key space is like points on a line • Range is a segment of that line
    13. 13. Data Distribution • Initially 1 chunk • Default max chunk size: 64mb • MongoDB automatically splits & migrates chunks when max reached
    14. 14. Routing and Balancing • Queries routed to specific shards • MongoDB balances cluster • MongoDB migrates data to new nodes
    15. 15. MongoDB Auto-Sharding • Minimal effort required – Same interface as single mongod • Two steps – Enable Sharding for a database – Shard collection within database
    16. 16. Architecture
    17. 17. What is a Shard? • Shard is a node of the cluster • Shard can be a single mongod or a replica set
    18. 18. • Config Server – Stores cluster chunk ranges and locations – Can have only 1 or 3 (production must have 3) – Not a replica set Meta Data Storage
    19. 19. Routing and Managing Data • Mongos – Acts as a router / balancer – No local data (persists to config database) – Can have 1 or many
    20. 20. Sharding infrastructure
    21. 21. Configuration
    22. 22. Example Cluster • Don’t use this setup in production! - Only one Config server (No FaultTolerance) - Shard not in a replica set (LowAvailability) - Only one mongos and shard (No Performance Improvement) - Useful for developmentor demonstrating configuration mechanics
    23. 23. Starting the Configuration Server • mongod --configsvr • Starts a configuration server on the default port (27019)
    24. 24. Start the mongos Router • mongos --configdb <hostname>:27019 • For 3 configuration servers: mongos--configdb<host1>:<port1>,<host2>:<port2>,<host3>:<port3> • This is always how to start a new mongos, even if the cluster is already running
    25. 25. Start the shard database • mongod --shardsvr • Starts a mongod with the default shard port (27018) • Shard is not yet connected to the rest of the cluster • Shard may have already been running in production
    26. 26. Add the Shard • On mongos: - sh.addShard(„<host>:27018‟) • Adding a replica set: - sh.addShard(„<rsname>/<seedlist>‟)
    27. 27. Verify that the shard was added • db.runCommand({ listshards:1 }) { "shards" : [{"_id”:"shard0000”,"host”:”<hostname>:27018”} ], "ok" : 1 }
    28. 28. Enabling Sharding • Enable sharding on a database sh.enableSharding(“<dbname>”) • Shard a collection with the given key sh.shardCollection(“<dbname>.people”,{“country”:1}) • Use a compound shard key to prevent duplicates sh.shardCollection(“<dbname>.cars”,{“year”:1,”uniqueid”:1})
    29. 29. Tag Aware Sharding • Tag aware sharding allows you to control the distribution of your data • Tag a range of shard keys – sh.addTagRange(<collection>,<min>,<max>,<tag>) • Tag a shard – sh.addShardTag(<shard>,<tag>)
    30. 30. Mechanics
    31. 31. Partitioning • Remember it's based on ranges
    32. 32. Chunk is a section of the entire range
    33. 33. Chunk splitting • Achunk is split once it exceeds the maximum size • There is no split point if all documents have the same shard key • Chunk split is a logical operation (no data is moved)
    34. 34. Balancing • Balancer is running on mongos • Once the difference in chunks between the most dense shard and the least dense shard is above the migration threshold, a balancing round starts
    35. 35. Acquiring the Balancer Lock • The balancer on mongos takes out a “balancer lock” • To see the status of these locks: use config db.locks.find({_id: “balancer”})
    36. 36. Moving the chunk • The mongos sends a moveChunk command to source shard • The source shard then notifies destination shard • Destination shard starts pulling documents from source shard
    37. 37. Committing Migration • When complete, destination shard updates config server - Provides new locationsof the chunks
    38. 38. Cleanup • Source shard deletes moved data - Must wait for open cursors to either close or time out - NoTimeoutcursors may preventthe release of the lock • The mongos releases the balancer lock after old chunks are deleted
    39. 39. Routing Requests
    40. 40. Cluster Request Routing • Targeted Queries • Scatter Gather Queries • Scatter Gather Queries with Sort
    41. 41. Cluster Request Routing: Targeted Query
    42. 42. Routable request received
    43. 43. Request routed to appropriate shard
    44. 44. Shard returns results
    45. 45. Mongos returns results to client
    46. 46. Cluster Request Routing: Non-Targeted Query
    47. 47. Non-Targeted Request Received
    48. 48. Request sent to all shards
    49. 49. Shards return results to mongos
    50. 50. Mongos returns results to client
    51. 51. Cluster Request Routing: Non-Targeted Query with Sort
    52. 52. Non-Targeted request with sort received
    53. 53. Request sent to all shards
    54. 54. Query and sort performed locally
    55. 55. Shards return results to mongos
    56. 56. Mongos merges sorted results
    57. 57. Mongos returns results to client
    58. 58. Shard Key
    59. 59. Shard Key • Shard key is immutable • Shard key values are immutable • Shard key must be indexed • Shard key limited to 512 bytes in size • Shard key used to route queries – Choose a field commonly used in queries • Only shard key can be unique across shards – `_id` field is only unique within individual shard
    60. 60. Shard Key Considerations • Cardinality • Write Distribution • Query Isolation • Reliability • Index Locality
    61. 61. Conclusion
    62. 62. Read/Write Throughput Exceeds I/O
    63. 63. Working Set Exceeds Physical Memory
    64. 64. Sharding Enables Scale • MongoDB‟sAuto-Sharding – Easy to Configure – Consistent Interface – Free and Open Source
    65. 65. • What‟s next? – [ Insert Related Talks ] – [ Insert Upcoming Webinars ] – MongoDB User Group • Resources https://education.10gen.com/ http://www.10gen.com/presentations
    66. 66. Software Engineer, 10gen Speaker Name • #hashtag Thank You
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