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Webinar: Schema Design

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One of the challenges that comes with moving to MongoDB is figuring how to best model your data. While most developers have internalized the rules of thumb for designing schemas for relational …

One of the challenges that comes with moving to MongoDB is figuring how to best model your data. While most developers have internalized the rules of thumb for designing schemas for relational databases, these rules don't always apply to MongoDB. The simple fact that documents can represent rich, schema-free data structures means that we have a lot of viable alternatives to the standard, normalized, relational model. Not only that, MongoDB has several unique features, such as atomic updates and indexed array keys, that greatly influence the kinds of schemas that make sense.

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  • In the filing cabinet model, the patient’s x-rays, checkups, and allergies are stored in separate drawers and pulled together (like an RDBMS)In the file folder model, we store all of the patient information in a single folder (like MongoDB)
  • Flexibility – Ability to represent rich data structuresPerformance – Benefit from data locality
  • Concrete example of typical blog in typical relational normalized form
  • Concrete example of typical blog using a document oriented de-normalized approach
  • Tools for data manipulation
  • Tools for data access
  • Slow to get address data every time you query for a user. Requires an extra operation.
  • Patron may have two addresses, in this case, you would need a separate table in a relation databaseWith MongoDB, you simply start storing the address field as an arrayOnly patrons which have multiple addresses could have this schema!No migration necessary! but Caution: Additional application logic required!
  • Publisher is repeated for every book, data duplication!
  • Publisher is better being a separate entity and having its own collection.
  • Now to create a relation between the two entities, you can choose to reference the publisher from the book document.This is similar to the relational approach for this very same problem.
  • OR: because we are using MongoDB and documents can have arrays you can choose to model the relation by creating and maintaining an array of books within each publisher entity.Careful with mutable, growing arrays. See next slide.
  • Costly for a small number of books because to get the publisher
  • And data locality provides speed
  • Book’s kind attribute could be local or loanableNote that we have locations for loanable books but not for localNote that these two separate schemas can co-exist (loanable books / local books are both books)
  • Kristine to update this graphic at some point
  • Authors often use pseudonyms for a book even though it’s the same individualTo get books by a particular author: - get the author - get books that have that author id in array
  • Transcript

    • 1. Schema DesignJared RosoffTechnical Director
    • 2. Agenda• Working with documents• Evolving a Schema• Queries and Indexes• Common Patterns
    • 3. RDBMS MongoDBDatabase ➜ DatabaseTable ➜ CollectionRow ➜ DocumentIndex ➜ IndexJoin ➜ Embedded DocumentForeign Key ➜ ReferenceTerminology
    • 4. Working withDocuments
    • 5. Modeling Data
    • 6. DocumentsProvide flexibility andperformance
    • 7. Normalized Data
    • 8. De-Normalized (embedded)Data
    • 9. Relational Schema DesignFocus on data storage
    • 10. Document Schema DesignFocus on data use
    • 11. Schema DesignConsiderations• How do we manipulate the data? – Dynamic Ad-Hoc Queries – Atomic Updates – Map Reduce• What are the access patterns of the application? – Read/Write Ratio – Types of Queries / Updates – Data life-cycle and growth rate
    • 12. Data Manipulation• Conditional Query Operators – Scalar: $ne, $mod, $exists, $type, $lt, $lte, $gt, $gte, $ne – Vector: $in, $nin, $all, $size• Atomic Update Operators – Scalar: $inc, $set, $unset – Vector: $push, $pop, $pull, $pushAll, $pullAll, $addToSet
    • 13. Data Access• Flexible Schemas• Ability to embed complex data structures• Secondary Indexes• Multi-Key Indexes• Aggregation Framework – $project, $match, $limit, $skip, $sort, $group, $unwind• No Joins
    • 14. Getting Started
    • 15. Library ManagementApplication• Patrons• Books• Authors• Publishers
    • 16. An ExampleOne to One Relations
    • 17. Modeling Patronspatron = { patron = { _id: "joe" _id: "joe" name: "Joe Bookreader” name: "Joe Bookreader",} address: { street: "123 Fake St. ",address = { city: "Faketon", patron_id = "joe", state: "MA", street: "123 Fake St. ", city: "Faketon", zip: 12345 state: "MA", } zip: 12345 }}
    • 18. One to One Relations• Mostly the same as the relational approach• Generally good idea to embed “contains” relationships• Document model provides a holistic representation of objects
    • 19. An ExampleOne To Many Relations
    • 20. Modeling Patronspatron = { _id: "joe" name: "Joe Bookreader", join_date: ISODate("2011-10-15"), addresses: [ {street: "1 Vernon St.", city: "Newton", state: "MA", …}, {street: "52 Main St.", city: "Boston", state: "MA", …}, ]}
    • 21. Publishers and Books• Publishers put out many books• Books have one publisher
    • 22. BookMongoDB: The Definitive Guide,By Kristina Chodorow and Mike DirolfPublished: 9/24/2010Pages: 216Language: EnglishPublisher: O’Reilly Media, CA
    • 23. Modeling Books – EmbeddedPublisherbook = { title: "MongoDB: The Definitive Guide", authors: [ "Kristina Chodorow", "Mike Dirolf" ] published_date: ISODate("2010-09-24"), pages: 216, language: "English", publisher: { name: "O’Reilly Media", founded: "1980", location: "CA" }}
    • 24. Modeling Books & PublisherRelationshippublisher = { name: "O’Reilly Media", founded: "1980", location: "CA"}book = { title: "MongoDB: The Definitive Guide", authors: [ "Kristina Chodorow", "Mike Dirolf" ] published_date: ISODate("2010-09-24"), pages: 216, language: "English"}
    • 25. Publisher _id as a ForeignKeypublisher = { _id: "oreilly", name: "O’Reilly Media", founded: "1980", location: "CA"}book = { title: "MongoDB: The Definitive Guide", authors: [ "Kristina Chodorow", "Mike Dirolf" ] published_date: ISODate("2010-09-24"), pages: 216, language: "English", publisher_id: "oreilly"}
    • 26. Book _id as a Foreign Keypublisher = { name: "O’Reilly Media", founded: "1980", location: "CA" books: [ "123456789", ... ]}book = { _id: "123456789", title: "MongoDB: The Definitive Guide", authors: [ "Kristina Chodorow", "Mike Dirolf" ] published_date: ISODate("2010-09-24"), pages: 216, language: "English"}
    • 27. Where do you put the foreignKey?• Array of books inside of publisher – Makes sense when many means a handful of items – Useful when items have bound on potential growth• Reference to single publisher on books – Useful when items have unbounded growth (unlimited # of books)• SQL doesn’t give you a choice, no arrays
    • 28. Another ExampleOne to Many Relations
    • 29. Books and Patrons• Book can be checked out by one Patron at a time• Patrons can check out many books (but not 1000s)
    • 30. Modeling Checkoutspatron = { _id: "joe" name: "Joe Bookreader", join_date: ISODate("2011-10-15"), address: { ... }}book = { _id: "123456789" title: "MongoDB: The Definitive Guide", authors: [ "Kristina Chodorow", "Mike Dirolf" ], ...}
    • 31. Modeling Checkoutspatron = { _id: "joe" name: "Joe Bookreader", join_date: ISODate("2011-10-15"), address: { ... }, checked_out: [ { _id: "123456789", checked_out: "2012-10-15" }, { _id: "987654321", checked_out: "2012-09-12" }, ... ]}
    • 32. De-normalizationProvides data locality De-normalize for speed
    • 33. Modeling Checkouts -- de-normalizedpatron = { _id: "joe" name: "Joe Bookreader", join_date: ISODate("2011-10-15"), address: { ... }, checked_out: [ { _id: "123456789", title: "MongoDB: The Definitive Guide", authors: [ "Kristina Chodorow", "Mike Dirolf" ], checked_out: ISODate("2012-10-15") }, { _id: "987654321" title: "MongoDB: The Scaling Adventure", ... }, ... ]}
    • 34. Referencing vs. Embedding• Embedding is a bit like pre-joined data• Document level ops are easy for server to handle• Embed when the “many” objects always appear with (viewed in the context of) their parents.• Reference when you need more flexibility
    • 35. An ExampleSingle Table Inheritance
    • 36. Single Table Inheritancebook = { title: "MongoDB: The Definitive Guide", authors: [ "Kristina Chodorow", "Mike Dirolf" ] published_date: ISODate("2010-09-24"), kind: loanable locations: [ ... ] pages: 216, language: "English", publisher: { name: "O’Reilly Media", founded: "1980", location: "CA" }}
    • 37. An ExampleMany to Many Relations
    • 38. Relational Approach
    • 39. Books and Authorsbook = { title: "MongoDB: The Definitive Guide", authors = [ { _id: "kchodorow", name: "K-Awesome” }, { _id: "mdirolf", name: "Batman Mike” } ] published_date: ISODate("2010-09-24"), pages: 216, language: "English"}author = { _id: "kchodorow", name: "Kristina Chodorow", hometown: "New York"}
    • 40. An ExampleTrees
    • 41. Parent Linksbook = { title: "MongoDB: The Definitive Guide", authors: [ "Kristina Chodorow", "Mike Dirolf" ], published_date: ISODate("2010-09-24"), pages: 216, language: "English", category: "MongoDB"}category = { _id: MongoDB, parent: Databases }category = { _id: Databases, parent: Programming }
    • 42. Child Linksbook = { _id: 123456789, title: "MongoDB: The Definitive Guide", authors: [ "Kristina Chodorow", "Mike Dirolf" ], published_date: ISODate("2010-09-24"), pages: 216, language: "English"}category = { _id: MongoDB, children: [ 123456789, … ] }category = { _id: Databases, children: [ MongoDB, Postgres }category = { _id: Programming, children: [ DB, Languages ] }
    • 43. Modeling Trees• Parent Links - Each node is stored as a document - Contains the id of the parent• Child Links - Each node contains the id’s of the children - Can support graphs (multiple parents / child)
    • 44. Array of Ancestorsbook = { title: "MongoDB: The Definitive Guide", authors: [ "Kristina Chodorow", "Mike Dirolf" ], published_date: ISODate("2010-09-24"), pages: 216, language: "English", categories: [ Programming, Databases, MongoDB ]}book = { title: "MySQL: The Definitive Guide", authors: [ ”Michael Kofler" ], published_date: ISODate("2010-09-24"), pages: 216, language: "English", parent: "MongoDB", ancestors: [ Programming, Databases, MongoDB ]}
    • 45. An ExampleQueues
    • 46. Book Documentbook = { _id: 123456789, title: "MongoDB: The Definitive Guide", authors: [ "Kristina Chodorow", "Mike Dirolf" ], published_date: ISODate("2010-09-24"), pages: 216, language: "English", available: 3}db.books.findAndModify({ query: { _id: 123456789, available: { "$gt": 0 } }, update: { $inc: { available: -1 } }})
    • 47. Questions?Jared RosoffTechnical Director