#MongoDBDaysIntroduction toShardingBrandon BlackSoftware Engineer, 10gen@brandonmblack
Agenda• Scaling Data• MongoDBs Approach• Architecture• Configuration• Mechanics
Scaling Data
Examining Growth• User Growth  – 1995: 0.4% of the world‟s population  – Today: 30% of the world is online (~2.2B)  – Emer...
Read/Write Throughput Exceeds I/O
Working Set Exceeds PhysicalMemory
Vertical Scalability (Scale Up)
Horizontal Scalability (Scale Out)
Data Store Scalability• Custom Hardware  – Oracle• Custom Software  – Facebook + MySQL  – Google
Data Store Scalability Today• MongoDB Auto-Sharding• A data store that is   –   Free   –   Publicly available   –   Open s...
MongoDBs Approachto Sharding
Partitioning• User defines shard key• Shard key defines range of data• Key space is like points on a line• Range is a segm...
Data Distribution• Initially 1 chunk• Default max chunk size: 64mb• MongoDB automatically splits & migrates chunks when ma...
Routing and Balancing• Queries routed to specific shards• MongoDB balances cluster• MongoDB migrates data to new nodes
MongoDB Auto-Sharding• Minimal effort required   – Same interface as single mongod• Two steps   – Enable Sharding for a da...
Architecture
What is a Shard?• Shard is a node of the cluster• Shard can be a single mongod or a replica set
Meta Data Storage• Config Server   – Stores cluster chunk ranges and locations   – Can have only 1 or 3 (production must h...
Routing and Managing Data• Mongos   – Acts as a router / balancer   – No local data (persists to config database)   – Can ...
Sharding infrastructure
Configuration
Example Cluster• Don’t use this setup in production!   - Only one Config server (No Fault Tolerance)   - Shard not in a re...
Starting the Configuration Server• mongod --configsvr• Starts a configuration server on the default port (27019)
Start the mongos Router• mongos --configdb <hostname>:27019• For 3 configuration servers:   mongos --configdb <host1>:<por...
Start the shard database•   mongod --shardsvr•   Starts a mongod with the default shard port (27018)•   Shard is not yet c...
Add the Shard• On mongos:   - sh.addShard(„<host>:27018‟)• Adding a replica set:   - sh.addShard(„<rsname>/<seedlist>‟)
Verify that the shard was added• db.runCommand({ listshards:1 }) { "shards" :    [{"_id”: "shard0000”,"host”: ”<hostname>:...
Enabling Sharding• Enable sharding on a database   sh.enableSharding(“<dbname>”)• Shard a collection with the given key   ...
Mechanics
Partitioning• Remember its based on ranges
Chunk is a section of the entire range
Chunk splitting• A chunk is split once it exceeds the maximum size• There is no split point if all documents have the same...
Balancing• Balancer is running on mongos• Once the difference in chunks between the most dense shard and the least dense s...
Acquiring the Balancer Lock• The balancer on mongos takes out a “balancer lock”• To see the status of these locks:   use c...
Moving the chunk• The mongos sends a moveChunk command to source shard• The source shard then notifies destination shard• ...
Committing Migration• When complete, destination shard updates config server  - Provides new locations of the chunks
Cleanup• Source shard deletes moved data   - Must wait for open cursors to either close or time out   - NoTimeout cursors ...
Routing Requests
Cluster Request Routing• Targeted Queries• Scatter Gather Queries• Scatter Gather Queries with Sort
Cluster Request Routing: TargetedQuery
Routable request received
Request routed to appropriate shard
Shard returns results
Mongos returns results to client
Cluster Request Routing: Non-TargetedQuery
Non-Targeted Request Received
Request sent to all shards
Shards return results to mongos
Mongos returns results to client
Cluster Request Routing: Non-TargetedQuery with Sort
Non-Targeted request with sortreceived
Request sent to all shards
Query and sort performed locally
Shards return results to mongos
Mongos merges sorted results
Mongos returns results to client
Shard Key
Shard Key• Shard key is immutable• Shard key values are immutable• Shard key must be indexed• Shard key limited to 512 byt...
Shard Key Considerations• Cardinality• Write Distribution• Query Isolation• Reliability• Index Locality
Conclusion
Read/Write Throughput Exceeds I/O
Working Set Exceeds PhysicalMemory
Sharding Enables Scale• MongoDB‟s Auto-Sharding  – Easy to Configure  – Consistent Interface  – Free and Open Source
• What‟s next?  –   Schema Design @ 10:35am  –   Replication @ 12:15pm  –   Indexing @ 1:45pm  –   Sharding @ 2:30pm  –   ...
#MongoDBDaysThank YouBrandon BlackSoftware Engineer, 10gen@brandonmblack
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Introduction to Sharding

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  • Ops will be most interested in ConfigurationDev will be most interested in Mechanics
  • Take this slide and toss it out the window for the combined sharding talk. It’s a nice intro, but it’s more effective to spend time talking about tag aware and shard keys if you’re trying to go beyond the intro talk.
  • Indexes should be contained in working set.
  • From mainframes, to RAC Oracle servers.. People solved problems by adding more resources to a single machine.
  • Google was the first to demonstrate that a large scale operation could be had with high performance on commodity hardwareBuild - Document oriented database maps perfectly to object oriented languagesScale - MongoDB presents clear path to scalability that isn&apos;t ops intensive - Provides same interface for sharded cluster as single instance
  • In 2005, two ways to achieve datastore scalability:Lots of money to purchase custom hardwareLots of money to develop custom software
  • MongoDB 2.2 and later only need &lt;host&gt; and &lt;port&gt; for one member of the replica set
  • This can be skipped for the intro talk, but might be good to include if you’re doing the combined sharding talk. Totally optional, you don’t really have enough time to do this topic justice but it might be worth a mention.
  • Quick review from earlier.
  • Once chunk size is reached, mongos asks mongod to split a chunk + internal function called splitVector()mongod counts number of documents on each side of split + based on avg. document size `db.stats()`Chunk split is a **logical** operation (no data has moved)Max on first chunk should be 14
  • Balancer lock actually held on config server.
  • Moved chunk on shard2 should be gray
  • How do the other mongoses know that their configuration is out of date? When does the chunk version on the shard itself get updated?
  • The mongos does not have to load the whole set into memory since each shard sorts locally. The mongos can just getMore from the shards as needed and incrementally return the results to the client.
  • _id could be unique across shards if used as shard key.we could only guarantee uniqueness of (any) attributes if the keys are used as shard keys with unique attribute equals true
  • Cardinality – Can your data be broken down enough?Query Isolation - query targeting to a specific shardReliability – shard outagesA good shard key can:Optimize routingMinimize (unnecessary) trafficAllow best scaling
  • This section can be skipped for the intro talk, but might be good to include if you’re doing the combined sharding talk.
  • Reliability = if we lost an entire shard what would be the effect on the system?For most frequently used/largest indexes, how are they partitioned across shards?
  • Reliability = if we lost an entire shard what would be the effect on the system?For most frequently used/largest indexes, how are they partitioned across shards?
  • Reliability = if we lost an entire shard what would be the effect on the system?For most frequently used/largest indexes, how are they partitioned across shards?
  • Reliability = if we lost an entire shard what would be the effect on the system?For most frequently used/largest indexes, how are they partitioned across shards?
  • Compound shard key, utilize already existing (used) index, partition chunk for &quot;power&quot; users.For those users more than one shard *may* need to be queried in a targeted query.Reliability = if we lost an entire shard what would be the effect on the system?For most frequently used/largest indexes, how are they partitioned across shards?
  • Indexes should be contained in working set.
  • Transcript of "Introduction to Sharding"

    1. 1. #MongoDBDaysIntroduction toShardingBrandon BlackSoftware Engineer, 10gen@brandonmblack
    2. 2. Agenda• Scaling Data• MongoDBs Approach• Architecture• Configuration• Mechanics
    3. 3. Scaling Data
    4. 4. Examining Growth• User Growth – 1995: 0.4% of the world‟s population – Today: 30% of the world is online (~2.2B) – Emerging Markets & Mobile• Data Set Growth – Facebook‟s data set is around 100 petabytes – 4 billion photos taken in the last year (4x a decade ago)
    5. 5. Read/Write Throughput Exceeds I/O
    6. 6. Working Set Exceeds PhysicalMemory
    7. 7. Vertical Scalability (Scale Up)
    8. 8. Horizontal Scalability (Scale Out)
    9. 9. Data Store Scalability• Custom Hardware – Oracle• Custom Software – Facebook + MySQL – Google
    10. 10. Data Store Scalability Today• MongoDB Auto-Sharding• A data store that is – Free – Publicly available – Open source (https://github.com/mongodb/mongo) – Horizontally scalable – Application independent
    11. 11. MongoDBs Approachto Sharding
    12. 12. Partitioning• User defines shard key• Shard key defines range of data• Key space is like points on a line• Range is a segment of that line
    13. 13. Data Distribution• Initially 1 chunk• Default max chunk size: 64mb• MongoDB automatically splits & migrates chunks when max reached
    14. 14. Routing and Balancing• Queries routed to specific shards• MongoDB balances cluster• MongoDB migrates data to new nodes
    15. 15. MongoDB Auto-Sharding• Minimal effort required – Same interface as single mongod• Two steps – Enable Sharding for a database – Shard collection within database
    16. 16. Architecture
    17. 17. What is a Shard?• Shard is a node of the cluster• Shard can be a single mongod or a replica set
    18. 18. Meta Data Storage• Config Server – Stores cluster chunk ranges and locations – Can have only 1 or 3 (production must have 3) – Not a replica set
    19. 19. Routing and Managing Data• Mongos – Acts as a router / balancer – No local data (persists to config database) – Can have 1 or many
    20. 20. Sharding infrastructure
    21. 21. Configuration
    22. 22. Example Cluster• Don’t use this setup in production! - Only one Config server (No Fault Tolerance) - Shard not in a replica set (Low Availability) - Only one mongos and shard (No Performance Improvement) - Useful for development or demonstrating configuration mechanics
    23. 23. Starting the Configuration Server• mongod --configsvr• Starts a configuration server on the default port (27019)
    24. 24. Start the mongos Router• mongos --configdb <hostname>:27019• For 3 configuration servers: mongos --configdb <host1>:<port1>,<host2>:<port2>,<host3>:<port3>• This is always how to start a new mongos, even if the cluster is already running
    25. 25. Start the shard database• mongod --shardsvr• Starts a mongod with the default shard port (27018)• Shard is not yet connected to the rest of the cluster• Shard may have already been running in production
    26. 26. Add the Shard• On mongos: - sh.addShard(„<host>:27018‟)• Adding a replica set: - sh.addShard(„<rsname>/<seedlist>‟)
    27. 27. Verify that the shard was added• db.runCommand({ listshards:1 }) { "shards" : [{"_id”: "shard0000”,"host”: ”<hostname>:27018” } ], "ok" : 1}
    28. 28. Enabling Sharding• Enable sharding on a database sh.enableSharding(“<dbname>”)• Shard a collection with the given key sh.shardCollection(“<dbname>.people”,{“country”:1})• Use a compound shard key to prevent duplicates sh.shardCollection(“<dbname>.cars”,{“year”:1, ”uniqueid”:1})
    29. 29. Mechanics
    30. 30. Partitioning• Remember its based on ranges
    31. 31. Chunk is a section of the entire range
    32. 32. Chunk splitting• A chunk is split once it exceeds the maximum size• There is no split point if all documents have the same shard key• Chunk split is a logical operation (no data is moved)
    33. 33. Balancing• Balancer is running on mongos• Once the difference in chunks between the most dense shard and the least dense shard is above the migration threshold, a balancing round starts
    34. 34. Acquiring the Balancer Lock• The balancer on mongos takes out a “balancer lock”• To see the status of these locks: use config db.locks.find({ _id: “balancer” })
    35. 35. Moving the chunk• The mongos sends a moveChunk command to source shard• The source shard then notifies destination shard• Destination shard starts pulling documents from source shard
    36. 36. Committing Migration• When complete, destination shard updates config server - Provides new locations of the chunks
    37. 37. Cleanup• Source shard deletes moved data - Must wait for open cursors to either close or time out - NoTimeout cursors may prevent the release of the lock• The mongos releases the balancer lock after old chunks are deleted
    38. 38. Routing Requests
    39. 39. Cluster Request Routing• Targeted Queries• Scatter Gather Queries• Scatter Gather Queries with Sort
    40. 40. Cluster Request Routing: TargetedQuery
    41. 41. Routable request received
    42. 42. Request routed to appropriate shard
    43. 43. Shard returns results
    44. 44. Mongos returns results to client
    45. 45. Cluster Request Routing: Non-TargetedQuery
    46. 46. Non-Targeted Request Received
    47. 47. Request sent to all shards
    48. 48. Shards return results to mongos
    49. 49. Mongos returns results to client
    50. 50. Cluster Request Routing: Non-TargetedQuery with Sort
    51. 51. Non-Targeted request with sortreceived
    52. 52. Request sent to all shards
    53. 53. Query and sort performed locally
    54. 54. Shards return results to mongos
    55. 55. Mongos merges sorted results
    56. 56. Mongos returns results to client
    57. 57. Shard Key
    58. 58. Shard Key• Shard key is immutable• Shard key values are immutable• Shard key must be indexed• Shard key limited to 512 bytes in size• Shard key used to route queries – Choose a field commonly used in queries• Only shard key can be unique across shards – `_id` field is only unique within individual shard
    59. 59. Shard Key Considerations• Cardinality• Write Distribution• Query Isolation• Reliability• Index Locality
    60. 60. Conclusion
    61. 61. Read/Write Throughput Exceeds I/O
    62. 62. Working Set Exceeds PhysicalMemory
    63. 63. Sharding Enables Scale• MongoDB‟s Auto-Sharding – Easy to Configure – Consistent Interface – Free and Open Source
    64. 64. • What‟s next? – Schema Design @ 10:35am – Replication @ 12:15pm – Indexing @ 1:45pm – Sharding @ 2:30pm – Webinar: Technical Overview of MongoDB (March 7th) – MongoDB User Group• Resources https://education.10gen.com/ http://www.10gen.com/presentations http://github.com/brandonblack/presentations
    65. 65. #MongoDBDaysThank YouBrandon BlackSoftware Engineer, 10gen@brandonmblack
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