WHY SKULL EXAMINATION IS IMPORTANT
The skull should next be examined in detail.
It reveals Fractures and other evidences of
Check the presence of
softening of the bone, of premature or delayed
syphilitic or tuberculous abrasions or openings
marks of previous trephining, of asymmetry
abnormal coloration, the " greenish-yellow"
discoloration due to osteomyelitis or the
Any injury of brain
Remove the head from the body at atlanto-
Incise the spinal cord
Reflect the skin and muscles of head
Examine the skull bone for any type of bone
REMOVAL OF HEAD
take a position on the dorsal side of the neck.
grasp the nostrils and raise the chin upward and backward.
incise the skin and muscles back of the right ramus of the
Cut the ventral capitus muscle and expose the spinal
It is at this point that spinal fluid may be collected before the
meninges are severed.
Complete the disarticulation severing the dorsal rectus
capitus muscle,ligamentum nuchse and skin.
Remove the head to a table.
EXTIRPATION OF THE BRAIN.
After removing skin place the head upon its upper teeth
Draw a line with the cutting edge of the knife transversely across
the frontal bone
Draw a second line one inch posterior to the first but parallel with it,
then saw through the bone, following the second line.
Draw two other lines, one on either side of the cranium. Start each
line at the end of the transverse incision made with the saw, and
carry it backward across the temporal and occipital bones parallel
to the top of the zygomatic process, and temiinate each line in the
foramen magnum above the occipital condyles
Cut through the temporal and occipital bones with a curved bone
chisel or a wide blade steel brick chisel, following these lines
EXAMINATION OF CNS
Incise the dura matter over the dorsal brain
Incise the tentorium cereblli
Cut the olfactory tract and cranial nerves
Allow the brain to slip out
Obseerve the dura
Incise the brain transversly (slices every
SINUSES, NASAL PASSAGES, AND SEPTUM.
• Left turbinated bones, part of nasal, lacrimal and
maxillary bones removed.
• Lines of incision for extirpation of nasal septum.
• Examine the sinuses and turbinated bones.
To remove the teeth cut the alveolar walls with
a brick chisel, placing that instrument on the
superior margin of the alveolar wall at a point
between two teeth, and then force the chisel
along the dental organs to the roots.
Pry up the external walls between these
incisions and force the teeth out of their alveoli
Extirpate the tympanic and petrous portion of
the temporal bone by making deep incisions
with the chisel.
one inch anterior and one inch posterior to the
external auditory meatus.
Enucleate the eye with small, sharp-pointed
scissors and forceps.
Grasp the nictitans membrane with the
forceps, draw it out and sever it.
Pass the scissors into the orbital cavity beside
the eyeball and snip it free from its muscular
attachments and the optic nerve.
In case of any animal abuse
Any mysterious death
While writing the report the veterinarian should
and act with integrity
Should write in such a way
“in my opinion this animal suffered
unnecessary mental and physical trauma”,
The report should clearly distinguish
and must contain a clearly stated opinion
THE REPORT SHOULD AT LEAST CONTAIN:
the practice or veterinarian’s name and contact details;
the veterinarian's qualifications and field of expertise –
a curriculum vitae may be attached to the report
background / circumstances of the case;
it is important to state which information is hearsay
identification of the animal
identification of samples — always scan for a microchip
number and / or check the ears (if they still exist) for
THE FOLLOWING OBSERVATIONS ARE
details regarding the facts in the case (post
mortem or clinical findings, test results)
weight before and after
eating / drinking habits (before and after)
vocalisations when the animal is brought into
behaviour of the animal whilst being examined;
bowel movements etc;
the veterinarian should use the term “possible”
summary of conclusions;
instructions or reasons (e.g. why do you claim this is
technical background (complex cases);
opinion (consider all facts even those negative to your
literature citations (if necessary) and
statement of truth / declarations, signature, appendix (if