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  • 1. SKULL OPENING & POST MORTEM REPORT WRITING
  • 2. WHY SKULL EXAMINATION IS IMPORTANT  The skull should next be examined in detail.  It reveals Fractures and other evidences of injury
  • 3. ABNORMALITIES  Check the presence of  atrophy  hypertrophy  softening of the bone, of premature or delayed synosteosis  supernumerary bones  tumors,  syphilitic or tuberculous abrasions or openings
  • 4.  marks of previous trephining, of asymmetry  abnormal coloration, the " greenish-yellow" discoloration due to osteomyelitis or the  Any injury of brain  meningitis  Hydrocephalus
  • 5.  Remove the head from the body at atlanto- occupital articulation  Incise the spinal cord  Reflect the skin and muscles of head  Examine the skull bone for any type of bone deformity
  • 6. REMOVAL OF HEAD  take a position on the dorsal side of the neck.  grasp the nostrils and raise the chin upward and backward.  incise the skin and muscles back of the right ramus of the inferior maxilla.  Cut the ventral capitus muscle and expose the spinal meninges.  It is at this point that spinal fluid may be collected before the meninges are severed.  Complete the disarticulation severing the dorsal rectus capitus muscle,ligamentum nuchse and skin.  Remove the head to a table.
  • 7. EXTIRPATION OF THE BRAIN.  After removing skin place the head upon its upper teeth  Draw a line with the cutting edge of the knife transversely across the frontal bone  Draw a second line one inch posterior to the first but parallel with it, then saw through the bone, following the second line.  Draw two other lines, one on either side of the cranium. Start each line at the end of the transverse incision made with the saw, and carry it backward across the temporal and occipital bones parallel to the top of the zygomatic process, and temiinate each line in the foramen magnum above the occipital condyles  Cut through the temporal and occipital bones with a curved bone chisel or a wide blade steel brick chisel, following these lines
  • 8. HOW TO DRAW LINES
  • 9. BRAIN EXPOSED AFTER REMOVAL OF CALVARIUM
  • 10. EXAMINATION OF CNS  Incise the dura matter over the dorsal brain surface  Incise the tentorium cereblli  Cut the olfactory tract and cranial nerves  Allow the brain to slip out  Obseerve the dura  Incise the brain transversly (slices every centimeter)
  • 11. SINUSES, NASAL PASSAGES, AND SEPTUM. • Left turbinated bones, part of nasal, lacrimal and maxillary bones removed. • Lines of incision for extirpation of nasal septum. • Examine the sinuses and turbinated bones.
  • 12. TEETH  To remove the teeth cut the alveolar walls with a brick chisel, placing that instrument on the superior margin of the alveolar wall at a point between two teeth, and then force the chisel along the dental organs to the roots.  Pry up the external walls between these incisions and force the teeth out of their alveoli
  • 13. EAR  Extirpate the tympanic and petrous portion of the temporal bone by making deep incisions with the chisel.  one inch anterior and one inch posterior to the external auditory meatus.
  • 14. EYE  Enucleate the eye with small, sharp-pointed scissors and forceps.  Grasp the nictitans membrane with the forceps, draw it out and sever it.  Pass the scissors into the orbital cavity beside the eyeball and snip it free from its muscular attachments and the optic nerve.
  • 15. POSTMORTEM REPORT WRITING
  • 16. OBJECTIVE  In case of any animal abuse  Any mysterious death
  • 17.  While writing the report the veterinarian should remain  Objective  impartial independent  and act with integrity  Should write in such a way  “in my opinion this animal suffered unnecessary mental and physical trauma”,
  • 18. REPORT  The report should clearly distinguish  the facts  opinion  hearsay evidence  and must contain a clearly stated opinion
  • 19. THE REPORT SHOULD AT LEAST CONTAIN:  the practice or veterinarian’s name and contact details;  the veterinarian's qualifications and field of expertise – a curriculum vitae may be attached to the report  background / circumstances of the case;  it is important to state which information is hearsay  animal details  identification of the animal  identification of samples — always scan for a microchip number and / or check the ears (if they still exist) for tattooing
  • 20. THE FOLLOWING OBSERVATIONS ARE IMPORTANT details regarding the facts in the case (post mortem or clinical findings, test results)  weight before and after  eating / drinking habits (before and after)  vocalisations when the animal is brought into the practice  parasite infestation  behaviour of the animal whilst being examined; bowel movements etc;
  • 21.  the veterinarian should use the term “possible”  summary of conclusions;  instructions or reasons (e.g. why do you claim this is animal abuse);  technical background (complex cases);  opinion (consider all facts even those negative to your opinion);  literature citations (if necessary) and  statement of truth / declarations, signature, appendix (if necessary).

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