05 iaea sandstone-hari

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  • 1. Sandstone Uranium Deposits: How much do we know? Hari Tulsidas IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
  • 2. The "Atoms for Peace" Agency• World centre of cooperation in the nuclear field• Promotes safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies• Three pillars (3S) of IAEA • Safety and Security • Science and Technology • Safeguards and Verification IAEA
  • 3. Organisation Director General Technical Nuclear Safety Nuclear Sciences Nuclear Energy Management Safeguards Cooperation and security and Applications Programme Nuclear Concepts and Nuclear Power Human Resources Human Health support Installation Safety planning Nuclear Fuel Radiation, Information Africa Cycle and Waste Transport and Sciences Tech support Technology Technology Waste Safety Asia Pacific General Services Laboratories Operations A Food & Latin America Conferences Operations B Agriculture Information Europe Finance Management IAEA Public Information Operations C
  • 4. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Materials1. Uranium Resources2. Power Reactor Fuel Engineering3. Spent Fuel Management4. Advanced Fuel Cycles IAEA
  • 5. Uranium Resources (1)• Assessment of uranium resources, production and demand • IAEA/NEA Red Book • Uranium 2060 • Database of Uranium Deposits • Standardization of resource classification To collect and share• Supporting good practices in the uranium production cycle knowledge of uranium • Uranium Production Site Assessment Team resources and support • Optimization of mining technologies • Development of low grade ores the development of a • Unconventional resources – Phosphates sustainable uranium • Thorium resources (By-product of REE) production cycle in • Support training activities Member States.• Technical Cooperation activities • 18 national projects and 2 regional projects • Inter-regional project – 2012-13 IAEA
  • 6. Uranium resources (2) Red Book 2009 tU iNFCIS - UDEPO Australia 1 679 000 26.6% Kazakhstan 832 000 13.2% Russia 565 000 9.0% Canada 544 000 8.6% United States 472 100 7.5% South Africa 295 600 4.6% Namibia 284 200 4.5% Data of 1 413 Brazil 278 700 4.4% uranium deposits from 75 countries Niger 275 500 4.3% Others 1 079 000 17% Total 6 306 000 100% Total 26 802 989 tU Undiscovered Resources: 10 400 000 tUIAEA /OECD NEA Uranium 2009: Resources, http://infcis.iaea.org Production and Demand IAEA
  • 7. Supporting good practices• Uranium exploration• Uranium mining & milling technologies• Uranium mining and milling products/wastes (with WTS)• Remediation after uranium mining and milling and their closure (with WTS & WES) IAEA
  • 8. Meetings and workshops • Uranium Group Meeting, Vienna, June, 2011 • TM on Uranium Provinces and Minerals Potential Modeling, Vienna, June 2011 • TM on Uranium Production from Phosphate Rocks, September, Vienna, 2011 • TM on World Thorium Resources, India, October 2011 • Workshop on Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid, Morocco, November 2011 • Uranium Group Meeting, Paris, November, 2011 • Africa regional workshop on uranium exploration and mining, Madagascar, March, 2012 • TM on Origin of sandstone uranium deposits, Vienna, 2012 • Regional workshop on uranium extraction, Egypt June, 2012 • Co-ordination meeting for uranium priorities outlook, June, Finland, 2012 • Uranium group meeting, Ukraine, August, 2012 • Training / Workshop on uranium production cycle, Darwin, Australia, 13-17 August, 2012 • Africa regional workshop on Sustainable uranium production, Tanzania, September, 2012 • Inter-regional workshop on recent developments in evaluation of uranium and thorium resources , Portugal, 15-18 October 2012 • Technical Meeting on optimization of ISL production, 21-23 November, 2012, Vienna • Interregional workshop on uranium deposit models and resources evaluation, China, 12-16 November, 2012 • Africa regional workshop on uranium ore processing, Namibia, 26-30 November, 2012 • TM on Good Practices in Uranium Production Cycle, 11-14 December, 2012 • IAEA International workshop on uranium production from phosphate rocks, Jordan, December, 2012
  • 9. Training Events• Geochemical prospecting for Uranium• Uranium Exploration Methods• Uranium Exploration and Evaluation• Exploration Drilling and Ore reserves Estimation• Uranium Deposit Evaluation• Computerized databases in Mineral Exploration and Development• Spatial Data Integration for Uranium Exploration, Resource• Assessment and Environmental Studies• Processing of Uranium – from Mining to Fuel Fabrication• Uranium Mining: Its Operation, Safety and Environmental Aspects• Uranium In Situ Leaching: Its Planning, Operation and Restoration• Uranium Ore Analysis• Uranium Ore Processing• Uranium Geology, Exploration and Environment IAEA
  • 10. Historical publications IAEA
  • 11. Recent publications IAEA
  • 12. Publications in pipeline • Best Practice in Environmental Management of Uranium Mining, 2010 • Radioelement Mapping, 2010 • Uranium 2009: Resources, production and demand (“Red Book 2009”) 2010 • Uranium 2011: Resources, production and demand (“Red Book 2011”) 2012 • Red Book Retrospective – Country Reports • Uranium demand and supply to 2060, 2011 • Uranium production from Phosphate Rocks, 2012 • Classification of uranium deposits types, 2012 • Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Synergies and sustainability, 2012 • World Thorium resources and deposits, 2012 • ISL facilities of the world, 2012 • World uranium provinces, 2013 • World distribution of uranium deposits – Print edition, 2013 • Sandstone uranium deposits, 2013-14 IAEA
  • 13. Previous IAEA publications• 1983 - Age, sedimentary environments, and other aspects of sandstone and related host rocks for uranium deposits - Technical Reports Series #231• 1985 - Geological environments of sandstone-type uranium deposits (TECDOC – 328) IAEA
  • 14. Publications onlinehttp://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NE/NEFW/nfcms_rawmaterials_publications.html IAEA
  • 15. Technical Cooperation• 2009-2011: 12 national & 2 regional Technical Cooperation projects on uranium exploration, mining and processing• 2012-13: Inter-regional project on uranium resources and production • Meetings and workshops • Expert missions • Training events • Fellowships • Scientific Visits • Equipment IAEA
  • 16. Technical Cooperation 2009-12 Strengthening Regional Capabilities for Uranium Mining, Milling and Regulation of RelatedRegional Africa Activities Regional Upgrading of Uranium Exploration, Exploitation and Yellowcake ProductionRegional Latin America Techniques Taking Environmental Problems into AccountAlgeria Supporting Uranium Ore Processing and Purification of ConcentratesEgypt Evaluating Selected Uranium Resources and Producing and Purifying Yellow Cake Assessing the Geology Favourability, Production Feasibility and Environmental Impact ofArgentina the Exploitation of Uranium Deposits Using In Situ Leaching Technology (Phase II)Venuzela Estimating Available Uranium ResourcesJordan Launching Uranium ExplorationJordan Assessing a Uranium Extraction TechniqueChina Enhancing the Capabilities of National Institutions Supporting Nuclear Power Development IAEA
  • 17. Technical Cooperation 2012-13Argentina Developing and Strengthening Human Resources for the Uranium Mining CycleChina Evaluating Uranium and Beryllium Resources to Support the Nuclear Power Development ProgrammeInterregional Supporting Uranium Exploration, Resource Augmentation and Production Using Advanced TechniquesJordan Establishing a Uranium Extraction Laboratory and Quality SystemNepal Exploring and Evaluating Uranium and Thorium DepositsPeru Evaluating the Uraniferous Potential in the Magmatic Environments in the Eastern Andes Region Assessing Nuclear Raw Material (Uranium and Thorium) Potential and Identifying Geological Causes ofSri Lanka Radiogenically Hazardous Areas Constructing a Pilot Plant for the Extraction of Uranium from Industrial Phosphoric Acid in Order toTunisia Determine Optimum Operating ParametersUruguay Supporting Exploration and Exploitation of Uranium and Developing National Capacity for this ActivityVietnam Enhancing the Capability of Uranium and Related Atomic Mineral Exploration for Nuclear Energy IAEA
  • 18. Sandstone – a formidable share Type # of deposits tU* Unconformity 84 1 235 381 39 23 25 4 Unconformity Sandstone 566 3 872 095 6 Sandstone 17 42 84 Hematite Breccia Hematite Breccia 13 2 223 497 QPC 57 Volcanic QPC 61 1 005 692 52 Intrusive Volcanic 107 549 658 Vein Metasomtic Intrusive 77 1 077 134 Surficial Vein 240 845 620240 566 CBP Metamorphic Metasomtic 52 957 676 Phosphate Surficial 57 382 154 Lignite/Coal Black Shale CBP 17 15 970 77 Other Metamorphic 107 6 21 439 61 Unknown Phosphate 39 12 894 830 13 Lignite/Coal 23 305 285 Black Shale 42 1 199 086 Other 25 232 993 Unknown 4 6 658 Total 1413 26825168 *Total (geological) resources IAEA Total 3 872 095 tU from 37 countries
  • 19. Who need uranium? IAEA Scenario September 2011 ~ 215 000 tU/year by 2050 – high case ~98 000 tU/year by 2050 – low case IAEA
  • 20. Small … but often clustered 1,000 - 2,500 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 25,000 - 50,000 - < 500 500 - 1,000 > 100,000 Unknown Total 2,500 5,000 10,000 25,000 50,000 100,000 Unconformity 0 0 13 10 13 15 5 0 4 5 84 Sandstone 0 1 116 95 76 77 24 4 3 11 566Hematite Breccia 0 0 3 2 0 1 2 0 1 0 13 Complex Quartz-pebble 0 0 6 12 16 8 7 3 1 6 61 Conglomerate Volcanic 0 1 27 19 14 7 6 0 0 1 107 Intrusive 0 0 14 10 12 5 4 3 2 3 77 Vein 0 0 61 40 26 16 3 1 0 17 240 Metasomatite 0 1 11 9 4 4 5 5 3 1 52 Surficial 0 0 8 15 5 3 2 2 0 1 57Collapse Breccia 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 Pipe Metamorphic 0 0 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 Phosphorite 0 0 1 1 4 5 7 6 7 6 39 Lignite 0 0 6 6 3 2 2 1 1 0 23 Black Shales 0 0 9 4 5 8 2 1 3 3 42 Other 0 1 8 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 25 Unknown 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 Total 0 4 290 229 180 152 70 26 25 55 1,413 IAEA
  • 21. U 2060 analysis No tU %U Sandstone 202 2 350 399 0.01 - 0.7 Vein 43 810 264 0.02 - 0.55 Volcanic 22 311 996 0.02 - 1.1 Unconformity 19 762 850 0.1 - 15 Metasomatic 18 837 991 0.03 - 0.26 Surficial 16 303 141 0.01 - 0.12 Phosphate 14 7 048 491 0.01 - 0.2 QPC 13 491 469 0.01 - 0.1 Intrusive 12 497 751 0.008 - 0.4 Black Shale 8 540 827 0.0017 - 0.2 Tailings 4 129 418 0.01-0.02 Collapse Breccia Pipe 3 9 154 0.5 - 0.6 Hematite Breccia 2 1 336 624 0.03 - 0.05 Complex Others 2 86 000 0.05 - 0.1 IAEA Coal 1 40 000 0.05 381 15 556 375
  • 22. U 2060 reference case IAEA
  • 23. Calibrated parameters …• Geology and Formation: • Technology: • Classification • Developing complex, stacked ores • Tectonics bodies, in different paleo-channels • Compressional Vs Rifting • Optimizing recovery • Episodic basement uplift • Processing difficult ores • Sources of Uranium • Acid Vs alkaline ISL • Basin evolution • Disequilibrium issues • Depositional environment • Hydraulic conductivity • Isotopic fractionation • Basin slope • Conventional mining • • Preservation of mineralization Paleo-climate • Socio-economics: • Age and regional / global correlation • „Comprehensive extraction‟ • Reductants • Economics of grade and size • Exploration criteria • Environmental management • Radiometric logging – PFN • Closure and remediation • Other geophysical IAEA
  • 24. Sandstone Uranium deposits• PART I : An overview of the origin of sandstone • Regional descriptions and genetic models (~30 pages) uranium deposits, exploration, resources and • Central Asia Mega Province production • Australia• Introduction (~2 pages) • USA• Classification of Sandstone uranium deposits (~ 10 pages) • Gondwana – Karoo province • Basal Channel • [Other] • Tabular • Recent advances in exploration (~20 pages) • Continental fluvial, U associated with intrinsic reductant • Radiometric (PFN) • Continental fluvial, U associated with extrinsic humate/bitumen • Disequilibrium • Continental fluvial vanadium-uranium • Geophysics • Roll front • Resources and production (20 pages) • Continental basin, U associated with intrinsic reductant • Resources(UDEPO) • Continental to marginal marine, U associated with • Deposits intrinsic reductant • Resources and grades • Marginal marine, U associated with extrinsic reductant • Status • Tectonic - lithologic • Production history and outlook • Mafic dikes / sills in Proterozoic sandstone • Environment• Geology, mineralogy, geochemistry and tectonics (~ 20 pages) • Socio-economics • Tectonic aspects • Summary and conclusions (~2 pages) • Source rocks • • Basin formation, evolution, paleoclimate • PART II: Selected papers - ~ 20 (8 – 12 pages each) • Sediment and uranium transport • Depositional environments • Reducing mechanisms • Geochemistry, Isotopic fractionation IAEA
  • 25. You can reach me at …Harikrishnan TulsidasNuclear Technology SpecialistNuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials SectionInternational Atomic Energy AgencyTel: (+431) 2600 22758Fax: (+431) 26007 22758Room A26 19Email: T.Harikrishnan@iaea.org IAEA