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  • Topic sent. İntr. Main idea of the paragraph(serap sy 13-14)
  • Controlling idea (after the topic sent appears readers expect that the sentences (yazdığım örnekler)
  • They are words and phrases that give main ideas in the paragragh can be called key words. Controlling ideas should answer the questions such as : who?/what/when/ Where/ in waht ways/why/ how/ ….. What idea is wrong
  • In this example topic convenience food. A specific comment is made(easy to preapare). From this sentence the reader immeadiately knows supporting sentences will explain to prove how quick and easy it is to prepare conv. Food and give examples (frozen dinners,canned soups)
  • The reader should expect the paragraph to give examples of popular “foreign” foods such as fried rice(chinese), tacos(mexican), sushi(Italian), spaghetti(Italian)…
  • The rest of the paragraph should discuss the quantities and types of the junk food that American teenagers eat.(chips,candy,potato chips…
  • contains/ 1)that tells what the writer will explain in the paragraph (tihs paper explains, the purpose of this essay…)2) that the writer will prove or support in the paragraph. Topic sen of opinion use value words(better, more beautiful,worst)
  • Topicsentence

    2. 2. Topic Sentence informs the reader what the paragraph is about. is a complete sentence; contains a subject, a verb, (usually) a complement.following are not complete sentences Driving on freeways The importance of education How to register for college classes
    3. 3. Topic Sentence Most general statement in paragraph bec it gives only the main idea. It does not give any specific details so it should be narrowed. Contains both a topic and controlling idea (key words)
    4. 4. Controlling Idea It is very difficult to be alone in a foreign country. Most people have the wrong idea about the definition of statistics. There are several unusual superstitions in my country about death.
    5. 5.  Topic  Controlling Ideas( General Statement) (Specific Parts)Convenience foods are easy to prepare
    6. 6.  Controlling Idea  Topic (specific part) (general statement)The native foods of American cooking America’s immigrant population are reflected to
    7. 7.  Topic  Controlling Idea (general statement) (specific statement)The American teenager consumes enormous quantities of junk food.
    8. 8. Weak topic sentences Better topic sentences I can’t help liking this  This book is exciting book. and reader- friendly. I like cats better than  Cats make better dogs. house pets than dogs. I feel that spanking a  Spanking a child is child is physically physically abusive. abusive.
    9. 9. Succesfull topic sentence A statement of intent A statement of opinionThese topics sentences have a statement of intent or opinion? This paper demonstrates the advantages and disadvantages of living off-campus. Smoking by a pregnant woman is evil because it will cause genetic defects in the unborn child. To see Europe on a 55$ a day, try hiking.
    10. 10. Revision of Topic Sentences Before writing any essay or even a paragraph, it is important to think, first about the topic and then what you want to say about the topic. Most often, the topic is easy, but the question then turns to what you want to say about the topic which is the controlling idea.
    11. 11.  Topic sentences should always contain both (1) a topic and (2) a controlling idea.
    12. 12.  Read the following topic sentences. They all contain a topic (underlined) and a controlling idea (bold). When your introduction contains a clearly stated topic sentence such as one of the following, your reader will know what to expect and, therefore, understand your ideas better.
    13. 13.  1. People can avoid burglaries by taking certain precautions. 2. There are several advantages to growing up in a small town.
    14. 14.  3. Most US universities require a 550 point TOEFL score for a number of reasons. 4. Air pollution in Mexico City is the worst in the world for a number of reasons.
    15. 15.  5. Fixing a flat tire on a bicycle is easy if you follow these steps. 6. There are several enjoyable ways to travel between the US and Queretaro. 7. Animals in danger of becoming extinct come from a wide range of countries.
    16. 16.  8. Effective leadership requires specific qualities that anyone can develop. 9. Industrial waste poured into Lake Michigan has led to dramatic changes in its ability to support marine life. 10. In order to fully explore the wreck of the Titanic, scientists must address several problems.
    17. 17. Summary A carefully thought out topic sentence will serve two important functions. First, it will provide you, the author, the means to stay focused on your objective. Its a lot easier to write if you know what you are going to write about!
    18. 18.  Second, a clearly stated topic sentence will provide readers with the tools they need to clearly understand what you have to say. These are important reasons to carefully consider topic sentences before beginning writing