The term ‘Global warming’ is one aspect of the broader term ‘climate change’.
INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE MID 20 TH CENTUARY
Calculations of global warming prepared in or before 2001 from a range of climate models under the SRES A2 emissions scenario, which assumes no action is taken to reduce emissions and regionally divided economic development.
Global average temperatures are expected to increase by about 2-13°F (1-7°C) by the end of the century. That may not sound like a lot, so what’s the big deal? The problem is that small changes in global average temperature can lead to really large changes in the environment. Let’s look at some of the expected changes.
This map of mountain glacier mass balance changes since 1970 shows thinning in yellow and red, and thickening in blue. Mid-latitude mountain ranges such as theHimalayas, Alps, Rocky Mountains, Cascade Range, and the southern Andes, as well as isolated tropical summits such as Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa, are showing some of the largest proportionate glacial losses
Global sea level change estimated using tide gauge measurements collated over long periods of time to give a long-term average. More recently, altimeter measurements — in combination with accurately determined satellite orbits — have provided an improved measurement of global sea level change. dated coral reefs that grow near the surface of the ocean, coastal sediments, marine terraces, voids in limestones and nearshore archaeological remains. The predominant dating methods used are uranium series and radiocarbon, with cosmogeni radionuclide being sometimes used to date terraces that have experienced relative sea level fall.
Changes in the type of pollen found in different layers of sediment in lakes, bogs, or river deltas indicate changes in plant communities. These changes are often a sign of a changing climate. studies have been used to track changing vegetation patterns throughout the Quaternary glaciationsand especially since the last glacial maximum
Natural changes in the components of Earth's climate system and their interactions are the cause of internal climate variability, or "internal forcings.
One global climate model's reconstruction of temperature change during the 20th century as the result of five studied forcing factors and the amount of temperature change attributed to each.The popular media and the public often confuse global warming with ozone depletion, i.e., the destruction of stratospheric ozone by chlorofluorocarbons. Although there are a few areas of linkage, the relationship between the two is not strong. Reduced stratospheric ozone has had a slight cooling influence on surface temperatures, while increased tropospheric ozone has had a somewhat larger warming effec
Increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases.2) Global changes to land surface, like deforestation3) Increasing atmospheric concentrations of aerosols.
[Image 1] Earth’s surface absorbs heat from the sun and then re-radiates it back into the atmosphere and to space. [click, Image 2] Much of this heat is absorbed by greenhouse gases, which then send the heat back to the surface, to other greenhouse gas molecules, or out to space. Though only 1% of atmospheric gases are greenhouse gases, they are extremely powerful heat trappers. By burning fossil fuels faster and faster, humans are effectively piling on more blankets, heating the planet so much and so quickly that it’s hard for Mother Nature and human societies to adapt.
India comes under a non-annex country
While no significant long-term trend has been observed in the frequencies of large-scale droughts or floods in the summer monsoon season and the total frequency of cyclonic storms that form over Bay of Bengal has remained almost constant over the period 1887-1997At the same time, it may also be admitted that as per the Geological Survey of India, glaciers worldwide are passing through a phase of recession as a natural cyclic process.
PRECIS simulations for 2020s, 2050s and 2080s indicate an all-round warming over the Indian subcontinent. Figure 10 shows the mean annual surface air temperature from 1961(ﬁ rst year of model simulation) to 2098 (last year of model projections) as simulated by PRECIS. Data indicates that Q14 simulations are warmer than the remaining two simulations. The annual mean surface air temperature rise by the end of the century ranges from 3.5°C to 4.3°C
mainly because of emissions of greenhouse gases caused by human activity.
As a result of climate change, heat waves are expected to increase in severity and frequency, particularly in the northern latitudes
Increased ambient temperatures over land and increased ground-level carbon dioxide concentrations, both of which are expected with climate change, result in increased plant metabolism and pollen production. These factors may also be associated with increased fungal growth and spore release. There is also a possibility that certain aeroallergens may become more allergenic as temperatures and CO2 concentrations increase
For instance, as temperature increases, the malaria parasite reproduces at a higher rate, and mosquitoes take blood meals more frequently, up to a certain ceiling determined by individual speciesSocial and cultural behaviors also affect disease transmission. Many VBZD exhibit some degree of climate sensitivity, and ecological shifts associated with climate variability and long-term climate change are expected to impact the distribution and incidence of many of these diseases. For instance, the range of Lyme disease is expected to expand northward as the range of the deer tick that transmits it expands. In another example, the frequency of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome outbreaks, caused by human exposure to the virus in deer mice urine or feces, may change with increasingly variable rainfall in the desert Southwest, which affects the populations of deer mice and other rodents through changes in production of the pine nuts on which they feed. Similarly, certain VBZD may decrease in particular regions as habitats become less suitable for host or vector populations and for sustained disease transmission. Coastal and marine ecosystems will be particularly impacted by increasing temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, sea-level rise, altered salinity, ocean acidification, and more frequent and intense extreme weather events. These changes will directly and indirectly affect ocean and coastal ecosystems by influencing community structure, biodiversity, and the growth, survival, persistence, distribution, transmission, and severity of disease-causing organisms, vectors, and reservoirs. Also of concern for both terrestrial and aquatic/marine ecosystems is the loss of biodiversity (which underlies ecosystem serviceOzone is formed in warm, polluted air in the presence of sunlight; are generated by a range of sources, but primarily from the burning of fossil fuels.
This is a significant concern in molluscan shellfish, because ocean acidification may affect formation of their carbonate shells and immune responses, making them more vulnerable to microbial infection
These indirect impacts are likely to result in degradation of fresh water available for drinking, washing food, cooking, and irrigation, particularly in developing and emerging economies where much of the population still uses untreated surface water from rivers, streams, and other open sources for these needs Even in countries that treat water, climate-induced changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events could lead to damage or flooding of water and sewage treatment facilities, coastal storm surges from less than 50 million at present to nearly 250 million by 2080A rise in sea level affects agricultural productivity, crop failure, malnutrition, starvation, increasing population displacement, & resource conflict
Here are examples of 8 technologies that could save 8 billion tons, or 8 wedges, of carbon. Some of these we could do right away, while others are based on technologies still being studied, such as capturing and storing carbon.[Details on strategies:Efficient vehicles: Double car fuel efficiency in 2055 from 30 miles per gallon (mpg) to 60 mpgReduced vehicle use: Halve the miles traveled by the world’s cars in 2055Efficient buildings: Cut emissions by 25% in all buildingsCCS electricity: Capture and store carbon from 800 large coal power plants or 1600 large natural gas power plantsTriple the world’s current nuclear capacitySolar electricity: Increase solar capacity 700 times Forest storage: Halve global deforestation and double forest planting in 50 yearsSoil storage: Apply carbon management strategies to all of the world’s farm fields]This list represents only some of the possible strategies, but choosing strategies will not be easy. However, the longer we wait to reduce emissions, the higher the target will need to be, and the more adaptation will be necessary. In 2004, when the wedges concept was first introduced, the target was only 7 billion tons.
for public health agencies...to help dem develop strategies and programs to confront the health implications of climate change
A fair and effective response will require a sharing of responsibilities between the populations that make the greatest contributionto climate change and those that are most vulnerable to its effects, inorder to safeguard and enhance global public health security
Transcript of "Climate change and its effects on health"
Presenter : Dr. MonalishaFacilitator : Dr HemaModerator : Dr S. Nagesh
Plan for presentation• Introduction• Problem statement• Evidence of climate change• Causes of climate change• Evidence for human caused climate change• Indian Scenario• Pathways for climate to affect health• Potential health impacts of climate change• International environmental Agenda• Stages of adaptation• Options for adaptations to reduce the health impacts of climate change• BRACE framework• India for Climate Issues• Conclusion4/4/2013 2
IntroductionClimate change is a significant & lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years.• Change in average weather conditions, or in Distribution of weather around average conditions (i.e., more or fewer extreme weather events).• Changes in many aspects of weather, such as Wind patterns, Precipitation & Severe weather events.• Far-reaching and/or unpredictable environmental, social and economic consequences. 4/4/2013 3
Problem statement Since the early 20th century, Earths mean surface temperature has increased by about 0.8 °C (1.4 °F), with about two-thirds of the increase occurring since 1980• Developing Countries & Small Island Nations will be the first & hardest hit by this phenomena.• Each year, about 800 000 people die from causes attributable to it.• 1.8 million die from diarrhoea ( due to lack of access to clean water supply and sanitation & from poor hygiene)• 3.5 million die from malnutrition.• 60 000 die in natural disasters.4/4/2013 4
Estimated Death and DALYs Attributable to Climate Change 2000 Floods 2020 Malaria DiarrheaMalnutrition 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 Deaths (thousands) DALYs (millions) Campbell-Lendrum et al., 2003
Physical evidence for & examples of climatic change 1. Temperature measurements 2. Melting of Glaciers 3. Arctic sea ice loss 4. Sea level change 5. Others Pollen analysis Precipitation Ice cores4/4/2013 6
1)Temperature measurements May Entail Changes in Variance, as Well as Changes in Mean4/4/2013 Source: IPCC,2012 7
Change in surface temperature Warming trend over the 20 th century Source: WHO, 2003: Climate change and human health: risks and responses.4/4/2013 8
Global mean temperature & future projections 6.00 Global mean temperature has increased by 0.74°C between 1906 and 2005. 5.00Change in Global Temperatures wrt 1961-90 (°C) 4.00 IS92A A1FI A2a 3.00 A2b A2c A2(Me 2.00 B1a B2a B2b B2(me 1.00 0.00 Source: IPCC, 2001 Source: IPCC,2012 -1.00 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2021 2031 2041 2051 2061 2071 2081 2091 4/4/2013 Year 9
2) Melting of GlaciersAmong the most sensitive indicators of climate change.Their size is determined by a mass balance between snow input &melt output. Source: WGMS &NSIDC 4/4/2013 11
3) Arctic Sea Ice LossDecline in Arctic sea ice, both in extent and thickness, over the last several decades isfurther evidence for rapid climate change. Satellite observations show that Arctic seaice is now declining at a rate of 11.5 percent per decade, relative to the 1979 to 2000average.19932012 4/4/2013 13 NASA
Arctic sea ice levelThis time series, based on satellite data, shows the annual Arctic seaice level. Source: NASA 4/4/2013 14
4) Sea level riseGlobal sea level has risen at the average rate of 1.8mm/yrduring 1961-2003, the rate has been faster during 1993-2003(@3.1 mm/yr)4/4/2013 15
5) Other FactorsAnalysis of air bubbles in Antarctic Ice sheet: CO2 & atmospheric concentration of the CH4 & N2O were constant until they started to rise in the industrial era.Precipitation: Global terrestrial net primary precipitation increased by 6% from 1982 to 1999, with the largest portion of that increase in tropical ecosystems, then decreased by 1% from 2000 to 2009.Palynological Studies : Changes in the type of pollen found in different layers of sediment in lakes, bogs, or river deltas indicate changes in plant communities. These changes are often a sign of a changing climate 4/4/2013 17
Causes of change In climate Internal forcing External forcing mechanisms mechanism Ocean Human activities variability Life Solar output Magnetic field Volcanism Plate tectonics Orbital variations4/4/2013 18
Evidence for humancaused climate change1. Greenhouse gases have increased and their warming properties are well-established.2. Historical estimates of past climate changes suggest that the recent changes in global surface temperature are unusual.3. Computer-based climate models are unable to replicate the observed warming unless human greenhouse gas emissions are included.4. Natural forces alone (such as solar and volcanic activity) cannot explain the observed warming.4/4/2013 20
Anthropogenic greenhouse gases Gas Contribution (%) Water vapor 36 – 72% Carbon dioxide 9 – 26% Methane 4 – 9% Ozone 3 – 7% CFCs <1%• Burning of fossil fuels & deforestation lead to higher CO2 .• Livestock enteric fermentation & manure management, paddy rice farming, land use and wetland changes, & covered vented landfill emissions etc leading to higher CH4.• CFCs in refrigeration systems, & halons in fire suppression systems• Agricultural activities, including the use of fertilizers, that lead to higher N2O. 4/4/2013 21
Earths annual carbon cycleHuman activities emit about 9 Gt of carbon each year. About 4 Gt of this human-contributedcarbon remain in the atmosphere; 3 Gt are taken up by natural terrestrial processes, andanother 2 Gt are removed by the ocean (Canadell et al. 2007). 4/4/2013 23
Emissions Exceed Nature’s CO2 DrainSource: National Research Council, 2011aEmissions of CO2 due to fossil fuel burning and cement manufacture areIncreasing, but capacity of ―sinks‖ that take up CO2—e.g. plants on land and inthe ocean—are decreasing. Atmospheric CO2 is increasing as a result 4/4/2013 24
Increasing greenhouse gases trap more heat Higher concentration of CO2 & other green house gases trap more infrared rays in stratosphere. The additional heat further warms atmosphere & earth’s surface. 4/4/2013 26
Indian ScenarioIndia is not immune from the impact of global warming and climate change.• Any sharp rise in sea level could have a considerable impact given its low coastline and important cities located on the coast as also states having large low lying areas.• According to a report, the total CO2 equivalent emissions in 2007 were 1,612,362.00 in thousands of metric tones. INDIA Second National Communication to UNFCCC 20124/4/2013 27
Indian Scenario• Surface air temperature indicates a significant warming of 0.4°C for 100 years. Increase in mean annual temperature by 3°C to 6°C by the end of the 21st century.• Glaciers in Himalayas are receding at a rapid pace.• There is a projected increase in rainfall by 15-40 % by the end of the 21st century with high regional variability.• The warming is projected to be more pronounced over land areas, with the maximum increase over northern India. The warming is also relatively greater in winter and post- monsoon seasons. INDIA Second National Communication to UNFCCC 20124/4/2013 28
There are some major sources of GHG’s emission in India INDIA Second National Communication to UNFCCC 2012 Source:India Second National communication to UNFCC4/4/2013 29
Climate Change & Health Fossil Fuel Use, Development & Population Growth (Increased Emission of green house gases ) Climate Change (Earth warming rapidly) Serious Effects On The Environment Fundamental determinants of health: Air, Water, Food, Shelter & Freedom From Disease. Serious Effects On Human Lives And Health 4/4/2013 32
Pathways from Driving Forces to Potential Health Impacts Corvalan et al., 20034/4/2013 33
Pathways for Weather to Affect Health: Example = Diarrheal DiseaseDistal Causes Proximal Causes Infection Hazards Health OutcomeTemperature Survival/ replication Consumption ofHumidity of pathogens in the contaminated water environment Incidence ofPrecipitation mortality and Contamination of Consumption of morbidityLiving conditions attributable water sources contaminated food(water supply and to diarrheasanitation) Contamination of food Contact with sources infected personsFood sources andhygiene practices Vulnerability Rate of person (e.g. age and to person contact nutrition)WHO 4/4/2013 34
Major health consequences of climate change1) Agricultural sector extremely sensitive Rising temperatures & more frequent droughts and floods compromise food security Malnutrition2) Frequent extreme weather events (storms and floods) Deaths & Injuries Outbreaks of diseases, such as Cholera.3) Both scarcities & excess of water Diarrhoeal disease4) Heat-waves , especially in urban “heat islands” directly increase morbidity & mortality, mainly in elderly people with cardiovascular or respiratory disease. Also increase in ground-level ozone and hasten the onset of the pollen season Asthma attacks5) Changing temperatures & patterns of rainfall alter the geographical distribution of insect vectors Vector borne diseases (Malaria and dengue are of greatest public health concern.) WHO 4/4/2013 35
Potential Climate Change Health Effects• Heat-Related & Extreme events related Morbidity and Mortality• Asthma, Respiratory Allergies, and Airway Diseases• Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke• Vectorborne and Zoonotic Diseases• Foodborne Diseases and Nutrition• Waterborne Diseases• Mental Health &Neurological Diseases and Disorders• Cancer• Social Impacts4/4/2013 36
Heat & extreme weather -Related Morbidity and MortalityHeat waves, or extreme heat events, are characterized by several days of temperatures greater than 90° F; warm, stagnant air masses; and consecutive nights with higher– than-usual minimum temperatures.Account for more deaths annually than hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and earthquakes combined.Extreme weather events, sea-level rise, destruction of local economies, resource scarcity, and associated conflict due to climate change are predicted to displace millions of people worldwide. (200 million people worldwide by 2050)4/4/2013 37
Respiratory DiseasesAir quality affected through several pathways – increases in regional ambient concentrations of ozone, PM2.5s fine particles, & dust. – Increase production & allergenicity of aeroallergens (pollen mold & spores)Aeroallergens act with other harmful air pollution worsen respiratory disease (Allergic rhinitis asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease )Ozone causes direct, reversible lung injury; increases premature mortality; worsens respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); and may cause lasting lung damage.PM2.5s are associated with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, including asthma, COPD, and cardiac dysrhythmiasGlobal rise in asthma is an early health effect of climate change38 4/4/2013 .
Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke• Dysrhythmias are primarily associated with extreme cold as well as heat.• Stroke incidence increases with increasing temperature.• Ozone are also associated with acute myocardial infarction.• Particulate matter associated with systemic inflammation, deranged coagulation , thrombosis, blood vessel dysfunction atherosclerotic disease, compromised heart function, deep venous thromboses, & pulmonary embolism.• Increased burden of PM2.5 is associated with increased hospital admissions and mortality from cardiovascular disease, as well as ischemic heart disease• Elderly and isolated individuals are at greatest risk. 4/4/2013 39
Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases Distribution of vectors will change arising from:• Increasing temperature• Changing rainfall• Cyclones, flooding• Changes in animal host/reservoir populations• Rising sea levels• Extreme tides• Loss of coastal marginsMalaria and dengue fever to re-emerge.Introduction & spread of new agents, such as West Nile virus.Some VBZD agents like Lyme disease & Hantavirus, which show evidence of seasonality & the range of these diseases could change with a changing climate4/4/2013 40
Food borne diseases• Increased occurrence of Vibrio infection, especially seafood- borne disease associated with V. vulnificus & V. parahaemolyticus.• Ocean acidification also lead to more virulent strains of existing pathogens & emergence of new pathogens.• Drought encourage crop pests such as aphids, locusts, and whiteflies, as well as the spread of the mould Aspergillus flavus & thereby exacerbate malnutrition, poverty, and the need for human migration.• Greater use of herbicides, fungicides, & insecticides, resulting in potential immediate hazards to farm workers4/4/2013 41
Waterborne disease• Increased risk from the: a) Concentration of nutrient and chemical contaminants b) Formation of toxic algal bloom c) Surface water contamination with human waste d) Changes in ocean and coastal ecosystems e) Changes in ph, salinity f) Contaminant runoff, leaching of arsenic, fluoride, and nitrates from fertilizers & lead contamination g) Water security.• Severe outbreaks of cholera. 4/4/2013 42
Mental Health – Anxiety and depression – Post traumatic stress disorderInsecurity – Grief – Stress, self harm and possible suicide – Drug and alcohol misuse – Impacts on individuals, communities – Loss of social cohesion – Dislocation ―Solastalgia‖. – Specific impacts on children, women and elderly4/4/2013 43
Neurological diseasesExposure to neurotoxins (eg. domoic acid ) in seafood, fresh & marine waters, pesticides & herbicide effects & heavy metals leads to onset and exacerbation• Amnesia,• Numbness,• Neurological deficits• Learning disabilities• Liver damage,• Skin and eye irritation,• Respiratory paralysis,• PD- and AD-like symptoms,• Epilepsy.4/4/2013 44
Cancers• Leaching of toxic chemicals and heavy metals from storage sites & contamination of water with chemicals.• Depletion of stratospheric ozone resulting in increased UV radiation exposure increased risk of skin cancers (BCC & SCC) & cataracts.• Increased UV radiation with certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) phototoxicity & DNA damage.4/4/2013 45
Social ImpactsLifestyle and behaviour are likely to be affected inthe following ways: – Increases in crime - particularly involving aggression – Accidents - workplace and traffic – Decline in physical health – Hot nights may cause sleep deprivation – Recreational opportunities - changes to exercise patterns – Changes in alcohol consumption – Stress – Lack of cold water- reduced ability to cool down
International environment agenda • 1972 Club of Rome Limits to Growth . • 1972 UN World Conference on the Human Environment. • 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development ―Our Common Future‖ • WSSD. [World Summit on Sustainable Development] Rio 1992 – Framework Conventions on Climate Change, Biodiversity and others. – Agenda 21 • 1997 Kyoto Protocol • WSSD - Johannesburg 2002 [Rio+10] – UN Kofi Annan proposed five key areas for particular focus: – WEHAB [Water, Energy, Health, Agriculture, Biodiversity] • 2005 Kyoto Protocol comes into force. US opts out. • 2008 : Protecting health from the adverse effects of climate change • 2010 : United Nation Climate Change Conference Cancun, Mexico • 2011 : United Nation Climate Change Conference Durban, South Africa • 2012 : Doha Climate Gateway4/4/2013 47
Stages of Adaptation Extreme rainfall and flooding Prevent/reduce • Primary – prevent onset of floodingDECREASING EFFECTIVENESS health impact Overflow of waste from septic • Secondary – preventative tanks into flood waters measures taken in response to early evidence Prevent/reduce of impact overflow of waste • Tertiary – actions to lessen Human contact with flood water the health effects Avoid human contact with water Gastro intestinal diseases Correct medical treatment4/4/2013 48
Options for Adaptations to Reduce the Health Impacts of Climate ChangeHealth Legislative Technical Educational- Cultural &Outcome advisory BehavioralThermal Building Housing, public Early warning Clothing,stress guidelines buildings, urban systems siesta planning, air conditioningExtreme Planning laws, Urban planning, storm Early warning Use of stormweather economic shelters systems sheltersevents incentives for buildingVector-borne Vector control, Health Water storagediseases vaccination, impregnated education practices bednets, sustainable surveillance, prevention & control programmesWater-borne Watershed Screening for pathogens, Boil water Washingdiseases protection improved water alerts hands and laws, water treatment & sanitation other quality behavior, use regulation of pit latrines
Adaptive Options to reduce Global warming oStop deforestation/plant forests oReplace regular bulbs with compact fluorescent light (CFL) oProduce more fuel-efficient vehicles & Reduce vehicle use. oRecycle more oImprove energy-efficiency in buildings oDevelop carbon capture and storage processes oTriple nuclear power oIncrease solar power oImprove soil carbon management strategies 4/4/2013 50
CARBON FOOTPRINT • Carbon Footprint is the sum of all emissions of, CO2 which was induced by a person’s activity in the time period of year. • It is usually expressed in equivalent tones of carbon dioxide. It is a very powerful tool to understand the impact of personal behavior on global warming. • Constant monitoring of ones carbon foorprint is essential.4/4/2013 51
Carbon Credits• A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tone of carbon or carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 -e).• They are a component of national and international attempts to mitigate the growth in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs).• Led to the establishment of carbon market all across the world.• They can be sold within a country and between the countries. The value of one CER in Indian Rupees is about Rs. 1600• To combat climate changes globally, Kyoto Protocol was created committing to reduce GHGs Emissions by 5.2% & improve Energy Efficiency in the period 2008-12..
Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) FrameworkIt is for public health agencies to help them develop strategies and programs to confront the health implications of climate changeThere are five sequential steps• Step 1: Forecasting Climate Impacts and Assessing Vulnerabilities.• Step 2: Projecting the Disease Burden.• Step 3: Assessing Public Health Interventions.• Step 4: Developing and Implementing a Climate and Health Adaptation Plan.• Step 5: Evaluating Impact and Improving Quality of Activities step for the Framework.4/4/2013 53 Source: CDC Atlanta
India for Climate Issues• Solar Mission to increase the share of this energy for decentralized distribution and to create affordable and convenient solar power systems.• Enhanced Energy Efficiency to introduce cost effectiveness and shift to energy efficient appliances.• Sustainable Habitats to optimize energy application in large building & efficient urban waste management.• Conserve water & ensure equitable distribution between States & areas.4/4/2013 54
India for Climate Issues• Sustaining the Himalayan Eco System by safeguarding the Himalayan Glacier.• Mission for Green India by undertaking a forestation of 6 million hectares to reach the National target of 33% green cover.• Sustainable Agriculture by developing thermal resistance crops and supported by Bio-technology, geo-spatia technology and IT• Strategic Knowledge developement to fund high quality and focused research on climate change.4/4/2013 55
Conclusion• The diverse, widespread, long-term and inequitable distribution of health risks makes climate change a truly global challenge, calling for an unprecedented degree of partnership.• An effective response will require actions from across society: from individuals, the health sector, and community and political leaders.• Sharing of responsibilities between the populations4/4/2013 56
References• INDIA Second National Communication to UNFCCC 2012 Government of India ,Ministry of Environment & Forests:Paryavaran Bhawan, CGO Complex,Lodi Road, New Delhi-3.• IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change),2006. IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, IPCC• 2009 Ends Warmest Decade on Record NASA Earth Observatory Image of the Day, 22 January 2010.• Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Paris. IPCC, Synthesis Report, Section 2.4: Attribution of climate change, in IPCC AR4 SYR 2009• Canadell, J.G., et al. (20 November 2007), "Contributions to Accelerating Atmospheric CO2 Growth from Economic Activity, Carbon Intensity, and Efficiency of Natural Sinks", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (47): 18866–18870. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0702737104 4/4/2013 57
References• IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 1996. Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Green House Gas Inventories.• Impact of climate change on vector borne disease with special emphasis on Malaria.NIMR• NATCOM (National Communication), 2004. India’s Initial National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi• IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change),2009. Emission Factor Database (EFDB). Available at http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/EFDB/main.php, last accessed on• IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change),2003. Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land Use• Change and Forestry. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) Jha A. K., Sharma C., Singh 4/4/2013 58
References• Global Change Master Directory: http://gcmd.gsfc.nasa.gov/Resources/pointers/glob_w arm.htmlIntergovernmental Panel on Climate change(last accesed on 24/03/2013)• U.S. Climate Change Science Program: http://www.climatescience.gov/(last accesed on 24/03/2013)• NOAA National Climatic Data Centre site on Global Warming /(last accesed on 24/03/2013)• http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/globalwarming. html /(last accesed on 24/03/2013)• NASA GISS recent research website: http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/ /(last accesed on 24/03/2013)4/4/2013 59