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Read Aloud- Think Aloud
 

Read Aloud- Think Aloud

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Components of an Interactive Read Aloud in the primary classroom with an emphasis on think alouds.

Components of an Interactive Read Aloud in the primary classroom with an emphasis on think alouds.

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  • Note: National Commission on Reading –single most important activity for building reading knowledge—reading aloud to children---On a consistent basis—above independent rdg level—at a comfortably challenging L.L
  • MODEL—fluent, expressive rdg—support all types of lessons—mini, units, thematic, content area text—sci, math, ss—during whole class book studies—applicable picture book, short story, poem, nonfiction that connects—introduce a theme, a new unit—end a unit—gives kids the opp. To talk/discuss/think about text—model thinking processes that occur during rdg—acquaint kids w/text structures—different genres of text
  • Not all magazine and newspaper articles are non-fiction—there are essays, editorials, cartoons, and even jokes . . . AND Picture books are not just for emergent/young readers---fantastic books that tell a story and connect to themes - - --show a few books . . . Non-fiction picture books connect . . . Speeches and historical documents as primary sources of study can be difficult w/o support . . .reading it aloud . . .can help students to understand . . .
  • Teacher models expressive reading Thinking aloud and the metacognitive processes like making connections etc provides students w/ interaction w/a variety of texts helps newcomers to hear the language, helps build background knowledge and est. prior know. For intermediate ELLs.
  • What is that?
  • It’s difficult to get a proper gauge on this. Usually the IRL can be found by administering an Informal Reading Inventory.
  • Listening level is higher than comprehension level.
  • So if a child is reading at a fourth grade level, his listening level may be around a 6 th grade level, if we do the math correctly. What happens when there are all different listening/comprehension levels—find a comfortable level for everyone OR SCAFFOLD . . . Through DISCUSSION . . .PINPOINT STRATEGIC STOPPING POINTS FOR DISCUSSION, CLARIFICATION, AND PREDICTION . . .
  • PRE READ! CONSIDER GOALS! IDENTIFY WHAT YOU WANT STUDENTS TO DO! HOW YOU WANT THEM TO READ . . . IDENTIFY THE NUANCES/ELEMENTS OF THE TEXT THAT NEED TO BE TAUGHT. ANTICIPATE WHERE STUDENTS MAY LACK BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE AND PLAN A BEFORE READING ACTIVITY THAT BUILDS STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE OF THE CONTENT.
  • PINPOINT STOPPING POINTS FOR DISCUSSION, QUESTIONING, MAKING PREDICTIONS, AND CONNECTIONS PLAN DISCUSSION QUESTIONS B4 THE LESSON/PRACTICE READING WITH DRAMA, GESTURES, AND VOICE INFLECTION BEFORE THE LESSON. A COLD READ CAN BE A BUMPY ONE IF YOU ARE NOT FAMILIAR WITH THE CONTENT PLAN AUTHENTIC BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER READING ACTIVITIES AROUND YOUR READ ALOUD. BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER ACTIVITIES: -ENGAGE STUDENTS WITH THE TEXT -ACTIVELY INVOLVE STUDENTS IN CONSTRUCTING MEANING THROUGHOUT -GIVES KIDS A CHANCE TO OBSERVE AND PRACTICE COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES -IS A PRODUCT AND PROCESS TRANSACTION B/W THE READER, THE TEXT, AND THE CONTENT . . .
  • DISCUSS TH OTHER STRATEGIES—PICTURE WALK—STORY IMPRESSIONS WHEN TEACHER LISTS IMPORTANT WORDS FROM A STORY AND HAS STUDENTS WRITE THEIR OWN STORY PRIOR TO READING ANTICIPATION GUIDE
  • DURING READING STRATEGIES & ACTIVITIES ALLOW TEACHERS AND STUDENTS TO MONITOR UNDERSTANDING. STUDENTS HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO TALK ABOUT TEXT. THEY CAN QUESTION WHAT THEY DON’T UNDERSTAND, AND EVENTUALLY APPLY FIX-UP STRATEGIES WHILE THEY ARE READING.
  • READERS ARE TALKING THROUGH THE READING PROCESS—TELLING WHAT THEY ARE THINKING, REMINDED OF, CONNECTING TO, HAVING PROBLEMS WITH.
  • SO THE THE THINK ALOUD IS REALLY A METACOGNITIVE PROCESS, BUT WE HAVE TO SCAFFOLD OUR STUDENTS INTO THIS PROCESS THROUGH MODELING AND EXTENSIVE PRACTICE IN PAIRS, GROUPS, THEN INDIVIDUALLY—TEACHING THEM TO CUE THEMSELVES WHILE READING
  • BLOOM’S TAXONOMY—KNOWLEDGE, COMPREHENSION, APPLICATION, ANALYSIS, EVALUATION, SYNTHESIS ARE ALL TAKING PLACE AS STUDENTS ARE JUDGING, UNDERSTANDING, CONNECTING, INFERRING, PREDICTING, AND THEN, MONITORING HOW THEY ARE COMPREHENDING DURING A THINK ALOUD.
  • RECURSIVE TEACHING---MODELING, CHECKING FOR UNDERSTANDING, SCAFFOLDING STUDENTS INTO PRACTICE WHILE TEACHER ASSISTS, THEN INTO SMALL GROUP/PARTNERED SUPPORTED TO STUDENTS INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY—STRATEGY USE.
  • YOU MAY WANT TO DISTRIBUTE EXAMPLES OF THE TYPES OF REPORTING STATEMENTS TO FAMILIARIZE STUDENTS WITH THE LANGUAGE. BUILDING A COMMON LANGUAGE FOR INSTRUCTION THAT STUDENTS KNOW, UNDERSTAND, AND USE TOGETHER IS KEY.
  • TEXT PREVIEWING REPORTING . . . STATEMENTS . . .
  • PREDICTION REPORTING STATEMENTS
  • CLARIFICATION/SELF-MONITORING STATEMENTS ARE EXTREMELY IMPORTANT AS STUDENTS ARE INVOLVED IN THINKING ABOUT WHAT THEY ARE AND ARE NOT COMPREHENDING AND WHY. AS STUDENTS THINK ABOUT WHAT THEY HAVE READ, THEY CLARIFY, ADJUST, AND REVISE THEIR THINKING/INTERPRETATIONS. THEY BUILD UPON THEIR OWN COMPREHENSION.
  • STUDENTS ESTABLISH BUILD ON PRIOR KNOWLEDGE AND BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE AS THEY MAKE CONNECTIONS WHILE READING. AS THEY MAKE CONNECTIONS THEY ARE ADDING NEW KNOWLEDGE TO WHAT THEY ALREADY KNOW.
  • MAKING CONNECTIONS INVOLVES COMPARING AND SYNTHESIZING OLD AND NEW INFORMATION IN RELATION TO OTHER TEXTS, PERSONAL EXPERIENCES, THE WORLD, AND CONTENT.
  • COMMENTING/GENERAL REMARKS/STUDENTS RATIONALIZE
  • MONITORING AND USING THE APPROPRIATE STRATEGY TO FACILITATE COMPREHENSION. (TAKES PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE AND MUST BE MODELED BY THE TEACHER ETC.).
  • PRACTICE PRACTICE PRACTICE!! FISHBOWL TO MODEL---AS PART OF BOOK CLUB, LITERATURE CIRCLES –SMALL GROUP OF STUDENTS CAN MODEL WHILE CLASS OBSERVES AND LATER COMMENTS/CRITIQUES.
  • AFTER READING – MONITOR UNDERSTANDING OF TEXT, MAKE CONNECTIONS, IF WE EXTEND THE VIEW THAT COMPREHENSION IS A PROCESS, THEN MEANING MAKING EXTENS TO ACTIVITIES THAT OCCUR ONCE THE TEXT HAS BEEN READ. SKETCH-TO-STRETCH—STUDENTS CREATE SYMBOLIC SKETCHES OF THEIR INTERPRETATIONS OF THE TEXT AND WRITE AN EXPLANATION. STUDENTS CAN GATHER IN SMALL GROUPS TO SHARE, RESPOND, OR WRITE ABOUT EACH OTHER’S SKETCHES. TAKES MEANING FROM ONE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM—TEXT; AND RECASTS THEM IN TERMS OF ANOTHER SYSTEM (TRANSMEDIATION) IMPORTANT TO DISCUSS W/ STUDENTS THAT DIFFERENT READERS GENERATE DIFFERENT INTERPRETATIONS AND EVEN AN INDIVIDUAL READER MAY HAVE MORE THAN ONE INTERPRETATION.

Read Aloud- Think Aloud Read Aloud- Think Aloud Presentation Transcript

  • Interactive Read Aloud Mona Iehl 1st and 2nd Grade Multiage Teacher Polaris Charter Academy
  • Definition
    • Read Aloud is a strategy in which a teacher sets aside time to read orally to students on a consistent basis from texts above their independent reading level but at their listening level .
  • We read aloud to:
    • Start the day.
    • Support reading and writing mini lessons.
    • Support social studies and science curriculum.
    • Help students talk and think about texts.
    • Introduce a theme.
    • Mentor students in the thinking processes of proficient readers.
    • Familiarize students with text structures and genres.
  • What to read aloud
    • Fiction
      • Novels
      • Short stories
      • Poetry
      • Picture books
      • Student authored writing
    • Magazine articles
    • Newspaper articles
    • Non-Fiction
      • Informational text
      • Biography
      • Autobiography
      • Speeches
      • Content area selections
      • Historical documents
  • Reading aloud to students allows the teacher to:
    • Model fluent and expressive reading.
    • Think aloud.
    • Model the reading process.
    • Review text structure.
    • Facilitate comprehension
    • Provide interactions with a variety of texts.
    • Make connections.
  • Getting ready for the read aloud
    • Choose high interest selections that are above students’ independent reading level.
  • Independent Reading Level:
    • The level at which the student reads fluently with 90% (or higher) comprehension and word recognition.
    • *Informal Reading Inventory
    • -Running Records
    • -STEP Test
  • Listening Level:
    • Is the level at which students adequately comprehend material that is read by the teacher.
    • - Burns and Roe, 2002
  • Estimating Listening Level:
      • Some suggest it is approximately 2 years above their independent reading level.
      • SCAFFOLD for all readers.
      • Choose stopping points for discussion and clarification
  • Teacher preparation for read alouds
    • Pre-read and re-read selection.
    • Consider reading goals.
      • What do you want the students to do or learn?
    • Anticipate where background knowledge needs to be built.
      • Find words or concepts that might be confusing. That’s a perfect stoppign point.
  • Teacher preparation for read alouds
    • Highlight places to stop, question, make predictions, or make connections.
    • Write discussion questions before the lesson.
    • Practice reading the selection using gestures and voice intonation.
    • Plan before, during, and after reading activities to enhance comprehension.
  • Read aloud strategies: Before reading Frontloading- IMPORTANT
    • Open up conversation.
    • Identify author, title, setting, characters, background.
    • Activate prior knowledge or common knowledge.
  • Read aloud strategies: During reading
    • Help students notice aspects of narrative/informational texts
    • Turn & Talk
    • Stop & Jot
    • Stopping points for clarification and questions.
    • Vocabulary!
    • Think Aloud
  • During reading strategy: Think Aloud
    • Readers’ verbal self-reports about their thinking processes.
            • -Wade, 1990
    • Technique in which students verbalize their thoughts as they read.
            • -Keene & Zimmerman, 1997
    • The Think-Aloud strategy helps readers to think about how they make meaning.
            • -Beers, 2003
  • Metacognitive Awareness
    • Is being able to think about one’s own thinking.
    • Is an integral component of learning.
    • Enables learners to assess their level of comprehension and adjust their strategies for greater success.
    • Includes identifying and then using appropriate “fix-up” strategies to enhance comprehension.
  • Modeling Think Alouds
    • The Think Aloud strategy can be used to model (almost anything):
    • Predicting
    • Visualizing—creating mental images of information
    • Assessing and establishing prior knowledge
    • Making new connections
    • Summarizing & Synthesizing
    • Demonstrating the fix-up strategies for when students cannot make sense of what they read.
  • Think-Alouds help students to:
    • Understand that reading should make sense.
    • Move beyond literal decoding to comprehending.
    • Learn a repertoire of strategies to use before, during, and after reading.
    • Learn, think, and reflect upon themselves and their reading.
  • How does a Think Aloud look?
    • General Think Aloud Scenarios:
      • Teacher models think aloud; students listen.
      • Teacher thinks aloud; students assist.
      • Students think aloud as large group; teacher and other students monitor and assist.
      • Students think aloud in small groups while teacher and other students monitor and help.
      • Individual students think aloud in forum or Fishbowl; other students help.
      • Students think aloud individually; compare with others.
      • Teacher or students think aloud orally, in writing, on an overhead, with Post-it Notes, or in a journal; then share.
    • - Wilhelm, J. (2001). Improving comprehension with Think-Aloud Strategies.
    • New York: Scholastic.
  • Modeling a Think Aloud
    • Choose a high-interest selection/decide on a few strategies to highlight.
    • State purpose for reading.
    • Inform students that you will be thinking aloud and stopping to think through what is being read as the selection or passage is read aloud.
  • Modeling a Think Aloud
    • Read text, stopping frequently to talk about how meaning is being made, analyzing the thinking process: “report out.”
    • List the cues and strategies used.
    • Discuss strategy—ask students to identify other situations (connect to text, world, self) in which they could use these same strategies.
    • Reinforce the Think Aloud with follow-up lessons and repeated think alouds.
    • -Beers, 2003
    • -Wilhelm, 2001
  • Think Aloud: Reporting out
    • Previewing Text:
      • “ The title/author/pictures/captions/book design makes me think of . . .”
      • “ The Title makes me think that this is going to be about a ____ .”
      • “ The comments on the back cover lead me to believe that . . .”
      • “ The photographs/headings/subheadings make me think that . . .”
  • Think Aloud: Reporting out
    • Make a prediction:
      • “ I’m guessing that _____will happen next.”
      • “ I bet that . . .”
      • “ I wonder if . . .”
      • “ I imagine the author believes . . .”
      • “ This reminds me of . . .”
      • “ This could help me with . . .”
      • “ Since this happened _____, then, I bet the next thing that is going to happen is . . .”
      • “ This is like . . .”
  • Think Aloud: Reporting out
    • Clarify something/monitor comprehension:
      • “ This is (not) making sense because . . .”
      • “ This connects (or doesn’t) to what I already know/already read because . . .”
      • “ Now I understand ________.”
      • “ This makes sense now because . . .”
      • “ No, I think it means. . . .”
      • “ This part is really saying . . .”
      • “ At first I thought ____, but now, I think . . .”
  • Think Aloud: Reporting out
    • Make a connection:
      • “ This reminds me of . . .”
      • “ This part is like . . .”
      • “ This character _____ is like _____ because . . .”
      • “ This is similar to . . .”
      • “ I also (name something in the text that has also happened personally to student).”
      • “ This character makes me think of . . .”
      • “ The setting reminds me of . . .”
      • “ This is helping me with/to think about . . .”
  • Making Connections
    • Successful readers monitor their own thinking and make connections among text and their own experiences, other texts, and the world through writing and talking about the text before, during, and after reading.
    • Model making connections during a THINK ALOUD.
  • Make connections from the selection
    • To self,
    • To the world,
    • To other texts. . .
    • before, during, and after reading.
  • Think Aloud: Reporting out
    • Make a comment:
      • “ This is good because . . .”
      • “ This is hard because . . .”
      • “ This is confusing . . .”
      • “ I like the part where . . .”
      • “ I don’t like this part because . . .”
      • “ My favorite part (so far) is . . .”
      • “ I think that . . .”
      • “ I imagine . . .I see . . .”
  • Think Aloud: Reporting out
    • Use fix-up strategies to address confusion and repair comprehension:
      • “ Maybe I better . . .”
      • “ Something I could do is . . .”
      • “ Since I don’t understand this word a good strategy would be to . . .”
      • “ I need to revise my thinking by ____.”
      • “ What I thought this was about no longer makes sense to me because _____.”
  • After modeling the Think Aloud
    • After modeling thinking aloud a few times and teaching the metacognitive report out/talk have students try it on a portion of text within small groups or with a partner.
    • Provide ample opportunities for students to practice thinking.
    • Give students a chance to reflect on HOW the think aloud has changed their reading habits.
  • Read aloud strategies: After reading
    • Response
    • Balance between talk and text
    • Sharing
      • Story maps
      • Graphic organizers
      • Predictions check
      • “ Sketch-to- stretch”
      • Semantic Differential Scales
  • Semantic Differential Scales:
    • Help students to:
        • Make comparisons;
        • Make connections;
        • Recognize contrasts;
        • Draw conclusions; and
        • Discuss and explain their thinking.
  • Semantic Differential Scales
    • Place opposite character traits (honest/dishonest) on opposite ends of a scale.
    • Focus on character development.
    • Can be used to track character changes.
  • Semantic Differential Scales
    • Procedure:
      • Actively read a selection or listen to a read aloud. Teacher models for students.
      • Match traits/terms to character making connections to student experience, other texts, and the world.
      • Explain how opinion was reached.
      • Discuss and defend responses.
      • Provide evidence from selection.
  • After Semantic Differential Scales
    • Students should:
            • Discuss their responses.
            • Create visual images.
            • Stage debates.
            • Write a response.
            • Interview each other.
            • Write editorials.
            • Defend their responses .