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Uof p early childhood sped week 1 assignment 1 final
 

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Early Childhood Special Education Overview

Early Childhood Special Education Overview

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    Uof p early childhood sped week 1 assignment 1 final Uof p early childhood sped week 1 assignment 1 final Document Transcript

    • Running head: SPED 501 WEEK 1 ASSIGNMENT 1 FINAL SPED 501 Week 1 Assignment 1 Final Virginia Brown SPED 501 Monday, February 10, 2014 Ronda Jones 1
    • SPED 501 WEEK 1 ASSIGNMENT 1 FINAL 2 An Overview of Early Childhood Special Education A Brief History of Early Childhood Special Education Early childhood special education has a complicated history. Few people were interested or motivated enough to try to educate children with delays or special needs. One of them was Jean-Marc Itard. In 1800, he worked with a boy, Victor, who had been found living by himself in the forest. Victor was considered to incurable. Jean-Marc Itard was unsuccessful in meeting all of his goals to help Victor but did put the wheels of special education in motion. Alexander Graham Bell addressed the National Education Association, the NEA, about his concerns for educating people with special needs. Eventually, in 1897 the NEA set up the Department of Education of the Deaf, Blind, and Feeble-Minded. It then became the Department of Special Education. In 1922, the International Council for Exceptional Children, the CEC, was formed and became an advocacy group for children. This group was influential in providing support and continues to provide support for with children with special needs. When my parents were growing up in the 1930’s and 1940’s, children with special needs were kept in their homes or were sent away to institutions. Here in Colorado, parents wanted other options for their children. They felt their children had the abilities to learn and grow and become contributing members of society. Preschools like Bal Swan in Broomfield which opened in 1963, and the Tiny Tim Center, now TLC, in Longmont that opened in 1956, were opened by groups of parents who wanted something different and better for their children. These two preschools were therapy-based and provided education for children special needs and their typically developing peers. Since then, laws have been put in place to help ensure education for all, regardless of ability. And, the way we look at and interact with children with disabilities has evolved. One way is by referring to the person first and then to the disability. This is known as person-first. The Laws One of the first laws is The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 which prohibits a person from being discriminated against due to a disability. In 2008, Section 504 of this law was amended and is broader than IDEA. It helps provide services for children with disabilities who do not qualify for special education.
    • SPED 501 WEEK 1 ASSIGNMENT 1 FINAL 3 The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, IDEA, was enacted by Congress in 1975. The main focus was and is to provide a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) for all students. This law did not originally include children of preschool age but did set things up so that they would eventually be included. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 expanded the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. It calls for equality for people who have disabilities. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) amended the Elementary and SecondaryEducation Act. NCLB called for many changes to our educational system. The requirements for assessment and for teachers changed dramatically. Under NCLB, all teachers are supposed to be highly-qualified. Another change was children with special needs are expected to complete and be held to the same standards as their typically developing peers. This has been challenging for children, administrators, educators, and families. It has been a controversial law. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 updated the original IDEA. Schoolaged children, ages 3-22, were included in Part B in 2006. Part B includes preschoolers. Infants and toddlers, ages birth to age 3, as well as their families, were included in Part C in 2011. As the laws are amended and updated, more children with special needs are able to receive the education they need and deserve. Trends in Early Childhood Special Education There are lots oftrends in early childhood special education. Working with each individual child isbe the focus. The individual needs can be met in many ways. Whether it is with a Transdisciplanary approach where fewer members of the team interact with the child and are sharing the implementation of the IFSP or IEP or an interdisciplinary approach in which each specialist does his or her own job, collaboration is critical. Another trend is developmentally-appropriate practice. Knowing what is typical for each student at age, based on years of research, helps educators decide how to teach young children and what experiences will help prepare them for their lives and for the future educational experiences. Developmentally-appropriate practice is based in research about how and when children do things and how to educate them while keeping these things in mind. With the current “push-down” in education, teachers fear developmentally appropriate practice is being set aside in many classrooms as students are pushed to learn and do more and more every day. Some other trends are standards-based lessons and evaluations. Standards are based on peer-reviewed research and developmentally appropriate practices.
    • SPED 501 WEEK 1 ASSIGNMENT 1 FINAL 4 More Elements of Early Childhood Special Education The least restrictive-environment is another important piece of early childhood special education. The least-restrictive environment is mandated but is different for each child. Inclusion, mainstreaming, and pull-out approaches need to be reviewed and revisited. What worked last week or yesterday or even with the same subject with the same child may not work the next day. It is essential to be able to read the children and understand what each student needs and then adapt to meet the child’s needs. There are many factors that influence young children’s development and learning. Early experiences, stimulating environments, and deep, meaningful relationships with adults and other people are critical components of successful early childhood education. These things start before the child even goes to preschool. Parts of these factors are social, emotional, and physical. Socialization helps young children prepare for and practice their social skills needed for the greater world, the one outside their own family. Social interactions between adult caregivers as well as between siblings and other children in the household help the young child practice appropriate responses and interactions. Children who are engaged with socially have been found to be more supported and appear to be less at-risk. Emotional support is part of this. Young children who are nurtured and supported from an early age are more likely to take risks and have more confidence. They feel more secure in their environments and tend to have less trouble with transitions. Physical support is another key part that influences development and learning. Children who are well-fed, clothed and living in a supportive environment are more at ease. I know all of these components go hand-in-hand. It would be so amazing the progress young children would make if all three came together at once. Colin Powell spoke about young children also needing structure and discipline. He feels they thrive in situations where they know what to expect and are supported. Another important piece was when he spoke about reading to young children and how much they need to know when they get to First Grade. (Powell, 2013) He called this “The Gift of a Good Start;” structure, discipline, exposure to books and reading at an early age, (Powell, 2013.)
    • SPED 501 WEEK 1 ASSIGNMENT 1 FINAL 5 Bibliography Bartik, T. (2013, May).The Economic Case for Preschool [Video file]. Retrieved from TED talks website: http://new.ted.com/talks/timothy_bartik_the_economic_case_for_preschool Cook, R. E., Klein, M. D., &Tessier, A. (2012). Adapting early childhood curricula for children with special needs (8th ed.). Upper Saddler River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall. Powell, C. (2013, January). Kids Need Structure [Video file]. Retrieved from TED Talks website: http://www.ted.com/talks/colin_powell_kids_need_structure.html The National Association for the Education of Young Children.https://www.naeyc.org/DAP The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities.http://nichcy.org/laws