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Ps chapter 2

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  • 1. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.1Chapter 2 Building Speaker Confidence Essentials ofEssentials of Public SpeakingPublic Speaking Cheryl Hamilton, Ph.D. 5th Edition5th Edition Building Speaker Confidence Chapter 2 Cheryl HamiltonCheryl Hamilton
  • 2. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.2Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Isocrates, a Greek contemporary of Plato andIsocrates, a Greek contemporary of Plato and AristotleAristotle,, is one of the prestigious Ten Atticis one of the prestigious Ten Attic Orators. However, he suffered from speakerOrators. However, he suffered from speaker anxiety and had a voice that wouldn’t project.anxiety and had a voice that wouldn’t project. Even so, he and founded the first permanentEven so, he and founded the first permanent and financially successful school of rhetoric.and financially successful school of rhetoric. For over 50 years his graduates becameFor over 50 years his graduates became prominent Greek citizens. Most scholarsprominent Greek citizens. Most scholars agree that his program of study and hisagree that his program of study and his philosophy of educating “the good man skilledphilosophy of educating “the good man skilled in speaking” have greatly influenced educationin speaking” have greatly influenced education even to the present timeeven to the present time (Conley, 1990, p. 20).(Conley, 1990, p. 20). Flashback . . .Flashback . . .
  • 3. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.3Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Key IdeasKey Ideas  The situational and trait anxietyThe situational and trait anxiety  DefineDefine Positive ImageryPositive Imagery and explain how itand explain how it helps manage trait anxietyhelps manage trait anxiety  Strategies for managing anxietyStrategies for managing anxiety
  • 4. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.4Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Types of AnxietyTypes of Anxiety  Situational –Situational – anxiety caused by factors present in a specific speaking situation  Trait –Trait – internal anxieties an individual brings toto the speaking situation
  • 5. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.5Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Characteristics of Situational AnxietyCharacteristics of Situational Anxiety  Feeling nervous in a new speaking situationFeeling nervous in a new speaking situation  Situational anxiety is normal and necessarySituational anxiety is normal and necessary to dynamic communicationto dynamic communication  Experienced speakers get situational anxietyExperienced speakers get situational anxiety (e.g. Mike Wallace, Billy Graham, Lee(e.g. Mike Wallace, Billy Graham, Lee Iacocca, talk show host Susan Powter)Iacocca, talk show host Susan Powter)
  • 6. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.6Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Characteristics of Trait AnxietyCharacteristics of Trait Anxiety  A feeling of dissimarlity to other speakersA feeling of dissimarlity to other speakers  A feeling of anxiety due to prior speakingA feeling of anxiety due to prior speaking historyhistory  A feeling of subordinate statusA feeling of subordinate status
  • 7. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.7Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Managing Situational AnxietyManaging Situational Anxiety  Prepare and practicePrepare and practice – Prepare using notes and visuals – Practice out loud at least three times  Warm-up before speakingWarm-up before speaking  Use deep breathingUse deep breathing  Plan a relaxing introductionPlan a relaxing introduction
  • 8. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.8Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Managing Situational AnxietyManaging Situational Anxiety  Concentrate on meaningConcentrate on meaning – Make sure your listeners are following your organization – Pay close attention to audience feedback  Used visual aidsUsed visual aids – Visual aids keep your hands occupied – Visual aids shift attention away from you – Visual aids help you remember what you are going to say
  • 9. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.9Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Managing Trait Anxiety:Managing Trait Anxiety: The power of Positive ImageryThe power of Positive Imagery Positive imagery is “creating a positive, vivid, and detailed mental image of yourself giving a successful and confident speech. When you imagine yourself speaking confidently, you become more confident just as you would if you had actually given a successful speech.
  • 10. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.10Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Why Positive Imagery WorksWhy Positive Imagery Works  Positive imagery helps you generatePositive imagery helps you generate enthusiasmenthusiasm  Positive imagery helps us get a positivePositive imagery helps us get a positive picture of ourselvespicture of ourselves  Positive imagery helps us create a vision ofPositive imagery helps us create a vision of succeeding as a speakersucceeding as a speaker
  • 11. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.11Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Mastering Positive ImageryMastering Positive Imagery Negative words toNegative words to avoidavoid have tohave to ought toought to need toneed to PositivePositive AlternativesAlternatives want towant to like tolike to enjoyenjoy Step 1 Develop the habit of positive self-talk
  • 12. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.12Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Mastering Positive ImageryMastering Positive Imagery  Picture yourself as the speaker that youPicture yourself as the speaker that you would like to bewould like to be  Identify the speaking characteristics youIdentify the speaking characteristics you would like to havewould like to have  Write 10 positive statements that describeWrite 10 positive statements that describe those positive characteristicsthose positive characteristics Step 2 Refocus negative mental pictures into positive ones
  • 13. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.13Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Mastering Positive ImageryMastering Positive Imagery  Picture yourself as the speaker that youPicture yourself as the speaker that you would like to bewould like to be  Identify the speaking characteristics youIdentify the speaking characteristics you would like to havewould like to have  Write 10 positive statements that describeWrite 10 positive statements that describe those positive characteristicsthose positive characteristics Step 2 Refocus negative mental pictures into positive ones
  • 14. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.14Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Writing Positive StatementsWriting Positive Statements Weak:Weak: I will try to look directly at my listeners when I speak Better:Better: I’m making direct eye contact with my listeners as I speak Weak:Weak: My voice does not shake when I speak Better:Better: My voice is strong and steady when I speak
  • 15. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.15Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Examples of Positive StatementsExamples of Positive Statements  I feel as relaxed and confident giving a formalI feel as relaxed and confident giving a formal presentation as I do entertaining good friends inpresentation as I do entertaining good friends in my own living room.my own living room.  I enjoy giving presentations regardless of the sizeI enjoy giving presentations regardless of the size of the audience.of the audience.  I am a warm, relaxed, and entertaining speaker.I am a warm, relaxed, and entertaining speaker.
  • 16. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.16Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Examples of Positive StatementsExamples of Positive Statements  I am a dynamic speaker.I am a dynamic speaker.  When I’m in front of a group words flow easilyWhen I’m in front of a group words flow easily for me.for me.  People respond well to my presentations.People respond well to my presentations.
  • 17. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.17Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Mastering Positive ImageryMastering Positive Imagery  Picture yourself as the speaker that youPicture yourself as the speaker that you would like to bewould like to be  Identify the speaking characteristics youIdentify the speaking characteristics you would like to havewould like to have  Write 10 positive statements that describeWrite 10 positive statements that describe those positive characteristicsthose positive characteristics Step 3 Compete only with yourself
  • 18. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.18Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Keys to VisualizationKeys to Visualization
  • 19. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.19Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Managing Trait Anxiety: Other MethodsManaging Trait Anxiety: Other Methods  Relaxation with deep breathingRelaxation with deep breathing – Learning to relax using deep muscle relaxation and breathing – Learning to remain relaxed while visualizing a series of communication situations progressing from low anxiety to high anxiety
  • 20. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.20Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Managing Trait AnxietyManaging Trait Anxiety  Cognitive RestructuringCognitive Restructuring (Fremouw & Scott,(Fremouw & Scott, 1979); Meichenbaum, 19851979); Meichenbaum, 1985 – Identifying irrational self-talk that produces speaker anxiety – Developing alternative coping statements – Practicing the coping statements in stressful situations
  • 21. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.21Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence Managing Trait AnxietyManaging Trait Anxiety  Skills Training (Kelly, 1989; Phillips, 1977,Skills Training (Kelly, 1989; Phillips, 1977, 1991)1991) – Identifying speaking goals – Determining behavior or skills needed to achieve the speaking goals – Developing procedures for judging the success of each goal
  • 22. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.22 TechnologyTechnology  Electronic visuals such as PowerPointElectronic visuals such as PowerPoint  Adds to credibility and confidenceAdds to credibility and confidence  Easy to prepare and reviseEasy to prepare and revise  Helps keep thoughts on trackHelps keep thoughts on track  Make sure to practice with themMake sure to practice with them Chapter 2 Building speaker Confidence
  • 23. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.23Chapter 2– Building Speaker Confidence ““ The only difference betweenThe only difference between the pros and the novices is thatthe pros and the novices is that the pros havethe pros have trainedtrained theirtheir butterflies to fly in formation.”butterflies to fly in formation.” Edward R. MurrowEdward R. Murrow Remember . . .Remember . . .
  • 24. Copyright © 2011 Cengage Learning 1.24Chapter 2 Building Speaker Confidence Essentials ofEssentials of Public SpeakingPublic Speaking Cheryl Hamilton, Ph.D. 5th Edition5th Edition Building Speaker Confidence Chapter 2 Cheryl HamiltonCheryl Hamilton