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  • 1. Looking Out/Looking InLooking Out/Looking In Thirteenth EditionThirteenth Edition 11Introduction to InterpersonalIntroduction to Interpersonal CommunicationCommunication CHAPTER TOPICSCHAPTER TOPICS • Why We Communicate • The Process of Communication • Communication Principles and Misconceptions • The Nature of Interpersonal Communication • What Makes an Effective Communicator
  • 2. 22A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Why We CommunicateWhy We Communicate • Physical Needs • Identity Needs • Social Needs • Practical Goals
  • 3. 33A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Why We CommunicateWhy We Communicate • Physical Needs • Social isolation increases risk of: • Coronary disease • Rivals cigarette smoking, high blood pressure and lack of physical activity • Catching the common cold • Premature death • Positive communication and strong social ties lead to better health
  • 4. 44A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Why We CommunicateWhy We Communicate • Identity Needs • Identity comes from how we interact with others • Acting human is a learned process • Messages influence our identity throughout our lives
  • 5. 55A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Why We CommunicateWhy We Communicate • Social Needs • Communication is used to: • Obtain pleasure, affection, companionship, relaxation, escape and control • Create happier relationships and social lives • Theorists argue that positive relationships may be the most important source of human satisfaction and emotional well-being
  • 6. 66A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Why We CommunicateWhy We Communicate • Practical Goals • Getting others to behave in ways we want • Communication is the tool that: • Lets you explain your needs to the hair stylist • Helps you negotiate household duties • Is essential in virtually every career • Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Physical, Safety, Social, Esteem and Self- Actualization
  • 7. 77A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Process of CommunicationThe Process of Communication • A Linear View • Communication is “done to” a receiver Figure 1.1 Page 10
  • 8. 88A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Process of CommunicationThe Process of Communication • Linear Communication • The model • Suited to radio and television • Created by scientists interested in electronic media • Affected the way we think and talk about communication • Is there really only one sender and one receiver?
  • 9. 99A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Process of CommunicationThe Process of Communication • A Transactional View • Communication as a uniquely human process Figure 1.2 Page 11
  • 10. 1010A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Process of CommunicationThe Process of Communication • Transactional Communication • The model • Messages are sent and received at the same time • Sender/Receiver become communicators • Environments • Physical location • Personal experiences and cultural backgrounds • Noise • Internal as well as external noise is represented • Channels retain significant role
  • 11. 1111A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Principles and MisconceptionsPrinciples and Misconceptions • Principles • Some communication is clearly intentional • Communication can be unintentional • Overhearing another's conversation • How does the meaning change? • Nonverbal Communication • Unaware of your expressions • Sour face, restlessness, sighs of boredom • Unknowingly being observed
  • 12. 1212A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Principles and MisconceptionsPrinciples and Misconceptions • Principles • Communication is irreversible • It is impossible to “unreceive” a message • Think about “unsqueezing” a tube of toothpaste • Words said and deeds done are irretrievable • It’s impossible not to communicate • Intentional and unintentional behaviors send a message • People who decode your message may not interpret it accurately
  • 13. 1313A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Principles and MisconceptionsPrinciples and Misconceptions • Principles • Communication is unrepeatable • Communication is an ongoing process • It is impossible to repeat the same event • If attempted, the act of repetition will change the intended meaning • Both communicators have changed because they have lived longer • The “same” words and behaviors are different each time they are spoken or performed
  • 14. 1414A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Principles and MisconceptionsPrinciples and Misconceptions • Principles • Content and relational dimension • Content dimension • Involves the information being explicitly discussed • Relational dimension • Involves how you feel about the other person • Like or dislike • In control or subordinate • Comfortable or anxious
  • 15. 1515A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Principles and MisconceptionsPrinciples and Misconceptions • Misconceptions • More communication is not always better • Excessive communication can be unproductive and can also backfire • Pestering a potential employer about a job prospect • Texting too many “call me” messages • Meanings are not in the words • Saying something is not the same as communicating it
  • 16. 1616A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Principals and MisconceptionsPrincipals and Misconceptions • Misconceptions • Communication and shared understanding • Successful communication doesn’t always involve shared understanding • Being deliberately vague • Sacrificing clarity to spare another's feelings • More satisfying relationships can sometimes come from less-than-perfect understanding
  • 17. 1717A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Principals and MisconceptionsPrincipals and Misconceptions • Misconceptions • People/Events do not cause another’s reaction • Communication is transactional, ongoing and collaborative • Communication does not occur in a vacuum • Communication will not solve all problems
  • 18. 1818A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Nature of InterpersonalThe Nature of Interpersonal CommunicationCommunication • Two Views of Interpersonal Communication • Quantitative Communication • Any interaction between two people, usually face to face • Can be considered routine or impersonal • Qualitative Communication • Occurs when we treat others as unique individuals regardless of context or the number of people involved
  • 19. 1919A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Nature of InterpersonalThe Nature of Interpersonal CommunicationCommunication • Aspects of Qualitative Communication • Uniqueness • Irreplaceability • Interdependence • Disclosure • Intrinsic Rewards • The scarcity of quality interpersonal communication contributes to its value
  • 20. 2020A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Nature of InterpersonalThe Nature of Interpersonal CommunicationCommunication • Mediated Interpersonal Communication • Mediated Channels • Instant Messaging, emailing, blogging, Twittering • Social networks • Facebook • MySpace • The difference between face-to-face and virtual relationships is eroding
  • 21. 2121A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Nature of InterpersonalThe Nature of Interpersonal CommunicationCommunication • Mediated Interpersonal Communication • Benefits • Internet users have more social networks than nonusers • Computer-based communication encourages offline interaction by keeping relationships active • Text-only messages can: • Bring people closer by minimizing the perception of differences • Stimulate both self-disclosure and direct questioning
  • 22. 2222A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Nature of InterpersonalThe Nature of Interpersonal CommunicationCommunication • Mediated Interpersonal Communication • Challenges • Leaner Messages • Face-to-face messages are rich with nonverbal cues • Without nonverbal cues, online communicators can create idealized images of one another • Disinhibition • Sending messages without considering the consequence • Messages tend to be more direct and often critical • Permanence • Messages can be archived virtually forever
  • 23. 2323A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION What Makes an EffectiveWhat Makes an Effective CommunicatorCommunicator • Communication Competence • There is no ideal way to communicate • A variety of communication styles can be effective • You can always learn new styles of communication • Competence is: • Situational • Relational • Competence varies from one situation and person to another
  • 24. 2424A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION What Makes an EffectiveWhat Makes an Effective CommunicatorCommunicator • Competent Communicator Characteristics • Behaviors • Possessing a wide range of behaviors • Ability to chose appropriate behavior based on: • Context • Goals • Knowledge of the other person • Skill at performing behaviors
  • 25. 2525A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION What Makes an EffectiveWhat Makes an Effective CommunicatorCommunicator • Competent Communicator Characteristics • Cognitive Complexity • The ability to construct a variety of frameworks for viewing an issue or situation • Empathy • Feeling and experiencing another's situation • Self-Monitoring • High Self-Monitoring • Low Self-Monitoring
  • 26. 2626A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION What Makes an EffectiveWhat Makes an Effective CommunicatorCommunicator • Competent Communicator Characteristics • Intercultural Communication • National Differences • Ethnic Differences • Co-cultures • Age • Occupation • Sexual orientation • Religion • Physical disability
  • 27. 2727A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION What Makes an EffectiveWhat Makes an Effective CommunicatorCommunicator • Competent Communicator Characteristics • Motivation • The desire to communicate successfully • Tolerance and Open-mindedness • Communicating across cultures can be confusing • Knowledge and Skill • Passive observation • Active strategies • Self-disclosure
  • 28. 2828A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Chapter ReviewChapter Review • Why We Communicate • The Process of Communication • Communication Principles and Misconceptions • The Nature of Interpersonal Communication • What Makes an Effective Communicator