health and safty


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  • example: if you are talking about the fauna and flora in a particular area, you are referring to the animals or wildlife in that area (fauna) and the plants and flowers in that area (flora).
  • What is the difference between acute and chronic illness? Acute illnesses are those that will eventually resolve without any medical supervision (such as colds and teething). Chronic illnesses are more serious illnesses that require medical supervision (like Tuberculosis or Cancer).  Here's a little more detail: An  Acute illness  typically will "run its course" regardless of whether or not there is drug intervention. Coughs, colds, teething, PMS, sleeplessness are all examples of such illnesses. Usually, medicines for acute illnesses are regulated as OTC (over-the-counter) drugs. A  Chronic illness  is one that requires medical supervision and is often a disease that has formed over a long period of time. Examples of chronic illnesses are Cancer, AIDS, Kidney Disease and Diabetes. Usually, medicines for chronic illnesses are regulated as Prescription Only. Homeopathy is often used for treatment of both acute and chronic illnesses. As with any disease, if a chronic illness is being treated using homeopathy, medical diagnosis and monitoring is still required.
  • Ergonomics derives from two Greek words: ergon, meaning work, and nomoi, meaning natural laws. Combined they create a word that means the science of work and a person’s relationship to that work. In application ergonomics is a discipline focused on making products and tasks comfortable and efficient for the user. Ergonomics is sometimes defined as the science of fitting the work to the user instead of forcing the user to fit the work. However this is more a primary ergonomic principle rather than a definition. Also Known As:  Human Factors, Human Engineering, Human Factors Engineering Examples: Using proper  posture  and  body mechanics , good placement of computer equipment, comfortable handles and grips as well as efficient layout of kitchen appliances are all aspects of ergonomics.
  • Put simply, a proactive policy involves making a sacrifice now for an uncertain future. It is doing something that can or would prevent a future problem. For example, saving money in a bank account. But being too proactive can be seen as paranoid. A reactive policy however, involves taking action after the problem has already
  • health and safty

    1. 1. Health and SafetyThe term Health and Safety is generally used to mean an employer should:•Promote and maintain the mental, physical andsocial well-being of employees•Protect employees and others affected by anorganisation’s activities to harm from risk•Establish a management framework toimplement policies and achieve continualimprovement in health and safety
    2. 2. Health: The protection of the bodies andminds of people from illness resultingfrom the materials, processes orprocedures used in the workplaceSafety: The protection of people fromphysical injury
    3. 3. The differences between Safety and HealthThe borderline between Safety and health isthe ill-defined the two words are usedtogether to indicates concerns for the physicaland mental well-being of an individual in theworkplace
    4. 4. The differences between Safety and HealthSafety HealthSlips, trips, falls Exposure to hazardousFalls from height chemicalsStruck by vehicles Exposure to asbestos,Contact with electricity dusts, etc.Contact with moving Repetitive strainparts injuries
    5. 5. Definitions used in Health and SafetyWelfareLooking after people’s basic needsEnvironmentThe surroundings in which an organisationoperates including land, air and water, naturalresources, flora, fauna, humans and theirinterrelationships
    6. 6. Accident DefinitionsAn AccidentAn unwanted, unforeseen, unplanned event whichresults in a loss of some kind.Near Miss (Incident)An unwanted, unforeseen, unplanned event that hadthe potential to result in a lossDangerous Occurrence (High Potential Near Miss)A near miss with serious injury potential
    7. 7. Ill-health DefinitionsAcuteShort term exposure with immediate effect,usually reversibleChronicRepeated or long term exposure,often irreversible
    8. 8. Hazard Something with the potential to cause harmPhysicalChemicalBiologicalErgonomicPsychological
    9. 9. RiskThe likelihood that harm will occur and the severity of the harm The extent of risks cover the population affected and the consequences for them
    10. 10. Reasons for Good Health & Safety Practice Humanitarian/Moral Ethical and responsible behaviour Legal Criminal and civil liabilityCost The costs of injuries and ill- health © TWI Gulf WLL 2008
    11. 11. Fatal Injuries by Cause UK 99/00 00/01 01/02 02/03 03/04Falls from height 68 74 69 50 67Struck by falling object 35 51 46 30 29Hit by moving vehicle 34 64 39 39 44Contact with machinery 14 19 22 21 11Trapped by collapse or 16 40 8 11 7overturningContact with electricity 18 14 12 15 13Drowning/asphyxiation 7 6 11 8 21Others 28 24 44 53 43Total 220 292 251 227 235 © TWI Gulf WLL 2008
    12. 12. Worldwide Work-Related Disease Deaths (ILO) Causes of death Number of deaths attributed to occupationCancer 30+years 456,240Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease 200,02515-60 yearsChronic respiratory disease 15+ years 275,000Pneumoconiosis (Proportional estimate 36,000from US figures)Nervous system disorders 15+ years 12,080Renal disorders (kidney disorders) 15+ years 13,100Total 992,445 © TWI Gulf WLL 2008
    13. 13. Costs of Accidents at WorkIceberg Model of Accident Costs: … Visible Costs Liability insurance $1 Invisible Costs $16-75
    14. 14. Hidden Costs of AccidentsAccident investigation Loss of reputationPayments to injured Damage repairperson Replacement plantPayments nonproductive time CompensationReplacement labour Legal feesTraining InsuranceBusiness interruption
    15. 15. Employer’s Insurance Compulsory in many countries £1 Insurance is increasingly expensive£8 - £36 In UK claims have increased at about twice the rate of premium increases Limited liability which may be linked to performance
    16. 16. Employer’s Insurance © TWI Gulf WLL 2008
    17. 17. Benefits of Good Health and Safety Practice1) Increased levels of compliance2) Improved production3) Improved staff morale4) Improved company reputation5) Reduced accidents6) Reduced ill health7) Reduced damage to equipment8) Reduced staff complaints9) Reduced staff turnover10) Reduced insurance premiums11) Reduced fines and compensation claims
    18. 18. Safety Management Systems
    19. 19. Safety Management Systems PlanISO 9001 P Do D Step 1 Step 2ISO 14001 Establish standards for health & safety Implement plans to management based on achieve objectives risk assessment and and standards legal requirements Plan Do Step 4 Step 3 Check Review against objectives and Measure progress with plans and Act standards and take compliance with Act appropriate action standards A C Check
    20. 20. Safety Management Systems Policy OrganisationAuditing Planning and implementing Measuring performance Reviewing performance
    21. 21. Safety Management SystemsPolicy: Health and Safety aims and objectives of theorganisation, and management commitmentOrganisation: Clear roles and lines of responsibility,competence, commitment and control, co-operation andcommunicationPlanning and Implementation: Identify hazards, assess risksand decide how risks can be eliminated or controlled. Setsstandards against which performance can be measured
    22. 22. Safety Management SystemsMeasuring Performance: A means of determining theextent to which health and safety policy and objectives arebeing implemented and should be both reactive andproactiveReviewing: Analysing data gathered through monitoring tosee whether performance is adequateAudit: Systematic critical examination of each stage of anorganisation’s management systems and procedures
    23. 23. Setting Policy for Health and Safety
    24. 24. Purpose of Safety Policy1. Management Commitment to Safety2. Organisation and Arrangements for controlling work related hazards3. Protect people from injury and ill-health4. Comply with legal requirements5. Manage health and safety on a cost effective basis
    25. 25. Safety Policy1) General Statement Declaration of intent What2) The Organisation Responsibilities Who3) Arrangements Procedures How
    26. 26. Statement of Intent Demonstrates Management’s commitment to health and safety and sets goals and objectives• Signed by most senior person in organisation because:• Shows management commitment• Gives policy authority• Person who signs it has ultimate responsibility
    27. 27. OrganisationTo identify health and safety responsibilities and reporting lineswithin the company Directors and Senior Managers – setting policy and objectives Line Managers – Implementing policy in their department Supervisors – Checking compliance with the policy Safety Advisors – Advising company on accident and safety compliance Employees – Responsibility for own and others safety Fire Marshals – Ensure evacuation of building and roll calls First Aiders – to provide first aid
    28. 28. ArrangementsSet out in detail the specific systems and procedures forimplementing the safety policy • Risk Assessments • Emergency Arrangements e.g. Fire, First Aid, • Written Procedures, e.g. Permits • Training Programmes, e.g. Manual Handling, Fork Lift Trucks • Maintenance Information • Information/Consultation • Personal Protective Equipment
    29. 29. Safety Policy – Review/Revisiona) Accidents / Incidentsb) Changes in Organisationc) Processesd) Materialse) Premisesf) Legislationg) Work Patternsh) Risk Assessmentsi) Following Accident Investigationj) Enforcement Actionk) Policy Reviewl) Professional Advise
    30. 30. Communicating the PolicyEmployers must bring the policy to Employeesattention. This can be done by:•Displaying it on notice boards•Introducing it on induction and training session•Considering it on team briefings and tool box talks•Using newsletters•Inserts in wage slips•Posters•Build into safe systems and codes of practice•Managers to discuss with workforce
    31. 31. Objectives and TargetsObjectives: General goalsTargets: Specific performance requirementsImportance to an organisation of setting targets:Gives evidence on Management commitment andmotivates staff by giving them something to aimfor
    32. 32. Targets in Health and Safety• Reduce/Zero Accidents• Zero Prosecutions• Reduced sickness absence• Reduction in compensation claims• Improve reporting of minor accidents• Improve reporting of near misses• Increase numbers trained in health and safety• Improve audit scores
    33. 33. Smart Goal SettingSpecificMeasurableAchievableRealisticTimescale
    34. 34. BenchmarkingAdvantages:• Identifies key performance indicators• Ensures monitoring procedures are effective• Feeds back into continuous improvement• Helps by learning lessons from others
    35. 35. Issues that could be used to benchmark1. Existence and quality of health and safety policy2. Staff roles and responsibilities clearly outlined3. Documented health and safety plans measured4. Reporting of accidents5. Reporting of near misses6. The quality of risk assessments7. Type of training provided8. Level of monitoring i.e. reactive and pro-active
    36. 36. Ineffective Health & SafetyPolicies • No commitment or leadership • No annual objectives • Health and Safety not given enough priority • Insufficient resources provided • Personnel do not understand aims • Too much emphasis on employee responsibility • No measure of performance • Management unaware of their role • No training of management in their responsibilities
    37. 37. Organising for Health and Safety 37
    38. 38. Roles and Responsibilities • Employer • Employees • Self-employed • Designers and manufacturers 38
    39. 39. Management’s Responsibilities for Employees 1. Safe plant and equipment 2. Information, instruction, and training 3. Supervision 4. Safe place of work and access and egress 5. Safe environment and welfare facilities 6. Safety policy 7. Consult and inform employees 39
    40. 40. Management’s Responsibilities for Employees8. Risk Assessments9. Effective health and safety management10. Competent health and safety assistance11. Health and surveillance12. Serious and imminent dangerIf employer is in control of premises:• Safe premises• Safe access and egress• Safe plant or substances 40
    41. 41. Non employees include: 1. Contractors 2. Visitors 3. General public 4. Other employees 5. Trespassers 41
    42. 42. Precautions for visitors safety • Signing in • Providing identification badges • Providing PPE • Site induction e.g. Fire precautions • Escorting visitor to area of work • Remain with visitor or regular monitoring • Escorting visitor back to reception area • Signing out visitor and removing badge 42
    43. 43. Duties of Employeesa) Not to endanger themselves and othersb) Co-operation with their employerc) Not to interfere with anything provided for safetyd) Follow instructions and training givene) Inform Employer of dangers and problems with health and safety arrangements 43
    44. 44. Risk Assessment 44
    45. 45. INTRODUCTION• The concept of risk assessment requires to take reasonably practicable precautions to safeguard staff and everyone else who may be affected by the operations.• The risk assessment should be based on a balanced judgement of the extent and realisation of the risk against time, trouble and cost of the steps required to remove or reduce it.• If the cost is grossly disproportionate, then the company is entitled to say that the steps proposed are not reasonably practicable. 45
    46. 46. Risk Assessment: DefinitionsHazard:Something with the potential to cause harmRisk:The likelihood that harm willoccurThe extent of risks cover thepopulation affected and theconsequences for them 46
    47. 47. Risk Assessment – 5 Steps1) Identify the Hazards2) Decide who may be harmed and how3) Evaluate risks & existing precautions4) Record the findings5) Review Assessments 47
    48. 48. Risk Assessment – 5 Steps Select a site Step 1 Known or Unknown Identify hazards associated with site Step 3 Step 2 Evaluate the risk arising Decide who & what might From the hazard & evaluate be harmed and how Existing precautions Step 4 Step 5Record assessment Review assessmentby writing out plan 48
    49. 49. 1) Identify the hazards• Workplace inspections• Task observation• Job safety analysis• Accident, ill-health or near miss data• Documentation• Consultation with the workforce 49
    50. 50. Hazard Identification 50
    51. 51. Hazard Identification 51
    52. 52. 2) Who may be harmed & how? • What are the Hazards? • How likely to occur? • Consequences? • Number of people? • Frequency/Duration? • Effects of exposure? • Competence? • Existing Controls? 52
    53. 53. Severity and Likelihood Severity Likelihood 1) Minor no lost time 1) Very unlikely 2) Under 3 days 2) Unlikely 3) Over 3 days 3) Likely 4) Disabling injury 4) Very likely 5) Fatality 5) Certain, imminent1-7 Low risk 8-14 Medium risk 15-25 High risk 53
    54. 54. Risk Matrix LIKELIHOODSE 1 2 3 4 5VE 2 4 6 8 10R 3 15I 20TY 54
    55. 55. Likelihood & Severity Exercise 55
    56. 56. Likelihood & Severity Exercise 56
    57. 57. Likelihood & Severity Exercise 57
    58. 58. 3) Evaluate risks and decide whether existing precautions are adequate • The effectiveness of the existing precautions Workplace precautions Risk control systems • An estimation of the risk • What further actions necessary to eliminate risk 58
    59. 59. 4) Record the Significant findings• The significant hazards• People affected• Adequacy of controls• Further actions required 59
    60. 60. 5) Review Risk Assessment Circumstance requiring RA Review • Accidents • Changes in Process • Changes in Work Methods • Changes in Materials • New Plant or Technology • New Information • Changes in Legislation • Prosecutions/Enforcement notices • Changes in Personnel • Monitoring Results not as expected 60
    61. 61. Risk Assessment SummaryFactors to be considered:• Tasks/activities• Hazards involved• Likelihood and severity of harm• Frequency and duration of activity• Number of employees involved• Frequency of exposure• Competence of employees doing task• Competence of risk assessor• Evaluation of existing control measures• Review/monitoring provision 61
    62. 62. Principles of Control 62
    63. 63. Principles of Prevention• Avoid risks (eliminate hazards)• Evaluate risks (risk assessments)• Combat risks at source (enclose noisy equipment)• Adapt to individual (design of workplace)• Adapt to technical progress (automate tasks)• Implement Risk prevention measures• Priority to collective measures• Ensure workers understand what they must do• Promote a positive safety culture 63
    64. 64. Hazard Control StrategyHierarchy of control definition:A preferred series of measures to control risks in order ofpriority starting with elimination and ending with discipline. E liminate: Remove trailing cable R eduction: Use lower voltage tools I solate: Guard dangerous machinery C ontrol: Reduce time/frequency of exposure P ersonal Protective Equipment: Issue PPE D iscipline: Enforce rules and procedures 64
    65. 65. Permit to WorkDefinition: A Permit to Work procedure is a formal writtensystem used to control certain types of work which arepotentially hazardous Work requiring permits •Confined spaces •Hot work/Cold work •Electrical 65
    66. 66. Design of Permits to Work (1)Permit Title Permit Number Date1) Job Location/Plant Identification2) Description of work3) Time limits4) Description of hazards5) Tests and checks prior to work commencing6) Further precautions: emergency procedures, PPE,etc. 66
    67. 67. Design of Permit to Work (2)7) Authorisation: Signature by competent personconfirming that isolations and precautions have beencarried out8) Acceptance: Signature of person in charge of workconfirming understanding of work to be done, hazardsinvolved and precautions required9) Time Extensions/Shift Change procedures10) Hand Back: Confirming work completed11) Cancellation: Confirming work satisfactorilycompletedNote: All signatures to be legible 67
    68. 68. Confined Spaces 68
    69. 69. Safe Working in Confined Spaces Definition of Confined Space: Any enclosed space, where there is a reasonably foreseeable specified risk associated with that enclosed space. Includes chambers, tanks, vats, silos, pits, trenches, pipes, sewers, flues, wells or other similar spaces. 69
    70. 70. Specified Risks of Confined Spaces• Serious injury from fire or explosion• Increased body temperature resulting in unconsciousness• Unconsciousness or asphyxiation resulting from work exposure to gas, fume, vapour, lack of oxygen• Drowning from rising liquid level• Asphyxiation from a free flowing solid• Entrapment in the free flowing solid which prevents escape to a respirable environment 70
    71. 71. Confined Space Hazards•Previous contents of confined space (Chemical/biological)•Are there any residues•What cleaning materials are being used•Reactions between residues and cleaning materials•Could there be an oxygen deficient/enrichment atmosphere•Could there be an explosive/toxic atmosphere•What are the access and egress facilities•What tools and equipment need to be used•What are physical dimensions of confined space•Structural collapse 71
    72. 72. Safe System for Working in Confined Spaces• Permit to work• • P.P.E. Emptying• Isolation • Communication• Atmospheric tests • Competent staff• Suitable Access & egress • Supervision• Suitable tools/equipment • Emergency arrangements• Lighting 72
    73. 73. Monitoring, Review & Audit
    74. 74. Measuring Performance• This helps you know whether targets have been met or whether you are complying with the law.• Typically, a combination of reactive and active monitoring techniques are used to gather performance data.Reactive monitoring (after the event) e.g. accident statistics/investigationsActive monitoring (before the event) e.g. inspections , audits
    75. 75. Reasons for Monitoring• Identify sub-standard H & S practices• Identify Trends• Compare actual performance against targets• To benchmark• Identify use and effectiveness of control measures• Make decisions on suitable remedial measures• Set priorities and establish realistic timescales• Assess compliance with legal requirements• Provide information to Board, Committees etc.
    76. 76. Monitoring Health and Safety Reactive Monitoring• Examining accident figures• Claims records• Number of defects reported• Prosecutions• Enforcement notices
    77. 77. Health and Safety Monitoring Pro-active Monitoring • Safety Audit • Safety Inspections • Safety Surveys • Safety Tour • Safety Sampling • Benchmarking • HAZOPS • Health Surveillance
    78. 78. Safety AuditA safety audit is a thorough, critical examination of an organisation’ssafety management systems and procedures.It is normally a lengthy process carried out by a trained auditor, oftensomeone from outside the organisation looking at the strengths andweaknesses of the organisation.It is a structured way of assessing the health and safety performance ofan organisation by supplying answers to a series of questions and ofteninvolves a scoring system so that improvements can be made.
    79. 79. Pre - Audit Preparation & Procedure • Setting audit objectives • Selecting the audit team • Requirements from auditees • Information gathering • Interviews • Draw conclusions • Report and presentation • Action by the organisation
    80. 80. Safety Audit DocumentsDocuments looked at during audits include:•Safety policy•Safety procedures•Risk assessments•Training records•Inspection records•Previous audit reports•Safety committee minutes•Accident reports and procedure