History A constructed language Developed by L.L. Zemenhof First published in 1887 Some people speak it Was intended to be a neutral international language
Phonetic This is a strictly phonetic language. Each letter only makes one sound. Words are spelt just like they sound. Horo, maro, infano Horo – choir Maro – sea Infano - child
Simple Alphabet A B C Ĉ D E F G Ĝ H Ĥ I J Ĵ K L M N O P R S Ŝ T U Ŭ V Z
Nouns All End with O Amiko Domo Kato Viro Amiko – friend Domo – house Kato – cat Viro - man
A Like in father Ami – to love
E Like e in pet Egala – equal What English word in this similar to?
I Like in machine. Infano – child What English word in this similar to?
Plurals To make a noun plural, add a J. This makes the ending sound like oy. amiko – friend amikoj – friends birdo – bird birdoj – birds libro – book libroj - books
O Like O in Not Oro - Gold
U Like oo in Look Urbo – city What English word in this similar to?
The Object Gets an N The object is what the verb is happening to. The word order is not important. The dog loves the cat. La hundo amas la katon. La katon amas la hundo. The cat loves the dog. La kato amas la hundon.
Ĉ Like ch in church. ĉokolado - chocolate
Ĝ like g in gem ĝui - to enjoy
Adjectives End in A
Adjectives describe nouns.
All adjectives in Esperanto end with A.
Tall or high
Ĥ like ch in Scottish loch ĥoro - choir
Ĵ like s in pleasure ĵurnalo - daily newspaper What English word in this similar to?
What are these Words? Just looking at the endings, what types of words are these? Sana hundo Healthy dog
Ŝ like English sh ŝipo - ship
Ŭ Like the English w. aŭto - car
Verbs End in I Ataki – to attack Baki – to bake Havi – to have Inviti – to invite Lerni – to learn. Rapidi – to rush or hurry. Kuraci – to cure or heal.
Verbs Verbs in the infinitive end with an I. To write. Skribi. Verbs in the present tense end with –as. Writes Skribas Verbs in the past tense end with –is. Wrote Skribis
Verbs Verbs in the future tense end with an –os. Will write. Skribos. Verbs as a command end with –u. Write! Skribu
Prefixes You can change the meaning of words by adding a prefix. For example Add “mal” to make a word into its opposite. Granda Big Malgranda Small
Prefixes Add “bo” to indicate relationship by marriage. Patro – father Bopatro – father-in-law Patrino – mother Bopatrino – mother-in-law
Adverbs Adjectives become adverbs when you use the E ending instead. Pura
Translate La infanoj amis la blua maron. The children loved the blue sea.
Suffixes You can change the meaning of nouns by adding a suffix. For example you end with “ajo” to make a verb into a continuous action. Kuri – to run Kurajo – running. Dormi – to sleep Dormajo- sleeping.
Finally, a Few Useful Words Mia – my Kun – with Mi – I Vi – you Ili – they Kaj - and Mia malbela hundo amis la granda katon. My ugly dog will love the big cat.
English to Esperanto The children will write. My mother-in-law sleeps beautifully. La infanoy skribos. Mia bopatino dormas bele
Last Activity La viro kaj infanoy rapidas la bele madrapide hundon. The man and children rush the beautiful, slow dog.