• Save
Animal behavior ppt(4) (By Prof. Mishira,DVM,MSc,PhD)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Animal behavior ppt(4) (By Prof. Mishira,DVM,MSc,PhD)

on

  • 1,543 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,543
Views on SlideShare
1,543
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Animal behavior ppt(4) (By Prof. Mishira,DVM,MSc,PhD) Animal behavior ppt(4) (By Prof. Mishira,DVM,MSc,PhD) Presentation Transcript

    • ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
    • ANIMAL BEHAVIORinherited abilitieslearned experiences
    • TWO MAJOR FIELDS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIORPSYCHOLOGY ETHOLOGY
    • PSYCHOLOGYthe study of learning in humans applying non-human insights in understanding human behavior
    • ETHOLOGYoriginated with naturalists who emphasized instinctive behavior
    • WHAT IS INSTINCT?reflexes and behavior patternsinherently present at birth
    • INSTINCT: searching for milk in all the right places
    • INSTINCT: pecking for food the minute they hatch
    • HABITUATIONlack of response torepeated stimuli
    • CONDITIONINGthe process whereby an animal makes an association between a previously neutral stimulus and a previously significant stimulus.
    • CLASSICAL CONDITIONINGpavlovunconditionedstimulus (food)response: salivationconditioned stimulus(bellresponse:salivation
    • OPERANT CONDITIONINGlearning to respondin a particular way asa result ofreinforcement whenthe proper responseis made.– negative reinforcements– positive reinforcements
    • OPERANT CONDITIONINGpositive reinforcementnegativereinforcement
    • THORNDIKE’S LAW OF EFFECTput dogs and cats in apuzzle boxmeasured how long ittook for them to getout.time decreased asthey “learned”
    • OPERANT CONDITIONING skinners box
    • TRIAL AND ERRORtrying differentresponses to stimuliuntil the correctresponse receives thereward
    • REASONINGthe ability to respond correctly to a stimulithe first time a new situation is presented
    • INTELLIGENCEthe ability to learn to adjust successfully tocertain situations. this requires:– short term memory– long term memory
    • IMPRINTINGthose processes where young bond with their caretakerkonrad lorenz discovered that ducklings and goslings willbond with the first thing that they SEE.
    • IMPRINTING
    • SYSTEMS OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
    • 9 SYSTEMS OF BEHAVIORsexualcare-givingcare-solicitingagonisticingestiveeliminativeshelter-seekinginvestigativeallelomimetic
    • SEXUAL BEHAVIORobservation of sexualbehavior in females is important inbreeding programspheromones: chemicals that attract theopposite sex– present in vaginal secretions and urine of cows, ewes and mares– males respond to this with flehmen
    • FLEHMENhead held backlip is curled
    • CATTLEbulls note cow on cow mounting morethan olfactory cluesfemales will seek males if they are in fullheat
    • SHEEPThe ewe will seek out a ram. She will sniffhim and chase after him.She will crouch and urinate when a ramsniffs her side or genital area.She fans her tail when the ram sniffs her.When the ram is preparing to mount, shewill turn her head to look at him andstands
    • SWINEboars do not sense heat by smelling orseeingsows seek boars and stands still and flicksher earboars have pheromones in saliva whichattracts sows and gILTS
    • HORSESstallion approachesif mare is in heat, she will stand, squat andurinate . her vulva will “wink”…open andclose
    • CHICKENS AND TURKEYScourtship sequenceshow preference for one mate or another
    • CARE-GIVINGOriginates from sireor dam, but usuallymaternalMothers instinctivelyclean their youngwhen they are bornFight intruders.Strongattachments….espcow/calf sheep/lamb
    • CARE SOLICITINGYoung animals cry when disturbed,distressed or hungry– Calves bawl– Lambs bleat– Pigs squeal– Chicks chirp
    • CARE SOLICITING (cont’d)recognize bydistinctive crymost important waydam recognizesoffspring is throughsmellyoung animals areless discriminating
    • AGONISTICagonistic behavior is activities of fight orflight, and those of aggressive and passivebehavior when in contact with anotheranimal or humans
    • INTERACTION WITH OTHER ANIMALSintact males of all farmanimals, fight when theymeet an unfamiliar maleof the same species.this behavior has greatimplication in farmmanagement
    • 4 STAGES OF FIGHTING TO ESTABLISH DOMINANCEoffensedefenseescapepassivity
    • FEMALE DOMINANCEcows, sows, mares establish a peckingorder but fighting is not intense– sows may fight– ewes never fight
    • SOCIAL RANKanimals fed togetherconsume more feedthan those fed alone.– competition– dominant ones eat more heifers and cows
    • SOCIAL RANKhorned vs polledagesizestrength
    • SECLUSIONcows go off to calfall animals withdrawwhen sick
    • INTERACTION WITH HUMANSrank animals from docile to wild – disposition is inherited – disposition is learned – producers often cull animals with poor disposition
    • INTERACTION WITH HUMANSassessing bodylanguage – head and neck – ears – eyes – nostrils – feet/legs – tail
    • BEHAVIOR DURING RESTRAINT AND HANDLINGease of handling depends on – temperament high strung vs easy going – size sometimes bigger is better, sometimes not – previous experience good experiences bad experiences
    • FLIGHT ZONEmost animals have a flight zone– if a human is outside of the flight zone, the animal will be inquisitive– if a human is inside the flight zone, the animal will usually move away– the size of the flight zone depends on the tameness or wildness of tHE ANIMAL
    • FLIGHT ZONE
    • INGESTIVE rumination: cattleswallow food whole, thenregurgitate the feed forchewing– cattle graze 4-9 hours/day ruminate 4-9 hours/day– sheep graze 9-11 hours/day ruminate 7-10 hours/day
    • ELIMINATINGcows sheep goats and chicks void fecesand urine whereverhogs defecate in a defined areahorses void on other pilesstressed animals eliminate more– can lose up to 3 % of body weight in transit to market.
    • SHELTER-SEEKINGvaries with species– hot weather cows/sheep seek shade pigs seek a wet area
    • SHELTER-SEEKING– cold weather pigs huddle together– rainy weather horses and cows seek shelter under trees…..increase chance of lightning strike
    • INVESTIGATIVEpigs horses and goats are very curioussheep are less curious and more timidthan other farm animals
    • ALLELOMIMETIC animals of the same species tend to do the same thing at the same time.
    • OTHER BEHAVIORS communicative maladaptive/abnormal
    • COMMUNICATIONtransfer of information between animalsthrough any of the senses
    • COMMUNICATION THROUGHSMELL (OLFACTORY SENSE)females adopt theyoung of othersthrough transfer ofodor– smearing the calf/lamb with amniotic fluid
    • COMMUNICATION THROUGH SOUND responding to vocal calls when fed…..what is this an example of?
    • COMMUNICATION THROUGH SOUNDbulls have a distinctive deep bellow whendisplaying aggressive behavior towardsother bulls– testosterone driven– steers don’t do this.
    • HORSE COMMUNICATION
    • HORSE COMMUNICATIONfour vocal sounds– squeals: high pitched during threats or encounters with individuals– nickers: low pitched: made by stallion during mating or mare prior to feeding -whinnies: begins as a squeal and end as a nicker. between horses that are distressed or desire social contact– groans : during discomfort or anguish
    • MALADAPTIVE/ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR
    • CANNABILISMNot normal under good conditionsExtensive confinement/management cancause it– Swine– Poultry
    • HOMOSEXUALITYUnneutered males housed together maymount other males. If the other male issubmissive, it may result in injury or death
    • BULLER STEER SYNDROMEsteers that have been castrated beforepuberty.some bullers are more attractive for othersteers to mount.this attracts other steers to mount thebuller as wellresults in injury, /reduction in feed gain