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Animal behavior ppt(4) (By Prof. Mishira,DVM,MSc,PhD)
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Animal behavior ppt(4) (By Prof. Mishira,DVM,MSc,PhD)






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    Animal behavior ppt(4) (By Prof. Mishira,DVM,MSc,PhD) Animal behavior ppt(4) (By Prof. Mishira,DVM,MSc,PhD) Presentation Transcript

    • ANIMAL BEHAVIORinherited abilitieslearned experiences
    • PSYCHOLOGYthe study of learning in humans applying non-human insights in understanding human behavior
    • ETHOLOGYoriginated with naturalists who emphasized instinctive behavior
    • WHAT IS INSTINCT?reflexes and behavior patternsinherently present at birth
    • INSTINCT: searching for milk in all the right places
    • INSTINCT: pecking for food the minute they hatch
    • HABITUATIONlack of response torepeated stimuli
    • CONDITIONINGthe process whereby an animal makes an association between a previously neutral stimulus and a previously significant stimulus.
    • CLASSICAL CONDITIONINGpavlovunconditionedstimulus (food)response: salivationconditioned stimulus(bellresponse:salivation
    • OPERANT CONDITIONINGlearning to respondin a particular way asa result ofreinforcement whenthe proper responseis made.– negative reinforcements– positive reinforcements
    • OPERANT CONDITIONINGpositive reinforcementnegativereinforcement
    • THORNDIKE’S LAW OF EFFECTput dogs and cats in apuzzle boxmeasured how long ittook for them to getout.time decreased asthey “learned”
    • OPERANT CONDITIONING skinners box
    • TRIAL AND ERRORtrying differentresponses to stimuliuntil the correctresponse receives thereward
    • REASONINGthe ability to respond correctly to a stimulithe first time a new situation is presented
    • INTELLIGENCEthe ability to learn to adjust successfully tocertain situations. this requires:– short term memory– long term memory
    • IMPRINTINGthose processes where young bond with their caretakerkonrad lorenz discovered that ducklings and goslings willbond with the first thing that they SEE.
    • 9 SYSTEMS OF BEHAVIORsexualcare-givingcare-solicitingagonisticingestiveeliminativeshelter-seekinginvestigativeallelomimetic
    • SEXUAL BEHAVIORobservation of sexualbehavior in females is important inbreeding programspheromones: chemicals that attract theopposite sex– present in vaginal secretions and urine of cows, ewes and mares– males respond to this with flehmen
    • FLEHMENhead held backlip is curled
    • CATTLEbulls note cow on cow mounting morethan olfactory cluesfemales will seek males if they are in fullheat
    • SHEEPThe ewe will seek out a ram. She will sniffhim and chase after him.She will crouch and urinate when a ramsniffs her side or genital area.She fans her tail when the ram sniffs her.When the ram is preparing to mount, shewill turn her head to look at him andstands
    • SWINEboars do not sense heat by smelling orseeingsows seek boars and stands still and flicksher earboars have pheromones in saliva whichattracts sows and gILTS
    • HORSESstallion approachesif mare is in heat, she will stand, squat andurinate . her vulva will “wink”…open andclose
    • CHICKENS AND TURKEYScourtship sequenceshow preference for one mate or another
    • CARE-GIVINGOriginates from sireor dam, but usuallymaternalMothers instinctivelyclean their youngwhen they are bornFight intruders.Strongattachments….espcow/calf sheep/lamb
    • CARE SOLICITINGYoung animals cry when disturbed,distressed or hungry– Calves bawl– Lambs bleat– Pigs squeal– Chicks chirp
    • CARE SOLICITING (cont’d)recognize bydistinctive crymost important waydam recognizesoffspring is throughsmellyoung animals areless discriminating
    • AGONISTICagonistic behavior is activities of fight orflight, and those of aggressive and passivebehavior when in contact with anotheranimal or humans
    • INTERACTION WITH OTHER ANIMALSintact males of all farmanimals, fight when theymeet an unfamiliar maleof the same species.this behavior has greatimplication in farmmanagement
    • 4 STAGES OF FIGHTING TO ESTABLISH DOMINANCEoffensedefenseescapepassivity
    • FEMALE DOMINANCEcows, sows, mares establish a peckingorder but fighting is not intense– sows may fight– ewes never fight
    • SOCIAL RANKanimals fed togetherconsume more feedthan those fed alone.– competition– dominant ones eat more heifers and cows
    • SOCIAL RANKhorned vs polledagesizestrength
    • SECLUSIONcows go off to calfall animals withdrawwhen sick
    • INTERACTION WITH HUMANSrank animals from docile to wild – disposition is inherited – disposition is learned – producers often cull animals with poor disposition
    • INTERACTION WITH HUMANSassessing bodylanguage – head and neck – ears – eyes – nostrils – feet/legs – tail
    • BEHAVIOR DURING RESTRAINT AND HANDLINGease of handling depends on – temperament high strung vs easy going – size sometimes bigger is better, sometimes not – previous experience good experiences bad experiences
    • FLIGHT ZONEmost animals have a flight zone– if a human is outside of the flight zone, the animal will be inquisitive– if a human is inside the flight zone, the animal will usually move away– the size of the flight zone depends on the tameness or wildness of tHE ANIMAL
    • INGESTIVE rumination: cattleswallow food whole, thenregurgitate the feed forchewing– cattle graze 4-9 hours/day ruminate 4-9 hours/day– sheep graze 9-11 hours/day ruminate 7-10 hours/day
    • ELIMINATINGcows sheep goats and chicks void fecesand urine whereverhogs defecate in a defined areahorses void on other pilesstressed animals eliminate more– can lose up to 3 % of body weight in transit to market.
    • SHELTER-SEEKINGvaries with species– hot weather cows/sheep seek shade pigs seek a wet area
    • SHELTER-SEEKING– cold weather pigs huddle together– rainy weather horses and cows seek shelter under trees…..increase chance of lightning strike
    • INVESTIGATIVEpigs horses and goats are very curioussheep are less curious and more timidthan other farm animals
    • ALLELOMIMETIC animals of the same species tend to do the same thing at the same time.
    • OTHER BEHAVIORS communicative maladaptive/abnormal
    • COMMUNICATIONtransfer of information between animalsthrough any of the senses
    • COMMUNICATION THROUGHSMELL (OLFACTORY SENSE)females adopt theyoung of othersthrough transfer ofodor– smearing the calf/lamb with amniotic fluid
    • COMMUNICATION THROUGH SOUND responding to vocal calls when fed…..what is this an example of?
    • COMMUNICATION THROUGH SOUNDbulls have a distinctive deep bellow whendisplaying aggressive behavior towardsother bulls– testosterone driven– steers don’t do this.
    • HORSE COMMUNICATIONfour vocal sounds– squeals: high pitched during threats or encounters with individuals– nickers: low pitched: made by stallion during mating or mare prior to feeding -whinnies: begins as a squeal and end as a nicker. between horses that are distressed or desire social contact– groans : during discomfort or anguish
    • CANNABILISMNot normal under good conditionsExtensive confinement/management cancause it– Swine– Poultry
    • HOMOSEXUALITYUnneutered males housed together maymount other males. If the other male issubmissive, it may result in injury or death
    • BULLER STEER SYNDROMEsteers that have been castrated beforepuberty.some bullers are more attractive for othersteers to mount.this attracts other steers to mount thebuller as wellresults in injury, /reduction in feed gain