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Xnb151 cultural food habits presentation 2 Xnb151 cultural food habits presentation 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Cultural Food Presentation Italian Cultural Food Habits Molly Grigson – n8871060 Jake Harris – Emily Osborne – n8308748
  • Italy • Family. Friends. Food. Culture. • The history of Italy and its people has been heavily influenced by food and they are known for their localism and attention to family values. • Socialising is a main part of the Italian lifestyle which is also applied to the food culture in the country. (Gulley, 2012)
  • Despite the passion that Italians have for food and eating, their obesity rate of 19.8% in adults is fairly lower than the obesity rate of 26.8% for Australian adults. (Central Intelligence Agency, 2013)
  • Eating Habits - Influences • Geographical Location • Government • Education • Social Values & Culture • Economy • Seasons
  • Geographical Location • Northern Regions –Including Milan & Venice • Central Regions –Including Rome & Florence • Southern Regions –Sicily & The Naples
  • Traditional food practices that originally were a trademark of specific regions of Italy have merged overtime due to the migration of people within Italy. (Wahlqvist, M. L., 2011); (Turrini, A et al., 2001); (Italy, 2013)
  • • Northern Regions –Risotto –Rice –Polenta –Butter The North Eastern region has the highest intake of grains and flours which is attributed to the traditions of the area (eg. preparing polenta). (Wahlqvist, M. L., 2011); (Turrini, A et al., 2001); (Italy, 2013)
  • • Southern Regions –Pasta –Pizza –Olive oil Southern Italy has plantations protected by government legislation. Warmer weather produces longer growing seasons benefiting olive tree growth. (Wahlqvist, M. L., 2011); (Turrini, A et al., 2001); (Vossen, P., 2007); (Gugino, S., 2001); (Italy, 2013)
  • Government • Polices include: –Food safety –Food labeling –Banning of genetically modified produce • ‘Finance Law 488’ – under ‘Measures to facilitate the development of employment and of the economy’ (Morgan, K. & Sonnino, R., 2007); (Kurzer, P. & Cooper, A., 2007); (Sassatelli, R. & Scott, A., 2010)
  • “To guarantee the promotion of organic agricultural production of “quality” food products, public institutions that operate school and hospital canteens will provide in the daily diet the use of organic, typical and traditional products as well as those from denominated areas, taking into account the guidelines and other recommendations of the National Institute of Nutrition”. (Morgan, K. & Sonnino, R., 2007)
  • Education • Food choices are linked to culture and tradition just as much as policy. • Italian school meal systems are used as a means of education to promote and encourage the traditions associated within their region. (Morgan, K. & Sonnino, R., 2007)
  • Social Values & Culture • Food is a large part of Italian tradition. • Many social or festive occasions have a huge culinary component. • Italians often spend hours sharing a slow paced meal with loved ones making it a social occasion.
  • Economy • Italy is considered one of the world’s largest market economies. • The agricultural economy is generally characterised between the north and south and their specialised produce. • Italy’s faming workforce consists of approximately 1.4 million people. (Michigan State University, 2013);
  • It would be fair to assume that these farmers would have access to fresh produce and would then incorporate it into their daily diets.
  • Seasons • Almost all cooking in Italy is done so with seasonal produce providing: • Highest quality • Healthiest food • Peak flavour It also assists the economy as it encourages purchasing fresh local produce. (Conti, S., et al., 2004); (Kurzer, P. & Cooper, A., 2007); (On Italian Food and Seasons, 2007); (Perry, S., 2006).
  • Food Traditions • Each region’s food traditions and cooking style reflects the ingredients that are locally and readily available. • The dishes that became characteristic of that certain region were based around the lifestyle of the people that lived there.
  • • Quality rather than quantity. • 3 meals a day are eaten, with the lunch being the most important and the largest of the day. • However these meal traditions are being replaced due to the modern busy lifestyle. (Gulley, 2012); (Food in Every Country, 2001)
  • Food & Celebrations • The Feast of the Seven Fishes involves an evening meal of at least 7 types of seafood to be served to represent the number of sacraments in the Catholic Church. • 80% of the Italian population are Catholic making celebrations such an important connection between religion and food traditions. (Food in Every Country, 2001); (Yang, 2011)
  • Specific Foods Breads, cereals, rice, pasta, noodles Pasta, bread, pizza dough, rice (Arborio, risotto), Fruit Tomato, lemon, plums, apricots, kaki (persimmon), pomegranate, pears, apples, dates, cherries, grapes Vegetables, legumes Mushrooms (morels, mauves, chanterelle), nettle, asparagus, spinach, rocket (rocula), peppers, broccoli, peas, eggplant, zucchini, artichokes, potatoes, squash Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, nuts, legumes Chestnuts, beef, pork (including cured pork cuts), veal, seafood (scallops, shrimp, fish, eel etc.) Milk, cheese, yoghurt & alternatives Cow’s milk, goat’s milk, sheep’s milk, Cheese (made from cow’s milk, sheep’s milk and goat’s milk). Yoghurt Fats & oils Olive oil, lard (from pig’s) Beverages Wine (red or white), black coffee, range of liquors (grappa, limoncello), still or sparkling water (frizzante) Other (e.g. condiments, signature herbs/spices) Marjoram, mint, rosemary, parsley, sage, dill, basil, bay leaf, catnip, pimpernel, luperi, garlic, oregano and wild thyme. Wine vinegar, balsamic vinegar
  • • Although the majority of these foods can be found in Australia the techniques and quality of production is where the difference in food comes from. • Italians enjoy foraging for wild plants (i.e. nettle, thistle and flowers which are uncommonly used in Australia. • The inclusion of these foods in meal preparation is what distinguishes an Italian dish and a dish cooked in Italy. Harper et al. (2010); Capatti and Montanari (2003)
  • • If Australian wild foods were to be harvested for cooking the time and dangers may outweigh the benefits. • Not every wild food growing in Italy would be found elsewhere. • Although there would be alternatives available in Australia. Harper et al. (2010); Capatti and Montanari (2003)
  • • Gathering wild foods is a part of everyday life for some Italians living in rural areas (Harper et al., 2010). • Recipes are passed down generations creating strong emotional ties which is so special to Italians and their cultural relationship with preparing food. Harper et al. (2010); Capatti and Montanari (2003)
  • Typical Daily Eating Plan Breakfast Caffee en Brioche. Breakfast is generally a pastry and an espresso coffee. Mineral water is also served to accompany the coffee and brioche. Morning Break Coffee Lunch Panino (sandwich) Or Pasta Or Cured meats and salad Dinner Antipasti – small servings of cured meats/seafood Il Primo – pasta/rice/soup with a meat or cheese sauce, raw vegetables may be added to the pasta, olive oil or butter are used in the cooking process Il Secondo – a serving of meat or fish, with a side plate of accompanying vegetables Insalata – a serving of green leafy salad mix, accompanied by olive oil or balsamic vinegar Dolce – a sweet style dessert Evening Snack Fresh fruit or cheese. Beverages Black coffee, sometimes followed by a digestivo (Italian liquor believed to aid digestion)
  • It has become quite the trend in Italy for breakfast to be served at a bar. These breakfasts take place in all regions of Italy, by the tens of thousands. It is usually a quick affair, with customers not hanging around longer than what is needed to consume their breakfast. Breakfast Caffee en Brioche. Breakfast is generally a pastry and an espresso coffee. Mineral water is also served to accompany the coffee and brioche. (Harper et al., 2010)
  • Morning Break Coffee Lunch Panino (sandwich) Or Pasta Or Cured meats and salad Lunch in Italy was traditionally taken between 1 and 3pm. Harper suggests that since industrialization, this tradition has been taken over by a quick sandwich (panino). Some Italians still go home over the lunch period however as people get busier and busier the tradition is slowly diminishing. (Harper et al., 2010)
  • Dinner Antipasti – small servings of cured meats/seafood Il Primo – pasta/rice/soup with a meat or cheese sauce, raw vegetables may be added to the pasta, olive oil or butter are used in the cooking process Il Secondo – a serving of meat or fish, with a side plate of accompanying vegetables Insalata – a serving of green leafy salad mix, accompanied by olive oil or balsamic vinegar Dolce – a sweet style dessert Evening Snack Fresh fruit or cheese. (Harper et al., 2010) Antipasto - A starter meal, generally very simple ingredients, simply prepared. Il primo - Generally a starch based dish i.e. pasta, rice of noodles. Il secondo - Typically the time that meat or fish is served. Insalata - A salad. This is generally just leafy greens with a simple dressing of olive oil or vinegar. Dolce - Sweet Dessert
  • Beverages Black coffee, sometimes followed by a digestivo (Italian liquor believed to aid digestion) (Harper et al., 2010) Wine is also an important part of the evening meal, with each course having a matching wine. As with every other meal in Italy, coffee is served at the end of the last course.
  • Italian – Australian Comparison • Italian style breakfast, lunch and dinner can be achieved in Australia. • Breakfast is generally eaten at home in Australia but the option of eating out is available. • Going home for lunch is definitely not the norm in Australia with lunch often being crammed when time is available. • The style of food eaten at lunch is much the same here in Australia as it is in Italy. • In Australia evening meals with numerous courses are generally reserved for special occasions or experienced when eating out however this style of dinner would be easy to replicate. Harper et al. (2010); Capatti and Montanari (2003)
  • • Many Italians don’t agree with the way westernised cultures eat by mixing everything onto one plate. Italians believe that by eating food groups separately, it aids digestion and enhances health. • The links between cooking with love and passion and sitting down to enjoy the whole dining experience is significant to Italian culture and if these links were broken Italians may feel distant or separated from their homeland. Harper et al. (2010); Capatti and Montanari (2003)
  • - Italians consume less dairy products - Similar amounts of grains, vegetables and meat - Slightly less fruit - Italians use more olive oil (Australian Government, 2013)
  • As seen in Willett, W. et al. (1995) the distribution of foods and macronutrients are similar. However the biggest differences are seen with a higher consumption of white meats (i.e. poultry and fish), olive oil and wine by Italians. (Willett, W. et al. 1995) Figure 1. Westernised Diet Pyramid Figure 2. Italian Diet Pyramid
  • References Central Intelligence Agency, (n.d.). Agriculture – produce. Retrieved August 20, 2013, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2052.html Central Intelligence Agency. (2013, August 13). Australia. Retrieved August 15, 2013, from The World Factbook: https:// www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html Central Intelligence Agency. (2013, August 13). Italy. Retrieved August 16, 2013, from The World Factbook: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/it.html Conti, S., Masocco, M., Meli, P., Minelli, G., Solimini, R., Toccaceli, V. & Vichi, M. (2004). Eating Habits and Lifestyles: a multivariate analysis of the data from an Italian population-based survey. Nutrition Research, 24, 495-507. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2003.11.014 Food in Every Country. (2001). Italy. Retrieved August 10, 2013, from Food In Every Country: http://www.foodbycountry.com/Germany-to-Japan/Italy.html Gugino, S. (2001, August 31). The other Italian olive oils. Wine Spectator, p. 33. Gulley, M. (2012, August 8). Italian Food Culture 101: A primer. Retrieved August 12, 2013, from The Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/Menuism/italian-food-vs- america_b_1537703.html#s1025021&title=Coffee_For_Italians Kurzer, P. & Cooper, A. (2007). What's for Dinner?: European Farming and Food Traditions Confront American Biotechnology. Comparative Political Studie, 40, 1035-1058. Doi: 10.1177/0010414006288975
  • Michigan State University. (2013). Italy: Economy. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/italy/economy Morgan, K. & Sonnino, R. (2007). Empowering Consumers: the creative procurement of school meals in Italy and the UK. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31, 19-25. doi: 10.1111/j.1470-6431.2006.00552.x On Italian Food and Seasons. (2007, November 4). Food and Family. Retrieved from http://food-and- family.blogspot.com.au/2007/11/on-italian-food-and-seasons.html Perry, S. (2006). In Season. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://experiencelife.com/article/in-season/ Sassatelli, R. & Scott, A. (2010). Novel Food, New Markets and Trust Regimes: Responses to the erosion of consumers' confidence in Austria, Italy and the UK. European Societies, 3(2), 213-244, DOI: 10.1080/146166901200543339 Turrini, A., Saba, A., Perrone, D., Cialfa, E. & Amicis, A. D. (2001). Original Communication – Food consumption patterns in Italy: the INN-CA study 1994-1996. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55, 571-588. Vossen, P. (2007). Olive Oil: History, production & characteristics of the world’s classic oils. HortScience, 42(5), 1093- 1100. Willet, W., Sacks, F., Trichopoulou, A., Drescher, G., Ferro-luzzi, A., Helsing, E. & Trichopoulos, D. (1995). Mediterranean Diet Pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61, 1402- 1406. Yang, W. (2011, December). The Feast of The Seven Fishes. Retrieved August 23, 2013, from La Cucina Italiana: http://lacucinaitalianamagazine.com/articles/the-feast-of-the-seven-fishes