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Exam 3 review

Exam 3 review






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    Exam 3 review Exam 3 review Presentation Transcript

    • Exam 3 ReviewRemember to bring Scantron and #2 Pencil on Tuesday!
    • Audition
    • The perceptual qualities of amplitude, frequency and complexity are:A.Pitch; loudness; timbreB.Height; width; depthC.Loudness; timbre; pitchD.Loudness; pitch timbre
    • Sound Features and Perception
    • The stapes in the _________ear pushes against the ______:A. Inner ear; round windowB. Inner ear; stapesC. Middle ear; oval windowD. Middle ear; stapesE. None of the above
    • The Organ of Corti contains the:A. Basilar membraneB. The hair cellsC. Tectorial membraneD. A and BE. All of the above
    • HIGH frequencies will resonate best atthe ______ of the basilar membrane?A. BaseB. ApexC. MiddleD. Edge
    • Frequency Analysis in the Cochlea• The basilar membrane is narrower and stiffer at the basal end. It is wider and less tightly stretched at the apical end.• This increases the tendency for different frequencies to cause maximum vibration amplitude at different points along the basilar membrane
    • Transduction in the ear begins with the:A. The tympanic membraneB. The basilar membraneC. The hair cellsD. The tectorial membrane
    • Ion channels located on the hair cells are ______ gated.A. ChemicallyB. MechanicallyC. ElectricallyD. A and C
    • Transduction in Hair Cells
    • The axons from spiral ganglion cells form the auditory nerve, which project to the:A. Inferior colliculusB. Superior olivesC. Cochlear nucleusD. Medial geniculate nucleus
    • The medial superior olives:A. Compute the difference in arrival timeB. Compute the difference in intensityC. Compute the difference in frequencyD. Compute the difference in complexity
    • The superior olives are located in the:A. HindbrainB. MidbrainC. ForebrainD. Thalamus
    • Auditory Pathway
    • Development
    • The neural tube develops from the:A. EndodermB. MesodermC. EctodermD. Neuroderm
    • The Neural Tube How the neuralplate develops into the neural tube during the third and fourth weeks of human embryological development
    • Cells which migrate using a caterpillar like motion are using:A. FasciculationB. Somal translocationC. Radial translocationD. Inchworm migration
    • Type of Neural Migration
    • What was the key evidence against the Blueprint hypothesis?A. Guide post cells have not been foundB. Pioneer growth cones don’t use tunnelsC. The cell adhesion molecule is not enoughD. Transplanted cells are able to find targets
    • Sperry proposed which hypothesis?A. The fine-tuning hypothesisB. The blueprint hypothesisC. The chemoaffinity hypothesisD. The topographic gradient hypothesis
    • Chemoaffinityhypothesis:Connections arehighly specific.Sperry’s eye rotationexperiment Copyright © 2009 Allyn & Bacon
    • Topographic Gradient Hypothesis
    • Topographic Gradient Hypothesis
    • Synapse Rearrangement
    • Which factors influence cell death?A. Too few targets for neuronsB. Too many other neuronsC. A lack of neurotrophinsD. Incompatible firing patternsE. All of the above
    • Neuron Death and Synapse Rearrangement Overproduction: during development many neurons die. – Apoptosis: active, programmed cell death – Necrosis: Passive cell death Neurons die due to failure to compete for neurotrohic factors provided by targets (e.g., NGF, nerve growth factor) – The more targets, the fewer cell deaths – Destroying some cells increases survival rate of remaining cells Copyright © 2009 Allyn & Bacon
    • Vulnerable Developing BrainMore than 200 genetic mutations associated with mentalretardationDeveloping brain is more vulnerable than the maturebrain to malnutrition, toxic chemicals and infections.Examples: – Hypothyroidism induces mental retardation in infants – Fetal alcohol syndrome. Dendrites tend to be short, with few branches – Rett Syndrome. Anomaly of brain development with mental retardation affecting mainly girls older than 1-2 years. Associated with lack of dendritic development
    • Learning and Memory
    • Which structures of H.M.’s brain were removed?A. HippocampusB. Rhinal cortexC. AmydalaD. Medial temporal lobeE. All of the above
    • As a result of the surgery, H.M. had deficits in what type of memory?A. Semantic memoryB. Skill memoryC. Episodic memoryD. Conditioning memoryE. All of the above
    • Long-Term Memory Two Parallel SystemsDeclarative (explicit): things Procedural (non-declarative,you know that you can tell implicit): things you know that youothers can show by doingEpisodic: Semantic: the Skill Priming: Conditioning:breakfast this name of the Learning: more likely to salivatingmorning 44th president skiing, riding use a word when I see a a bike you heard nice steak! recently Impaired OK! OK! OK! OK!
    • Which of the following are examples of sensorimotor memory tasks?A. Digit-span + 1 taskB. Mirror-drawing taskC. Rotating-pursuit taskD. Block-tapping taskE. B and C
    • Which are examples of implicit memory tasksA. Repetition-priming taskB. Incomplete-picture taskC. Mirror-drawing taskD. Rotary-pursuit taskE. All of the above
    • Mirror-Drawing TaskHM can learn new behavioralskillsHM’s performance improveswith training sessions – Normal sensory-motor learningHe has no consciousrecollection of ever performingit before
    • Rotary-Pursuit TaskHM can learn new behavioralskillsHM’s performance improveswith training sessions – Normal sensory-motor learningHe has no consciousrecollection of ever performingit before
    • Repetition Priming TaskHM can show normal Examine List of Words:priming Puppy– More likely to use a word if Mushroom you have heard it recently Pancake Salsa SpicyHe has no consciousrecollection of the wordson the original list Fill in the Blanks: __us__ro__m
    • Incomplete-Picture Task
    • ECS was used to test Hebb’s reverberating circuit hypothesis in:A. HumansB. RatsC. MonkeysD. A and BE. All of the above
    • The Loftus study that was presented in class altered memories most by:A. Providing incomplete informationB. Providing inaccurate informationC. Just by accessing the memoriesD. By using ECS to disrupt memories
    • Which of the following structures is/are involved in object recognition?A. AmygdalaB. HippocampusC. Rhinal CortexD. All of the above
    • Animal Models of Memory Delayed Nonmatch-to-Sample Task: monkey version – Test of object recognition memory
    • Animal Models Delayed Nonmatch-of Memory to-Sample Task: rodent version Mumby Box – Mumby Box – Test of object recognition memory
    • Which part of the brain is involved in recognizing the arrangement of items in a room?A. The amygdalaB. The inferotemporal cortexC. The prefrontal cortexD. The striatum (basal ganglia)E. The hippocampus
    • Where are Memories Stored? In general, memories are stored in areas that contribute to the acquisition of the memoriesExamples:Inferotemporal cortex: object recognitionHipoocampus: spatial locationAmygdala: learned fearCerebellum: implicit sensorymotor tasksPreforntal cortex: temporal order ofevents, as in cookingStriatum (basal ganglia): habit formation
    • The cells of the hippocampus that respond to location are called:A. Map cellsB. GPS cellsC. Place cellsD. Where cells
    • The creation of an allocentric map from sensory input is an feature of:A. Configural association theoryB. Cognitive map theoryC. Spatial arrangement theoryD. Consistent association theory
    • Hippocampus and Spatial MemoryTheories of Hippocampal Function – Cognitive Map Hypothesis Hippocampus contains a cognitive map of allocentric space that serves as spatial context useful for acquiring and recalling memory of any episode. – Configural Association Theory Hippocampus is critical for learning the significance of combinations of stimuli (i.e., you will be learning about biopsychology in this room, not any other topic) – Spatial Arrangements Hippocampus is important for recognizing the arrangement of objects relative to one another (i.e., the layout of your living room)Milner (1965): “… HM still had not learned the new address (thoughremembering the old one perfectly), nor could he be trusted to findhis way home alone. He did not know where objects in constant usewere kept…”
    • Long-term Potentiation
    • When establishing LTP, the pairing a bell and a steak to cause a dog to salivate (i.e. Pavlovian conditioning) is an example of:A. SimultivityB. AssociativityC. CooperativityD. Amplitivity
    • NMDA receptors open their ion channels when:A. The cell is partially depolarizedB. Calcium is allowed into the cellC. Glutamate binds to the receptorD. A and C
    • The influx of what ion results in cellular changes in the LTP process?A. NA+B. K+C. CA++D. Cl-E. None of the above
    • The process of LTP may lead to:A. More AMPA receptors on post-synaptic cellB. More glutamate release by pre-synaptic cellC. The release of nitric oxide by pre-synaptic cellD. All of the above
    • Most commonly LTP occurs when:A. The pre-synaptic cell firesB. The post-synaptic cell firesC. A then BD. B then A
    • Good Luck!