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  • 1. Comets & Halley’s Comet By: Jennifer Wotczak
  • 2. Agenda 1. Comets 2. Comet Makeup 3. Comet Orbit 4. Comets in History 5. Halley’s Comet 6. Conclusion 7. Bibliography Southern Arizona in 1986
  • 3. Comets Fast Facts• *Dirty Snowballs – Fred Whipple (icy dirtballs) • Small icy solar system body that outgasses: when ORBITINGTHE SUN • Dust, ice, carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane, and more! • Left over from the formation of stars & planets billions of years ago
  • 4. Physical Characteristic • Solid nucleus (core) mostly ice, dust, frozen water, ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide & methane • As comet approaches the sun nuclear surface turns into gas  forming a cloud known as a COMA • Solar radiation pushes particles away formation of DUST TAIL • Charged particles convert some gases into ions ION TAIL
  • 5. Quick Picture
  • 6. More about the Makeup • Most comets nuclei measure 16 km (10 miles) • Some comets have tails that can reach 1.6 million km (1 million miles) wide • & tails reaching 160 million km (100 million miles) long • Comets are visible with the naked eye when they pass close to the sun comas & tails reflect sunlight & glow  energy absorbed from sun.
  • 7. Let’s Talk Orbit
  • 8. More about Orbit
  • 9. Orbital Characteristic • Comets are classified based on the duration of their solar orbit • Short-period orbit 200 years or less • Long-period orbits more than 200 years • Single-apparition comets not bound to the sun, orbit out of the solar system • Scientist have found comets in main asteroid belt might be key source of water for inner terrestrial planets • Long-period comets thought to come from Oort cloud
  • 10. Oort Cloud • Spherical cloud of predominately icy planetesimals • Surrounds the Sun up to 50,000 AU, almost a light- year • Astronomers believe cloud formed closer to sun, and was scattered out by gravitation effects from the giant plants
  • 11. Halley’s Comet • Arguable the most famous comet in the world • Visible to the naked eye every 76 years roughly (if your lucky it might appear twice in your lifetime) • Last appeared in 1986 first time technology allowed for in depth study • Next appear in mid 2061(if you are 20 know, you’ll be 68)
  • 12. A Bit of Halley History • Halley’s comet records date back to 240 BC • In clear records of the Chinese, Babylonians, and medieval Europeans • PERIODICITY first determined in 1705: English Astronomer Edmond Halley
  • 13. 1986 • First time we has the technology to get close to the comet • When it passed earth in 1986: 5 spacecraft's flew past it & gathered unprecedented detail • First time close enough to look past coma and study nucleus • Nucleus was equal parts ice & dust • 80% of ice water • 15% carbon monoxide
  • 14. Quick Video • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C8zV1xiGqf4
  • 15. Important Take Always • Comets: Ice & Dust balls left over from star & planetary creation billions of years ago • Most orbit the sun & when they get close, nucleus heats up and forms a gas atmosphere called a coma • The solar radiation pushes dust & gas off form dust & ion tail • Halley’s Comet “Comet of Earth” • Visible to the naked eye every 76 years • Hopefully in 2061 we will ALL see Halley!! 
  • 16. Thank you!
  • 17. Bibliography • https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Comets • http://www.space.com/53-comets-formation-discovery-and- exploration.html