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Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
Grunewald Economic Case
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Grunewald Economic Case

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"The Economic Case for Investments in Young Children" …

"The Economic Case for Investments in Young Children"

A presentation to the 25th Anniversary Speak Out for Kids Luncheon in St. Louis, MO - held by Citizens for Missouri's Children on 10/29/09.

Published in: Education, Economy & Finance
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  • 1. The Economic Case for Investments in Young Children
    Rob Grunewald
    Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis
  • 2. Educational Characteristics of the Labor ForceMillions of Workers Age 25 and Over
    Source: Ellwood (2001)
  • 3. Four Numbers to Remember
    700 per second
    18 months
    2:1 ratio
    3:1 odds
  • 4. Human Brain at Birth
    14 Years Old
    6 Years Old
    4
  • 5. Human Brain DevelopmentSynapse Formation Dependent on Early Experiences
    Language
    Higher Cognitive Function
    Sensory Pathways
    (Vision, Hearing)
    FIRST YEAR
    -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
    Birth
    (Months)
    (Years)
    Source: C. Nelson (2000)
  • 6. Barriers to Social Mobility Emerge at a Very Young Age
    1200
    College Educated Parents
    600
    Cumulative Vocabulary (Words)
    Welfare Parents
    200
    16 mos.
    24 mos.
    36 mos.
    Child’s Age (Months)
    Source: Hart & Risley (1995)
  • 7. Risk Factors for Adult Substance Abuse are Embedded in Adverse Childhood Experiences
    Self-Report: Alcoholism Self-Report: Illicit Drugs
    40
    16
    35
    14
    %
    %
    30
    12
    25
    10
    20
    8
    15
    6
    10
    4
    5
    2
    0
    0
    ACEs
    0
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5+
    0
    1
    2
    3
    4
    Source: Dube et al, 2002 Source: Dube et al, 2005
  • 8. Risk Factors for Adult Depression are Embedded in Adverse Childhood Experiences
    5
    4
    3
    Odds Ratio
    2
    1
    0
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5+
    ACEs
    Source: Chapman et al, 2004
  • 9. Risk Factors for Adult Heart Disease are Embedded in Adverse Childhood Experiences
    3.5
    3
    2.5
    Odds Ratio
    2
    1.5
    1
    0.5
    0
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5,6
    7,8
    ACEs
    Source: Dong et al, 2004
  • 10. High/Scope Study of Perry Preschool
    In early 1960s, 123 children from low-income families in Ypsilanti, Mich.
    Children randomly selected to attend Perry or control group.
    High-quality program with well trained teachers, daily classroom sessions and weekly home visits.
    Tracked participants and control group through age 40.
  • 11. Perry: Educational Effects
    Source: High/Scope Educational Research Foundation
  • 12. Perry: Economic Effects at Age 40
    Source: High/Scope Educational Research Foundation
  • 13. Perry: Arrested 5 or More Times Before Age 40
    Source: High/Scope Educational Research Foundation
  • 14. Perry: Average Number of Months Served in Prison by Age 40
    Source: High/Scope Educational Research Foundation
  • 15. Perry PreschoolCosts and Benefits Over 62 Years
    Source: High/Scope Educational Research Foundation
  • 16. Perry Preschool — Estimated Return on Investment
    Benefit-Cost Ratio = $16 to $1
    Annual Rate of Return = 18%
    Public Rate of Return = 16%
  • 17. Abecedarian, Educational Child Care
    Full-day, year-round program near Chapel Hill, N.C. Children from low-income families were randomly selected to attend Abecedarian or control group.
      
  • 18. Abecedarian: Educational and Health Effects
    Source: Carolina Abecedarian Study
  • 19. Chicago Child-Parent Centers
    Half-day, large-scale program in Chicago public schools. Comparison group was a sample of eligible nonparticipants.
      
  • 20. Chicago Child-Parent Centers
    Source: Arthur Reynolds, et al.
  • 21. Elmira Prenatal/Early Infancy ProjectHigher-Risk Families
    Home visiting program by registered nurses for at-risk mothers, prenatal through first two years of child’s life. Randomly selected participants were compared with a control group.
      
  • 22. Elmira Prenatal/Early Infancy ProjectHigh-Risk Families
    Source: David Olds, et al.
  • 23. Benefit-Cost Ratios for Other Longitudinal Studies
    Abecedarian Educational Child Care
    $4 to $1
    Chicago-Child Parent
    $7 to $1
    Elmira Prenatal/Early Infancy Project
    $5 to $1
  • 24. Short-Run Benefits
    Allow parents to enter workforce
    Reduce absenteeism and turnover
    Attract businesses
  • 25. Lessons Learned from Research
    Invest in quality
    Involve parents
    Start early
    Reach at-risk population
    Teach cognitive and noncognitive skills
    Bring to scale
  • 26. Moving Forward
    Prenatal/early infant home visits for at-risk mothers
    Access to health care
    Parent education
    Quality child care
    Access to preschool
  • 27.
  • 28. Business Leadership in Early Childhood Development
    Partnership for America’s Economic Success & Committee for Economic Development
    Success By 6 – United Way
    PNC Financial Services, Gates Foundation
    Minnesota Early Learning Foundation
  • 29. “Although education and the acquisition of skills is a lifelong process, starting early in life is crucial. Recent research – some sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis in collaboration with the University of Minnesota – has documented the high returns that early childhood programs can pay in terms of subsequent educational attainment and in lower rates of social problems, such as teenage pregnancy and welfare dependency.”
    Remarks by Federal Reserve Board Chairman Ben S. Bernanke
    Before the Greater Omaha Chamber of Commerce,
    February 6, 2007
  • 30. minneapolisfed.org

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