On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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Health Cost Analysis and
By: Jennifer Ellis
Lead was used for decades as a gasoline
additive in the U.S
Safe Drinking Water Act,
was amended in 1996
Requires U.S. government
agencies to do cost-benefit
analyses of regulations that
are expected to have
through policy actions
Hedonic Valuation: People who work in a risky
job may get pay more than someone in a safer
The Results: 1 million people who are
considering a regulation that would result on
average in one fewer death from cancer each
5 Steps pg 361-365 (skip laws)
“Air toxics are a group of air pollutants that are
known or suspected to cause serious health
Smoking and Other Risks....
Corrosive- Strong Acid/Bases
Discarded Commercial Products- Chemicals in unused forms (pesticides)
Ignitable- Can create fires
Mutagens- Chemical that makes DNA mutate
Nonspecific Source- Manufacturing processes like solvents
Reactive- Unstable, can explode or release bad chemicals
Source Specific- Waste from specific industries
Teratogens- Substance that can cause birth defect
Toxic- Harmful or fatal when ingested or absorbed
Treatment, Disposal, and
Cleanup of Contaminated Sites
Ways to reduce and cleanup
•Producing less waste
•Converting hazardous materials to less
hazardous or nonhazardous substances.
•Placing hazardous material into perpetual
Producing Less Waste:
•Reduce or eliminate toxicity
Converting hazardous materials to less
hazardous or nonhazardous substances:
•Chemical, physical, and Biological treatment
•Arid Region Unsaturated Zone
•Bioaccumulation is the increase in
concentration of a pollutant from the
environment in an organism or part of an
•Biomagnification is the increase in
concentration of a pollutant from one link in a
food chain to another.
5 Steps pg 367-370 (skip case
The increase of concentration of a
contaminant in an organism because of
Similar to bioaccumulation but happens
higher up in the food chain when a
predators foodsource has accumulated
Green Taxes - Taxes that
are intended to promote
ecologically sustainable activities.
Cap and Trade - A market approach used to
provide economic incentives for reducing
emissions of pollutants.
Cost Benefit Analysis
Cost benefit analysis is used to determine if the cost of
something is worth the economic benefit it provides, it
● All information and data about the service or issue.
● Quantifying the benefits and costs.
● Defining the possible solutions to the issue.
● Brainstorming the possible societal and environmental
Deals with the continuity of economic, social and
environmental aspects of human society. Sustainable
activities try and find the best outcomes for both humans
and natural ecosystems for many different issues.
Substances Act 1960
Required that certain
Federal Environmental Pesticides Control
Required the registration of all
pesticides in the United States.
Hazardous Materials Transportation
Act (HAZMAT) 1975
Governs the transportation of hazardous
materials and wastes. Covers containers,
labeling, and marking standards.
Toxic Substances Control Act 1976
Gives the EPA the ability to track the
industrial chemicals currently
produced or imported in the United
Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation and Liability 1980
Established federal authority
for emergency response and
cleanup of hazardous
substances that have been
spilled, improperly disposed
of, or released into the
Low-Level Radioactive Policy Act
Made states responsible for disposing of their
own low-level radioactive wastes.
Nuclear Waste Policy Act 1982
Established a study to find a suitable site for
disposal of spent fuel from nuclear reactors.
be sure to make a sheet for all vocab terms in
both Habitable Planet and 5 Steps and share
that document with the rest of the class. Must
be done by Friday. Eve Tovar