Unit 3  The Ocean
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  • 1. Unit 3: The Ocean APES Period 4
  • 2. Ocean StructureDifferent layers of the ocean and what’s in them. Ocean CurrentsThe water flow patterns around the ocean. Thermohaline CirculationOne of the largest and most important currents in the ocean. Ocean Circulation and Climate CyclesHow the ocean changes and how it affects us. Biological Activity in the Upper Ocean PartAnimal and plant life the upper layers of the ocean. The "Biological Pump"The transportation of carbon in the ocean
  • 3. Ocean Structure Katrina Moore
  • 4. Ocean Currents Part 2 Cierra Bordwine
  • 5. Thermohaline Circulation Part 1 Karis Heidebrecht
  • 6. What is Thermohaline Circulation? The thermohaline circulation is the flow of ocean water caused by changes of its density. It is one of the major forces that affects climate.
  • 7. How Is a Thermohaline Current Formed? ● Water becomes denser the saltier it gets and the cooler it gets. ● This can occur as the ocean is warmed or cooled at the surface by sunlight and contact with the atmosphere, or by the addition of freshwater or salt to the water.
  • 8. Continued... ● Since water is warmer near the equator and cooler near the poles, the cold water sinks and the warm water floats. Water is also saltier near the equator due to evaporation, which leaves salt behind. The process of warming, cooling, and changing salt levels propels water in currents, causing thermohaline circulation. ● This process, plus others, fuels the multiple Thermohaline currents that are found around the world. The result is the Thermohaline circulation.
  • 9. Thermohaline Circulation Part 2 Maribeth Villanueva
  • 10. Salty Water.
  • 11. Masses that help the CirculationNorth Atlantic Deep Water ● (NADW) ● Biggest Water Mass ● Helps pull Gulf Stream were North Atlantic Steam ends.
  • 12. Masses that help the CirculationAntarctic Bottom Water ● (AABW) ● Coldest & Densest ● Carries nutrients ● Northwards
  • 13. Ocean Circulation and Climate Cycles Part 1 Geoffrey Ashton
  • 14. Ocean Circulation and Climate Cycles Part 2 McKenna Chase
  • 15. Compensation Compensation depth - The depth at which energy produced for photosynthesis equals the amount used for respiration. It varies from 20 110 meters and occurs when light is 1% of what it is at the ocean's surface. Compensation Zone - Where there is just enough light for photosynthetic life.
  • 16. Biological Activity in the Upper Ocean Part 2 Victoria Owen
  • 17. Further Reading National Academy of Sciences El Nino and La Nina: Tracing the Dance of an Ocean and Atmosphere. National Weather Service Climate Prediction Center: https://vimeo.com/76557382 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute: Ocean Instruments like Tow Cam
  • 18. TowCam is a specially designed digital camera system that photographs the seafloor as it is towed above the ocean bottom behind an oceanographic research vessel. A regular underwater camera would not work in such an extreme environment, where it must take pictures in total blackness, crushing pressure, and freezing temperatures.
  • 19. Key Terms Michaela Brost