2. Ocean StructureDifferent layers of the ocean and what’s in them.
Ocean CurrentsThe water flow patterns around the ocean.
Thermohaline CirculationOne of the largest and most important currents in the ocean.
Ocean Circulation and Climate CyclesHow the ocean changes and how it affects us.
Biological Activity in the Upper Ocean PartAnimal and plant life the upper layers of the ocean.
The "Biological Pump"The transportation of carbon in the ocean
3. Ocean Structure
4. Ocean Currents Part 2
5. Thermohaline Circulation Part 1
6. What is Thermohaline Circulation?
The thermohaline circulation is the flow of
ocean water caused by changes of its density.
It is one of the major forces that affects climate.
7. How Is a Thermohaline Current
● Water becomes denser the saltier it gets and
the cooler it gets.
● This can occur as the ocean is warmed or
cooled at the surface by sunlight and contact
with the atmosphere, or by the addition of
freshwater or salt to the water.
● Since water is warmer near the equator and
cooler near the poles, the cold water sinks and
the warm water floats. Water is also saltier near
the equator due to evaporation, which leaves salt
behind. The process of warming, cooling, and
changing salt levels propels water in currents,
causing thermohaline circulation.
● This process, plus others, fuels the multiple
Thermohaline currents that are found around the
world. The result is the Thermohaline circulation.
9. Thermohaline Circulation Part 2
10. Salty Water.
11. Masses that help the CirculationNorth Atlantic Deep Water
● Biggest Water Mass
● Helps pull Gulf
Stream were North
Atlantic Steam ends.
12. Masses that help the CirculationAntarctic Bottom Water
● Coldest & Densest
● Carries nutrients
13. Ocean Circulation and Climate
Cycles Part 1
14. Ocean Circulation and Climate
Cycles Part 2
Compensation depth - The
depth at which energy
produced for photosynthesis
equals the amount used for
respiration. It varies from 20 110 meters and occurs when
light is 1% of what it is at the
Compensation Zone - Where
there is just enough light for
16. Biological Activity in the Upper
Ocean Part 2
17. Further Reading
National Academy of Sciences El Nino and La
Nina: Tracing the Dance of an Ocean and
National Weather Service Climate Prediction
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute: Ocean
Instruments like Tow Cam
18. TowCam is a specially designed digital
camera system that photographs the
seafloor as it is towed above the
ocean bottom behind an
oceanographic research vessel. A
regular underwater camera would not
work in such an extreme environment,
where it must take pictures in total
blackness, crushing pressure, and