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Unit 2 Earth's Atmosphere
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Unit 2 Earth's Atmosphere

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    Unit 2 Earth's Atmosphere Unit 2 Earth's Atmosphere Presentation Transcript

    • Unit 1.2: Earth’s Atmosphere Period 4 APES
    • Introduction This Unit ● Greenhouse effect: The greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases ● Cycling Carbon: The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. ● Climate Zones: Are divisions of the Earth's climates into general climate zones according to average temperatures and average rainfall ● Weather Patterns and Storms ● Creating conditions suitable for life
    • The Structure of the Atmosphere By: Nicholas Cochrane
    • Composition The Atmosphere contains a large amount of different gasses. Gas Mole fraction Water (H2O) 0.55x10-6 Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Oxygen (O2) 1.1x10-6 Hydrogen (H2) Nitrogen (N2) Krypton (Kr) 0.32x10-6 Carbon Monoxide (CO) 0.03x10-6 to 0.3x10-6 Chlorofluorocarbo ns 3.0x10-9 Carbonyl Sulfide (COS) 0.1x10-9 0.78 0.21 0.04 to < 5x10-3; 4x10-6 — strat Argon (Ar) 0.0093 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 370x10-6 (date: 2000) Neon (Ne) 18.2x10-6 -6 Ozone (O3) 0.02x10 to 10x10 Helium (He) 5.2x10-6 Methane (CH4) 1.7x10-6 -6
    • Layers http://projectedgeofspace.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/figure-05-02.jpg
    • Troposphere ● 8 to 16 kilometers above Earth's surface ● Temperatures decrease by about 6.5°C with each kilometer ● At the top of the troposphere is the tropopause, a layer of cold air (about -60°C) forms
    • Stratosphere ● 50 kilometers above the earths surface ● temperatures increase with altitude ● About 90 percent of the ozone in the atmosphere is found in the stratosphere. ● one percent of total atmosphere’s water vapor ● slow vertical air motion ● temperatures peak at about -3°C
    • Mesosphere ● 85 kilometers above the earths surface ● Temperatures decrease with altitude ● low of about -93°C
    • Thermosphere ● 1,000 kilometres above the earths surface ● warm with altitude, rising higher than 1700° C.
    • Radiative Balance and the Natural Greenhouse Effect Victoria Owen
    • Major Greenhouse Gasses Natural vs. Human Made Maribeth Villanueva
    • Natural Natural GHGs include: Water vapor Ozone Carbon dioxide Methane Nitrous oxide
    • Human Made Synthetic Chemicals are emitted because of human activity. Also, humans increase some of the natural chemicals, which throws off balance.
    • Human Made Cont. Hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbonsAKA F gases.
    • Vertical Motion in the Atmosphere Karis Heidebrecht
    • Weather Patterns • Many start with rising air. This could happen by: •Convection •Winds running into mountains •Convergence - air masses running into each other and pushing upwards, causing storms.
    • Atmospheric Conditions • Can be stable or unstable • Unstable atmosphere more likely to produce clouds and storms • Stable atmosphere more likely to produce calm weather.
    • Atmospheric Circulation Dani B
    • Atmospheric Circulation Cierra Bordwine
    • Climate, Weather and Storms Geoffrey Ashton
    • The Global Carbon Cycle Daniel Monsalve
    • The Cycle The carbon cycle is based around different stores of carbon. ● CO2 in the atmosphere. ● Carbonate and carbonic acid in oceans. ● Organic matter on land or underwater. On average a carbon atom spends ● 5 years in the atmosphere ● 380 years in oceans or sediments ● 10 years in terrestrial vegetation
    • Carbon Movements Carbon in the atmosphere is scrubbed out by rain into oceans or sediment or absorbed into plants Carbon can stay in fossil fuel deposits for millions of years before it eventually returns to the atmosphere.
    • Human Impact Humans have disrupted the equilibrium of the natural carbon cycle. We have released large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere from using fossil fuels like oil and coal. Also deforestation slows the rate at which carbon is absorbed by plants.
    • The Global Carbon Cycle McKenna Chase
    • Michaela Brost
    • What Are Feedbacks? Feedbacks: Interactions between climate variables such as temperature, precipitation, and vegetation, also elements such as clouds and albedo that control the Greenhouse Effect.
    • Positive Feedbacks Positive Feedbacks amplify temperature changes by strengthening the Greenhouse effect or by reducing albedo.
    • Positive Feedbacks Continued Water Vapor Feedback- The presence of more water vapor as temperatures increase raises the Greenhouse Effect and the absorption of solar radiation which heats the planet. Cloud Feedback on Terrestrial Radiation- Warmer temperatures increase water vapor amounts, which can increase cloudiness and can increase the temperature even further. Ice-Albedo Feedback on Solar Radiation- Rising temperatures cause polar glaciers and floating ice sheets to recede, decreasing Earth’s albedo and raising temperatures.
    • Negative Feedbacks Negative Feedbacks make the climate systems less sensitive to the factors that trigger them.
    • Negative Feedbacks Continued Cloud Feedbacks on Solar Radiation- As temperature and atmospheric water vapor levels rise, cloudiness may increase. Greater cloudiness raises Earth’s albedo, reflecting more solar radiation back into space and lowering the temperature. Vegetation Feedback on Solar Radiation- Deserts may expand as temperatures rise, which would increase Earth’s albedo and lower the temperature.
    • Key Terms (Katrina Moore) ● Carbon Cycle: The biogeochemical cycle in which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. ● Greenhouse effect: A process in which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases ● Photosynthesis: CO2 + H2O + light → "CH2O" + O2 ● Respiration: "CH2O" + O2 → CO2 + H2O + energy ● Climate Zones: Are divisions of the Earth's climates into general climate zones according to average temperatures and average rainfall
    • Continued ● Troposphere: The lowest layer in the atmosphere; it is where weather occurs ● Stratosphere: The second layer of the Earth’s atmosphere; the temperature raises with altitude ● Mesosphere: The third atmospheric layer; it is the opposite to the stratosphere in that its temperature lowers with altitude ● Thermosphere: It is the fourth layer in the atmosphere and it contains ultraviolet radiation and ionization.
    • More Continued ● Convergence: air masses running into each other and pushing upwards, causing storms. ● Angular Momentum: Product= mass X velocity ● Coriolis Force: Force that is caused by Earth’s rotation ● Low Pressure Areas: Circulates counterclockwise ● High Pressure Areas: Circulates clockwise ● Weather Belts: Rings around Earth that have different qualities. ● Radiative Balance: A theory that states that the amount of colar energy Earth receives is equal to what it gives. ● Feedbacks: Interactions between climate variables that control the Greenhouse Effect
    • More More Continued ● Positive Feedbacks: Strengthen the Greenhouse Effect and/or reduce albedo. ● Negative Feedbacks: Reduce the sensitivity in the climate system.