What is the difference?
Primary air pollutants are emitted directly into
the air from sources.
Secondary air pollutants are not directly emitted
but forms when other pollutants (primary
pollutants) react in the atmosphere.
Primary Air Pollutants
Carbon monoxide (car exhausts)
Sulfur dioxide (combustion of coal)
Particulate matter (both solid and liquid)
Secondary Air Pollutants
★ Ozone (formed when hydrocarbons (HC)
and nitrogen oxides (NOx) combine in the
presence of sunlight)
★ NO2 (formed as NO combines with oxygen
in the air)
★ Acid rain (formed when sulfur dioxide or
nitrogen oxides react with water)
Carbon monoxide (CO) (Primary)
★ Odorless and Colorless
★ Stops with the process of oxygen from being delivered
in blood to the body.
★ It is produced as a result of incomplete burning of
carbon-containing fuels including coal, wood, charcoal,
natural gas, and fuel oil.
★ Signs of too much CO inhaled are fatigue, headache,
weakness, confusion, disorientation, nausea, and
★ Too much CO can cause death.
Ground level Ozone (O3)
★ Toxic to both humans and vegetation
★ Triatomic molecule consisting of three oxygen
★ Hurts the respiratory of animal (humans too?)
★ Ozone in the upper atmosphere protects living
organisms by preventing damaging ultraviolet
light from reaching the Earth's surface.
Aerosols & Smog
Controlling Air Pollution &
How to Make Your Keynote the Right Ratio for Doc’s
When Making a new keynote
click “Slide Size”
Select 1920 x 1080
Make sure to click the zoom in the
lower left and “select fit to window”
Air Pollution, GHGs, Climate Change
& Major Laws and Treaties
Air Pollution: Smog
Formed in the atmosphere from nitrogen oxides and VOCs.
Sources of VOCs:
● Combustion of fossil fuels.
● Solid waste facilities.
● Chemical solvent vapors (dry-cleaning)
Unhealthy air. Effects: watering eyes, burning
sinuses, increases in respiratory issues.
Air Pollution: Indoor Air and Acts
Sick Building Syndrome: Occurs in workplaces where bad
air mixes with mold spores.
Clean Air Act: Opened the door for stricter regulation of polluting
Corporate Average Fuel Economy: reduces fuel consumption and
emissions by setting fuel efficiency standards.
Clean Air Interstate Rule: Set limits on particulate emissions from
sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Decrease of 70% by 2018.
“Pure Water” only exists in laboratories. Natural
water contains dissolved gases and salts.
Water must contain enough dissolved oxygen
for fish to survive.
The amount of oxygen measured in a lake or river.
Oxygen enters water by atmospheric absorption or by
aquatic plant and algal photosynthesis. Removed by
respiration and decomposition. Dissolved oxygen levels
● Temperature of the water.
● Water flow volume and velocity.
● Number of organisms using oxygen for respiration.
Water pollution comes from the
loss of ay real water uses, caused
by a change in the water’s
composition because of human
● Groundwater contaminated
fertilizers, pesticides, and
underground storage tanks.
● Runoff from contaminated
● Oil spills.
Oil drilling results in many oil spills which
have hazardous impacts on ecosystems.
Spills account for 10% of marine oil
Another 50% comes from ongoing sources
like leaks, dumping of offshore drilling mud,
and land runoff.
○ Burning of fossil
fuels to generate
The 2nd most common GHG.
○ Natural gas and petroleum
○ Wetlands are the largest natural
source of methane.
5% of US GHG emissions.
○ Agriculture and soil
management is 69% of
Fluorinated gases such as (HFCs),
Have no natural sources.
○ 84% of F gases emitted are
used as a substitute for ozone
depleting substances. Used for
refrigeration, aerosols, and AC.
Levels of GHGs in our atmosphere are increased not only by emissions but by
the modification or destruction of carbon sinks, deforestation for example.
Limiting energy use, the burning of
fossil fuels, deforestation, and using
more clean energy can help reduce
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What Can You Do?
Use as little electricity as possible.
limit transportation, use public transportation.
Ride a bike, use energy efficient cars.
Buy local produce, grow your own food.
Use eco friendly products.
Reduce heating and air conditioning.
Spread the word and influence others.
We usually think of air pollution as being
outdoors, but the air inside of buildings is often
times just as bad, if not worse, than the air
Some Causes of Indoor Air Pollution:
air fresheners and other sprays
wet or damp carpet
central heating and cooling systems
● Ventilation is very important for
keeping pollutants out of
● If too little outdoor air enters a
building, pollutants can rise to
levels that can pose health and
Immediate and Long-Term
Effects of Indoor Pollution:
• short-term and treatable
• irritation of the eyes,
nose, and throat,
• can be severely
debilitating or fatal
• includes some
heart disease, and even
Ozone Layer Protection