4.2 recording earthquakes

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  • 4.2 recording earthquakes

    1. 1. 4.2 Recording Earthquakes Mr. Silva
    2. 2. 4.2 Vocabulary
    3. 3. 4.2 Vocabulary• Seismograph- – instrument used to detect and record seismic directions
    4. 4. 4.2 Vocabulary• Seismograph- – instrument used to detect and record seismic directions• P Waves- – primary wave: the fastest wave generated by an earthquake and the first to be recorded by a seismograph.
    5. 5. 4.2 Vocabulary• Seismograph- – instrument used to detect and record seismic directions• P Waves- – primary wave: the fastest wave generated by an earthquake and the first to be recorded by a seismograph.• S Waves- – secondary wave; a wave generated by an earthquake and the second to be record by a seismograph
    6. 6. 4.2 Vocabulary• Seismograph- – instrument used to detect and record seismic directions• P Waves- – primary wave: the fastest wave generated by an earthquake and the first to be recorded by a seismograph.• S Waves- – secondary wave; a wave generated by an earthquake and the second to be record by a seismograph• Surface Waves-
    7. 7. 4.2 Vocabulary• Seismograph- – instrument used to detect and record seismic directions• P Waves- – primary wave: the fastest wave generated by an earthquake and the first to be recorded by a seismograph.• S Waves- – secondary wave; a wave generated by an earthquake and the second to be record by a seismograph• Surface Waves- – the slowest moving seismic wave generated by an earthquake and the last to be recorded.
    8. 8. 4.2 Vocabulary
    9. 9. 4.2 Vocabulary• Magnitude-
    10. 10. 4.2 Vocabulary• Magnitude- – Is a measure of the energy released by an earthquake and is also described as the amount of ground motion.
    11. 11. 4.2 Vocabulary• Magnitude- – Is a measure of the energy released by an earthquake and is also described as the amount of ground motion.• Microquakes-
    12. 12. 4.2 Vocabulary• Magnitude- – Is a measure of the energy released by an earthquake and is also described as the amount of ground motion.• Microquakes- – earthquake with a magnitude less than 2.5 on the Richter scale
    13. 13. 4.2 Vocabulary• Magnitude- – Is a measure of the energy released by an earthquake and is also described as the amount of ground motion.• Microquakes- – earthquake with a magnitude less than 2.5 on the Richter scale• Mercalli scale-
    14. 14. 4.2 Vocabulary• Magnitude- – Is a measure of the energy released by an earthquake and is also described as the amount of ground motion.• Microquakes- – earthquake with a magnitude less than 2.5 on the Richter scale• Mercalli scale- – scale that expresses the intensity of an earthquake with a Roman numeral and a description.
    15. 15. 4.2 Vocabulary• Magnitude- – Is a measure of the energy released by an earthquake and is also described as the amount of ground motion.• Microquakes- – earthquake with a magnitude less than 2.5 on the Richter scale• Mercalli scale- – scale that expresses the intensity of an earthquake with a Roman numeral and a description.• Intensity-
    16. 16. 4.2 Vocabulary• Magnitude- – Is a measure of the energy released by an earthquake and is also described as the amount of ground motion.• Microquakes- – earthquake with a magnitude less than 2.5 on the Richter scale• Mercalli scale- – scale that expresses the intensity of an earthquake with a Roman numeral and a description.• Intensity- – amount of damage caused by an earthquake.
    17. 17. Types of Seismic Waves• Seismic waves can be detected and recorded using a seismograph.• There are 3 types of seismic waves – Primary Waves (P waves) – Secondary Waves (S waves) – Surface Waves: (when P & S waves reach the surface)
    18. 18. Primary Waves– Primary Waves (P waves): move fastest and are recorded first • Can travel through solid & liquid • Compression waves- cause the rock particles to move together & apart along the wave direction
    19. 19. Secondary Waves– Secondary Waves (S waves): second to be recorded • Travel only through solid material: cannot be detected on the side of the earth opposite the epicenter…Why? Can’t go through the liquid of the earth’s outer core! • Shear waves- cause rock particles to move at right angles to the wave direction
    20. 20. Surface Waves
    21. 21. Surface Waves• Surface Waves: when P & S waves reach the surface and their energy is converted into a new wave
    22. 22. Surface Waves• Surface Waves: when P & S waves reach the surface and their energy is converted into a new wave – Slowest moving & last recorded
    23. 23. Surface Waves• Surface Waves: when P & S waves reach the surface and their energy is converted into a new wave – Slowest moving & last recorded
    24. 24. Surface Waves• Surface Waves: when P & S waves reach the surface and their energy is converted into a new wave – Slowest moving & last recorded – Why do surface waves do the most damage?
    25. 25. Surface Waves• Surface Waves: when P & S waves reach the surface and their energy is converted into a new wave – Slowest moving & last recorded – Why do surface waves do the most damage?
    26. 26. Surface Waves• Surface Waves: when P & S waves reach the surface and their energy is converted into a new wave – Slowest moving & last recorded – Why do surface waves do the most damage? – Not as much earth to absorb energy before hitting the surface
    27. 27. Locating an Earthquake
    28. 28. Locating an Earthquakea. To find the epicenter, analyze the difference between arrival times of P & S waves
    29. 29. Locating an Earthquakea. To find the epicenter, analyze the difference between arrival times of P & S waves i. P waves travel 1.7 times faster than S waves
    30. 30. Locating an Earthquakea. To find the epicenter, analyze the difference between arrival times of P & S waves i. P waves travel 1.7 times faster than S waves ii. The longer S waves take to come in, the farther the seismograph station is from the epicenter
    31. 31. Locating an Earthquakea. To find the epicenter, analyze the difference between arrival times of P & S waves i. P waves travel 1.7 times faster than S waves ii. The longer S waves take to come in, the farther the seismograph station is from the epicenter iii. Plot epicenter distances from 3 stations and the intersection point is the earthquake epicenter
    32. 32. Earthquake Measurement
    33. 33. Earthquake Measurement– Magnitude a measurement of the energy released by an earthquake & is the amount of “ground motion”
    34. 34. Earthquake Measurement– Magnitude a measurement of the energy released by an earthquake & is the amount of “ground motion” i. Major quake = 7 or above
    35. 35. Earthquake Measurement– Magnitude a measurement of the energy released by an earthquake & is the amount of “ground motion” i. Major quake = 7 or above ii. Moderate quake = 6 to 7
    36. 36. Earthquake Measurement– Magnitude a measurement of the energy released by an earthquake & is the amount of “ground motion” i. Major quake = 7 or above ii. Moderate quake = 6 to 7 iii. Minor quake = 2.5 to 6
    37. 37. Earthquake Measurement– Magnitude a measurement of the energy released by an earthquake & is the amount of “ground motion” i. Major quake = 7 or above ii. Moderate quake = 6 to 7 iii. Minor quake = 2.5 to 6– Largest quake ever had a magnitude of 8.9
    38. 38. Earthquake Measurement– Magnitude a measurement of the energy released by an earthquake & is the amount of “ground motion” i. Major quake = 7 or above ii. Moderate quake = 6 to 7 iii. Minor quake = 2.5 to 6– Largest quake ever had a magnitude of 8.9– Anything less than a 2.4 is a microquake.
    39. 39. Earthquake Measurement– Magnitude a measurement of the energy released by an earthquake & is the amount of “ground motion” i. Major quake = 7 or above ii. Moderate quake = 6 to 7 iii. Minor quake = 2.5 to 6– Largest quake ever had a magnitude of 8.9– Anything less than a 2.4 is a microquake.– Mercalli scale expresses intensity (damage caused) in Roman Numerals I to XII
    40. 40. 4.2 Review
    41. 41. 4.2 Review• What instrument is used to record seismic waves?
    42. 42. 4.2 Review• What instrument is used to record seismic waves? – Seismograph
    43. 43. 4.2 Review• What instrument is used to record seismic waves? – Seismograph• Explain the three types of seismic waves…
    44. 44. 4.2 Review• What instrument is used to record seismic waves? – Seismograph• Explain the three types of seismic waves… – P (primary) moves the fastest through solids and liquids.
    45. 45. 4.2 Review• What instrument is used to record seismic waves? – Seismograph• Explain the three types of seismic waves… – P (primary) moves the fastest through solids and liquids. – S (secondary) travel only through solids
    46. 46. 4.2 Review• What instrument is used to record seismic waves? – Seismograph• Explain the three types of seismic waves… – P (primary) moves the fastest through solids and liquids. – S (secondary) travel only through solids – Surface Wave- Slowest wave, moves over the surface causing the surface to rise and fall.
    47. 47. Review
    48. 48. Review• How do scientists measure the magnitude of an earthquake?
    49. 49. Review• How do scientists measure the magnitude of an earthquake? – By analyzing and plotting the differences in arrival times of P waves and S waves at three or more seismograph station locations
    50. 50. Review• How do scientists measure the magnitude of an earthquake? – By analyzing and plotting the differences in arrival times of P waves and S waves at three or more seismograph station locations• Why do P waves travel faster through the lithosphere than through the asthenosphere?
    51. 51. Review• How do scientists measure the magnitude of an earthquake? – By analyzing and plotting the differences in arrival times of P waves and S waves at three or more seismograph station locations• Why do P waves travel faster through the lithosphere than through the asthenosphere? – Because P waves travel faster through the more rigid rock of the lithosphere than through the somewhat plastic rock in the asthenosphere.

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