DEVELOPMENT OF SUN TRACKING SOLAR                 PANEL SYSTEM TO MAXIMIZE SUN                      ENERGY GENERATIONPREPA...
CONTENTSINTRODUCTIONPREFACEPROJECT BACKGROUNDMAIN OBJECTIVECOMPARISON OF ENERGY SOURCESWORKING PROCEDUREBLOCK DIAGR...
INTRODUCTION“SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM” -      Used to control and set the moment of solar panels.   This system uses DC mot...
PREFACE            The main non-renewable sources of energy in the            world are coal, oil, natural gas, and more r...
Coal Plant   Nuclear    Natural              Plant    Gas Plant
PROJECT BACKGROUNDWhy should the solar panel face the most illuminating source of light? TO Increase Solar Panel Output ...
EXAMPLESMARS ROVER   HUBBLE TELESCOPE
EXAMPLESINTERNATIONAL SPACE                      SOLAR POWERED HOMESSTATION
Main Objectives  Position the Solar Panels so that they will acquire maximum energy from a   light source.  Store the ac...
WORKING PROCEDURE
BLOCK DIAGRAM
SOLAR TRACKER SOLVING ALGORITHM
FLOW CHART
SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION:The   C programming language is a general – purpose programminglanguageC  is not a big language and...
Cx51    provides you with the flexibility of programming in C and thecode efficiency and speed of assembly language .Sin...
 OUR PROJECT:
 HARDWARE DESCRIPTION    Features of AT89S52 microcontroller:Compatible    with MCS-51® Products   8K Bytes of In-Syste...
 The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit  microcontroller. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high...
PROGRAM DUMPER
Block Diagram of 8051
Features of 8051 Architecture  Optimized 8 bit CPU for control applications and extensive Boolean    processing capabilit...
LIGHT DETECTING RESISTOR
 For a sensor, we’re interested in the light power that falls on a unit area, and how well  the sensor converts that into...
 ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER [ADC] Features of ADC                                               0809ADCKey Specification...
Pin Number                 Description    1                  IN3 - Analog Input 3    2                  IN4 - Analog Input...
MOTOR DRIVER CIRCUIT
 L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor  drivers act as current amplifiers since they take ...
DC SERIES MOTOR WHAT DOES DC SERIES MOTOR DO?   Like any other motor, series motors convert electrical energy to   mecha...
 FEATURES:Rpm : 300 at 12vDC supply: 3 to 12VMetal Gears based GearboxOutput shaft: CentreTorque : 2 Kg-cmShaft diameter:...
 APPLICATIONS Series Motors can generate huge turning force, the torque, from itsidle state. This characteristic makes se...
LCD DISPLAY INTERFACE WITH 4-BIT/8-BIT MICROPROCESSOR. DISPLAY DATA RAM [80 CHARACTERS]. CHARACTER GENERATOR ROM [160 ...
Project Coding/****************************************************************************        Project: Suntrack --Sun...
unsigned char ucAddrCounter        = 0,           ucAscii[4];unsigned char ucMax;IE = 0x93;while(1){           for(ucAddrC...
LcdPuts("   ");                                          LcdPutc(ucAscii[0]);                                          Lcd...
for(j = 0; j < 40000; j++);                 }/* End of for(sensor) */                 LcdInit();                 ucAscii[0...
for(j = 0; j < 20000; j++);         P2 = 0XCC;         for(j = 0; j < 20000; j++);         P2 = 0X99;         for(j = 0; j...
unsigned char FindMaxLdr(void){        unsigned char i;        unsigned char ucMax;        ucMax = 0;        for(i = 1; i<...
}    else    {           while(gucPresent != ucMax)           {                   ReverseStep();                   gucPres...
APPLICATIONS  Used in satellites as source of fuel.  Used in solar thermal collector to collect heat.  Used in water h...
CONCLUSION To collect greatest amount of energy from sun, solar panels must be aligned orthogonally to  sun. For this p...
MICROPROCESSOR BASED SUN TRACKING SOLAR PANEL SYSTEM TO MAXIMIZE ENERGY GENERATION
MICROPROCESSOR BASED SUN TRACKING SOLAR PANEL SYSTEM TO MAXIMIZE ENERGY GENERATION
MICROPROCESSOR BASED SUN TRACKING SOLAR PANEL SYSTEM TO MAXIMIZE ENERGY GENERATION
MICROPROCESSOR BASED SUN TRACKING SOLAR PANEL SYSTEM TO MAXIMIZE ENERGY GENERATION
MICROPROCESSOR BASED SUN TRACKING SOLAR PANEL SYSTEM TO MAXIMIZE ENERGY GENERATION
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MICROPROCESSOR BASED SUN TRACKING SOLAR PANEL SYSTEM TO MAXIMIZE ENERGY GENERATION

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  • A PROJECT ON
  • INTRODUCTIONPREFACEPROJECT BACKGROUNDMAIN OBJECTIVECOMPARISON OF ENERGY SOURCESDESCRIPTION OF PROJECT BLOCK DIAGRAMDESIGN EVALUATIONHARDWARE DESCRIPTIONSOFTWARE DESCRIPTIONSOURCE CODEFLOWCHARTBLOCK DIAGRAM OF 8051LIGHT DETECTING RESISTORANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERTERL293D MOTOR DRIVERDC SERIES MOTORLCD DISPLAYAPPLICATIONSDRAWBACKSADVANTAGESCONCLUSION
  • PROGRAM DUMPER
  • OPERATES WITH 5V DC OR ANALOG SPAN
  • 16 PINS
  • .
  • To collect greatest amount of energy from sun, solar panels must be aligned orthogonally to sun.For this purpose a new solar tracking technique based on micro-controller was implemented and tested in this study.
  • MICROPROCESSOR BASED SUN TRACKING SOLAR PANEL SYSTEM TO MAXIMIZE ENERGY GENERATION

    1. 1. DEVELOPMENT OF SUN TRACKING SOLAR PANEL SYSTEM TO MAXIMIZE SUN ENERGY GENERATIONPREPARED BY: MOHD MOIZUDDIN UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF:4TH Year – EEE Department, LECTURER. SAJID SIRSHADAN COLLEGE OF ENGG N Faculty of EEE Department;TECH SHADAN COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECHNOLOGY
    2. 2. CONTENTSINTRODUCTIONPREFACEPROJECT BACKGROUNDMAIN OBJECTIVECOMPARISON OF ENERGY SOURCESWORKING PROCEDUREBLOCK DIAGRAMSOLAR TRACKER SOLVING ALGORITHMFLOWCHARTSOFTWARE DESCRIPTIONOUR PROJECTHARDWARE DESCRIPTIONPROGRAM DUMPERBLOCK DIAGRAM OF 8051LIGHT DETECTING RESISTORANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERTERL293D MOTOR DRIVERDC SERIES MOTORLCD DISPLAYPROJECT CODINGAPPLICATIONSDRAWBACKSADVANTAGESCONCLUSION
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION“SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM” - Used to control and set the moment of solar panels. This system uses DC motor to control the angle of rotation of the panels.Rotation of DC motor through the desired angle is achieved by using Kiel cross compiler.The basic idea of the project is to increase the efficiency of the solar systems.The solar panel is made to rotate in all the directions facing the sunlight.Tracks the maximum intensity position and rests in that position.
    4. 4. PREFACE The main non-renewable sources of energy in the world are coal, oil, natural gas, and more recently nuclear energy. While the aforesaid power generators use coal, oil & natural gas as their main fuel for energy production, nuclear energy employs the technique of nuclear fission of uranium for electricity generation. The availability of these natural resources in future & pollution are the main concerns.
    5. 5. Coal Plant Nuclear Natural Plant Gas Plant
    6. 6. PROJECT BACKGROUNDWhy should the solar panel face the most illuminating source of light? TO Increase Solar Panel Output Maximize Power per unit Area Provide Educational Demonstration of Renewable EnergyExamples 1. Mars Rover 2. Hubble Telescope 3. International Space Station 4. Solar-Powered Homes
    7. 7. EXAMPLESMARS ROVER HUBBLE TELESCOPE
    8. 8. EXAMPLESINTERNATIONAL SPACE SOLAR POWERED HOMESSTATION
    9. 9. Main Objectives  Position the Solar Panels so that they will acquire maximum energy from a light source.  Store the acquired energy into batteries, and use the batteries to control the rest of the system when the solar energy is absent.  In no-light or low-light conditions design the system to go into sleep mode so that energy is not wasted.  Design a visual display unit to display status information about the system.Solar Panel Output
    10. 10. WORKING PROCEDURE
    11. 11. BLOCK DIAGRAM
    12. 12. SOLAR TRACKER SOLVING ALGORITHM
    13. 13. FLOW CHART
    14. 14. SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION:The C programming language is a general – purpose programminglanguageC is not a big language and is not designed for any one particulararea of application . Its generality combined with its absence of restrictions makes C aconvenient and effective programming solution for a wide variety ofsoftware tasks .Many applications can be solved more easily and efficiently with Cthan with other more specialized languages. The Cx51 Optimizing C Compiler is a complete implementation of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard for the C language .
    15. 15. Cx51 provides you with the flexibility of programming in C and thecode efficiency and speed of assembly language .Since Cx51 is a cross compiler standard libraries are altered orenhanced to address the peculiarities of an embedded targetprocessor.
    16. 16.  OUR PROJECT:
    17. 17.  HARDWARE DESCRIPTION Features of AT89S52 microcontroller:Compatible with MCS-51® Products 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable(ISP) Flash Memory Endurance: 1000 Write/Erase Cycles 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
    18. 18.  The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density non-volatile memory technology. Compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out.
    19. 19. PROGRAM DUMPER
    20. 20. Block Diagram of 8051
    21. 21. Features of 8051 Architecture  Optimized 8 bit CPU for control applications and extensive Boolean processing capabilities.  64K Program Memory address space.  64K Data Memory address space.  128 bytes of on chip Data Memory.  32 Bi-directional and individually addressable I/O lines.  Two 16 bit timer/counters.  Full Duplex UART.  6-source / 5-vector interrupt structure with priority levels.  On chip clock oscillator.
    22. 22. LIGHT DETECTING RESISTOR
    23. 23.  For a sensor, we’re interested in the light power that falls on a unit area, and how well the sensor converts that into a signal. A common unit is the lux which measures apparent brightness (power multiplied by the human eye’s sensitivity). 1 lux of yellow light is about 0.0015 W/m2. 1 lux of green light (50% eff.) is 0.0029 W/m2. Sunlight corresponds to about 50,000 lux Artificial light typically 500-1000 lux Simplest light sensor is an LDR (Light-Dependent Resistor). Optical characteristics close to human eye. Can be used to feed an A/D directly without amplification (one resistor in a voltage divider). Common material is CdS (Cadmium Sulphide) Sensitivity: dark 1 M , 10 lux 40 k , 1000 lux 400 .
    24. 24.  ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER [ADC] Features of ADC 0809ADCKey Specifications Resolution 8 Bits Total Unadjusted Error ±1/2 LSB and ±1 LSB Single Supply 5 VDC Low Power 15 mW Conversion Time 100 µs
    25. 25. Pin Number Description 1 IN3 - Analog Input 3 2 IN4 - Analog Input 4 3 IN5 - Analog Input 5 4 IN6 - Analog Input 6 5 IN7 - Analog Input 7 6 START - Start Conversion 7 EOC - End Of Conversion 8 2(-5) - Tri-State Output Bit 5 9 OUT EN - Output Enable 10 CLK - Clock 11 Vcc - Positive Supply 12 Vref+ - Positive Voltage Reference Input 13 GND - Ground 14 2(-7) - Tri-State Output Bit 7 15 2(-6) - Tri-State Output Bit 6 16 Vref- - Voltage Reference Negative Input 17 2(-8) - Tri-State Output Bit 8 18 2(-4) - Tri-State Output Bit 4 19 2(-3) - Tri-State Output Bit 3 20 2(-2) - Tri-State Output Bit 2 21 2(-1) - Tri-State Output Bit 1 22 ALE - Address Latch Enable 23 ADD C - Address Input C 24 ADD B - Address Input B 25 ADD A - Address Input A 26 IN0 - Analog Input 0 27 IN1 - Analog Input 1 28 IN2 - Analog Input 2
    26. 26. MOTOR DRIVER CIRCUIT
    27. 27.  L293D is a dual H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor drivers act as current amplifiers since they take a low-current control signal and provide a higher-current signal. This higher current signal is used to drive the motors. L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver circuits. In its common mode of operation, two DC motors can be driven simultaneously, both in forward and reverse direction. The motor operations of two motors can be controlled by input logic at pins 2 & 7 and 10 & 15. Input logic 00 or 11 will stop the corresponding motor. Logic 01 and 10 will rotate it in clockwise and anticlockwise directions, respectively. Enable pins 1 and 9 (corresponding to the two motors) must be high for motors to start operating. When an enable input is high, the associated driver gets enabled. As a result, the outputs become active and work in phase with their inputs. Similarly, when the enable input is low, that driver is disabled, and their outputs are off and in the high- impedance state.
    28. 28. DC SERIES MOTOR WHAT DOES DC SERIES MOTOR DO? Like any other motor, series motors convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. Its operation is based on simple electromagnetic principle by which when the magnetic field created around a current carrying conductor interacts with an external magnetic field, a rotational motion is generated. A typical DC motor layout is given in the following diagram:
    29. 29.  FEATURES:Rpm : 300 at 12vDC supply: 3 to 12VMetal Gears based GearboxOutput shaft: CentreTorque : 2 Kg-cmShaft diameter: 6 mm.Shaft length: 22 mm.Total length: 76 mm.Motor diameter: 38 mm.Mounting Nut Width: 8mmSame size motor available in various rpmHole with threading (internal) in shaft for fixing wheelNo-load current = 60 mA, Load current = 300 mAThe motor gives 300 RPM (maximum) at 12v although the motor runssmoothly from 3v to 12v range which will give a wide range of RPM andtorque. Thus at 3v (the current is less too) the motor will be the slowest &torque minimum; because the speed of motor is directly proportional to supplyvoltage & torque is proportional to current.
    30. 30.  APPLICATIONS Series Motors can generate huge turning force, the torque, from itsidle state. This characteristic makes series motors suitable for smallelectrical appliances, mobile electric equipments, hoists, winchesetc. Series motors are not suitable when a constant speed isrequired. The reason is that the speed of series motors variesgreatly with varying load. Regulating the speed of series motors isalso not an easy process to implement. ADVANTAGES • Huge starting torque • Simple Construction • Designing is easy • Maintenance is easy • Cost effective
    31. 31. LCD DISPLAY INTERFACE WITH 4-BIT/8-BIT MICROPROCESSOR. DISPLAY DATA RAM [80 CHARACTERS]. CHARACTER GENERATOR ROM [160 CHARACTERS]. BUILT-IN RESET CIRCUIT IS TRIGGERED AT POWER ON.  16 PINS.
    32. 32. Project Coding/**************************************************************************** Project: Suntrack --SunTracking Solar Panel. Version: 1.0 Author: 1.MOIZUDDIN.g 2. RAJKUMAR.n 3. SUFYAN.b*****************************************************************************/# include <p89v51rd2.h># include "AdcV1.h" // On P1 & P2# include "LcdV2.h"# include "VerV1.h" // No Portunsigned char gucSensorValue[4];unsigned char gucPresent = 0;voidForwardStep(void);voidReverseStep(void);unsigned char FindMaxLdr(void);void Rotate(unsigned char ucMax);void main(void){ unsignedinti = 0, j = 0; unsigned char ucAddrCounter = 0,
    33. 33. unsigned char ucAddrCounter = 0, ucAscii[4];unsigned char ucMax;IE = 0x93;while(1){ for(ucAddrCounter = 0; ucAddrCounter< 3; ucAddrCounter++) { ReadSensorData(ucAddrCounter, &gucSensorValue[ucAddrCounter]); ToAsciiDecimal(gucSensorValue[ucAddrCounter],&ucAscii[0]); LcdInit(); switch(ucAddrCounter) { case LDR0: LcdPuts("LDR0 Value : "); LcdCmd(NEW_LINE); LcdPuts(" "); LcdPutc(ucAscii[0]); LcdPutc(ucAscii[1]); LcdPutc(ucAscii[2]); break; case LDR1: LcdPuts("LDR1 Value : "); LcdCmd(NEW_LINE);
    34. 34. LcdPuts(" "); LcdPutc(ucAscii[0]); LcdPutc(ucAscii[1]); LcdPutc(ucAscii[2]); break; case LDR2: LcdPuts("LDR2 Value : "); LcdCmd(NEW_LINE); LcdPuts(" "); LcdPutc(ucAscii[0]); LcdPutc(ucAscii[1]); LcdPutc(ucAscii[2]); break; /*case LDR3: LcdPuts("LDR4 Value : "); LcdCmd(NEW_LINE); LcdPuts(" "); LcdPutc(ucAscii[0]); LcdPutc(ucAscii[1]); LcdPutc(ucAscii[2]); break; */ default: break; } /* End of Switch */
    35. 35. for(j = 0; j < 40000; j++); }/* End of for(sensor) */ LcdInit(); ucAscii[0] = ; ucAscii[1] = ; ucAscii[2] = ; ucMax = FindMaxLdr(); ToAsciiDecimal(ucMax, ucAscii); LcdPuts("Max is :"); LcdPutc(ucAscii[0]); LcdPutc(ucAscii[1]); LcdPutc(ucAscii[2]); for(i = 0; i< 40000; i++); Rotate(ucMax); } /* End of While(1) */} /* End of Main() *//**********************************************************************************/voidReverseStep(void){ unsignedint j; unsignedinti; for(i = 0; i< 3; i++) { P2 = 0X66;
    36. 36. for(j = 0; j < 20000; j++); P2 = 0XCC; for(j = 0; j < 20000; j++); P2 = 0X99; for(j = 0; j < 20000; j++); P2 = 0X33; for(j = 0; j < 20000; j++); }}/**********************************************************************************/voidForwardStep(void){ unsignedint j; unsignedinti; for(i = 0; i< 3; i++) { P2 = 0X33; for(j = 0; j < 20000; j++); P2 = 0X99; for(j = 0; j < 20000; j++); P2 = 0XCC; for(j = 0; j < 20000; j++); P2 = 0X66; for(j = 0; j < 20000; j++); }}/**********************************************************************************/
    37. 37. unsigned char FindMaxLdr(void){ unsigned char i; unsigned char ucMax; ucMax = 0; for(i = 1; i< 3; i++) { if(gucSensorValue[i] >gucSensorValue[ucMax]) { ucMax = i; } } returnucMax;}/**********************************************************************************/void Rotate(unsigned char ucMax){ if(ucMax == gucPresent) return; if(ucMax>gucPresent) { while(gucPresent != ucMax) { ForwardStep(); gucPresent++; }
    38. 38. } else { while(gucPresent != ucMax) { ReverseStep(); gucPresent--; } }}
    39. 39. APPLICATIONS  Used in satellites as source of fuel.  Used in solar thermal collector to collect heat.  Used in water heaters.  Used in heat extinguishers.  Used in solar power plants.  Used in inverters[AC-DC].  Used in solar water pumps.DRAWBACKS  Tracker is affected by temporal variations in atmospheric refractions caused by rain,cloud etc.  This leads to wrong positioning of solar panel.ADVANTAGES  The solar tracker system provides numerous applications in the field of industrial, infrastructural as well as agricultural sectors, both private and public purposes.  Its main application lies in the industrial processes like energy stations and powerhouses for the production of electricity. Moreover, it also find its applications in pool filtration systems, in agriculture for irrigation methods and solar water heating systems
    40. 40. CONCLUSION To collect greatest amount of energy from sun, solar panels must be aligned orthogonally to sun. For this purpose a new solar tracking technique based on micro-controller was implemented and tested in this study.
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