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Tercer semana fund comm csf english Tercer semana fund comm csf english Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to Organizational Communication Individuals in Organizations Chapter Five Prepared by Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Describe work force diversity n Describe intrapersonal and interpersonal experiences of individuals in organizations n Describe theories of motivation n Relate motivation to communication behaviors Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Understand communication preferences for organizational life n Understand how perceptions of communication competencies affect work satisfaction n Describe the importance of trust for interpersonal relationships Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Describe workplace emotion, balance, and interpersonal relationships n Describe technology and interpersonal relationships Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Understand cultural intelligence n Value diversity n Practice active listening skills n Practice analysis capabilities Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Relate individual communication experiences to organizational identification, work performance, communication, and job satisfaction n Identify personal needs in work settings n Relate valuing diversity to interpersonal effectiveness Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Individuals in Organizations n An individual’s organizational experiences result from q The attitudes, beliefs, preferences, and abilities the individual brings to the organization q How the organization seeks to influence the individual q What types of organizational relationships the individual develops q Relationship with his or her supervisor and peers Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Primary Communication Experiences of Individuals in Organizations as it Relates to Organizational Outcomes; Figure 5.1 Organizational Influences Organizational Goals and Culture Task Requirements Policies and Procedures Reward Systems Individual Personal Needs Predispositions for Behavior Communication Competencies Expectations Skills Small-Group Experiences Work Groups Problem-Solving Groups Social Support Groups Roles Expectations (Norms Information Identification Innovation Power Interpersonal Experiences Peers and Supervision Information Support Identification Expectations (Norms) Evaluation Power Organizational Outcomes Organizational Identification Job Performance Communication Satisfaction Job Satisfaction Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Intrapersonal experiences - comprises our personal needs, predispositions for behavior, communication competencies, and expectations. n Motivation - term to describe intrapersonal experiences that influence behavior. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Intrapersonal Experience n The intrapersonal experience is based in part on self-concept, which in turn is influenced by a variety of past experiences, including various group affiliations. n Our intrapersonal experience is composed of our personal needs, self-concept, predispositions for behavior, communication competencies, and expectations Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Intrapersonal Experience n Abraham Maslow q Behavior is influenced by internal needs such as safety and security, prestige and self-actualization n Frederick Herzberg q Described behavior as a result of both internal and external motivators n B. F. Skinner q Viewed reinforcement from the external environment as the primary influence for behavior n Gerald Salancik and Jeffrey Pfeffer q Workers’ job attitudes are a function of their communication activities. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Concept n Hierarchy of needs - Maslow’s description of human behavior based on an ascending order of physiological, safety and security, love and social belonging, esteem and prestige, and self-actualization needs. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Self Actualization Esteem and Prestige Love & Social Belonging Safety and Security Key Concepts FIGURE 5.2 The Need Levels in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs FIGURE 5.2 The Need Levels in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Arilgl hritgsh rtess reersveerdv ed
  • Key Concepts n Motivation- the term used to describe intrapersonal experiences that influence behavior. We don’t see the motivation, but we see behavior. We infer unseen internal reactions have motivated that behavior. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Concepts n Motivation-Hygiene theory - Herzberg’s description of human behavior based on the influence of both internal and external factors. The theory proposes that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not polar opposites, and what produces dissatisfaction with work when corrected will not necessarily produce motivation. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • BF. Skinner n Rewards Theory q Human behavior can be motivated and is influenced by rewards in the individuals’ environment q Behavior reinforced through positive feedback or tangible rewards will be perpetuated, whereas behavior that does not receive positive reinforcement will be unlikely to continue Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Gerald Salancik and Jeffery Pfeiffer (1978) n Social Information Processing Theory q The individual’s perception of the job or task characteristics q Information the social environment provides to the individual about what attitudes are appropriate (i.e., social information) q The individual’s perception of the reasons for his or her past behaviors q Needs are the results or outcomes produced by an individual’s perceptions and by the social information available in the work environment Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Gerald Salancik and Jeffery Pfeiffer (1978) n How Social Information Influences Attitudes q Overt, evaluative statements of coworkers directly shape individual worker attitudes q Frequent talk among coworkers about certain dimensions of the job and work environment focuses attention on what is considered to be important or salient in the work setting q Information from coworkers, or social information, helps an individual worker interpret and assign meaning to environmental cues and events in the work setting; and finally q Social information influences the way an individual interprets his or her own needs Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Predispositions for Organizational Communication Behaviors n Personally held preferences for particular types of communication situations or behaviors. These preferences are a result of intrapersonal needs (motivation), personal self-concept, past experiences, current information, and self-perception of communication competency. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Concepts n Communication apprehension - predisposition for behavior described as an individual’s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with others. n Interpersonal experiences - descriptions of important one-on-one organizational relationships such as supervisors and subordinates and peer-to-peer. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Predispositions for Organizational Communication Behaviors n Leadership and Conflict Preferences q Individuals differ in their desire to lead others and in their perception of what is effective leadership. q Individuals differ in how they approach conflict. q Leadership and conflict preferences have been theorized to influence choice of communication strategies and tactics in leadership and conflict situations. leadership and conflict predispositions and preferences are an individual’s combined concern for tasks or goals and people relationships. q These two concerns combine with past experiences and an assessment of the present situation to influence behavior Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Predispositions for Organizational Communication Behaviors n Communication Competency q Individuals’ perceptions of their communication competencies— knowledge, sensitivity, skills, and values—influence their organizational experiences. q When individuals believe their competencies are lower than those of others, they accept limited responsibilities. q Individuals who assess their competencies as comparable to those of others may willingly accept new responsibilities as challenging and worthwhile. q Perception of competency is related to communication apprehension, leadership, conflict preferences, past experiences, the presence or absence of particular skills, and deliberate attempts to improve competencies. q As such, perception of competency can be described as a summing up of preferences and predispositions for organizational communication behavior. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Interpersonal Experiences n Interpersonal relationships in organizations are formed for important task and social considerations. Unlike our personal relationships, the organization actually structures for us many interpersonal encounters necessary for task accomplishment. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Interpersonal Experiences n People are more comfortable with those who are “like” themselves and with whom they share values n We form positive impressions of those who have complementary rather than similar characteristics Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Supervisors and Employees n The primary interpersonal relationship structured by the organization. Because it is formed to support task and job requirements, almost everyone in an organization n The interaction of their characteristics influences the satisfaction each person feels with the other and helps determine the overall effectiveness of the relationship n A supervisor who thinks an employee shares similar values is more likely to view that employee as competent. Employees are more likely to be satisfied with both work and supervision if they perceive a high degree of communication competency in the relationship. n Employees’ satisfaction with their supervisors also has been found to be directly related to their perception of their own personal communication competence Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Supervisors and Employees n Leader-Member Exchange (LMX Theory) n Leaders have limited time and resources and share both their personal and positional resources differently with their employees. n In-group exchange is a high quality relationship characterized by high levels of information exchange, mutual support, informal influence, trust, and greater negotiating latitude and input in decision influence. n Out-group exchange, a low quality relationship in which the opposite is observed (e.g., more formal supervision, less support, and less trust and attention from the superior)” (Jaesub Lee 1997, p. 269). Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Supervisors and Employees n Leader-Member Exchange (LMX Theory) n Lee (2001) q “Pelz effect” - The supervisor’s upward LMX with his or her own boss q Individuals in high-quality LMX relationships were more likely than those in low-quality relationships to believe supervisors distributed resources fairly and used fair procedures and processes. q These perceptions influenced how much employees reported sharing information, ideas, and resources with work group peers. In other words, the less favourable the relationships with the supervisor, the more likely individuals were to withhold information even from their peers. q The quality of LMX also influences the continuing socialization of newcomers. The exchange influences the degree to which individuals identify or not with the organization. It is possible to say LMX can be characterized by both trust and doubt. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Supervisors and Employees n Leader-Member Exchange (LMX Theory) n Nature of Communication Between Supervisors and Employees q Supervisors who are high in communication apprehension are not as well liked as those lower in apprehension q Relationships between supervisors and employees are influenced by a wide variety of communication behaviors; the predispositions, preferences, and abilities of both supervisors and employees; and overall work environments. q Supervisors may spend from one-third to two-thirds of their time communicating with employees. Employees want and seek interaction with their supervisors q The effectiveness of these message exchanges contributes to employees’ job satisfaction, quality of work performed, commitment, creativity, and overall communication satisfaction. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Supervisors and Employees n Leader-Member Exchange (LMX Theory) n Communication from Employees to Supervisors n Paul Krivonos (1982) – Upward Communication q Employees tend to distort upward information, saying what they think will please their supervisors q Employees tend to filter information and tell their supervisors what they, the employees, want them to know q Employees often tell supervisors what they think the supervisor wants to hear q Employees tend to pass personally favorable information to supervisors while not transmitting information that reflects negatively on themselves. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Supervisors and Employees n Leader-Member Exchange (LMX Theory) n Communication from Employees to Supervisors n Janet Fulk and Sirish Mani (1986) – Downward Communication q The perception of supervisors’ downward communication, or the extent to which supervisors are perceived as actively withholding information, influences the accuracy of upward messages. q The more the supervisor withholds, the more employees withhold and distort. q If trust levels between supervisors and employees are low, and if employees have mobility aspirations they believe their supervisors can influence, there is likely to be a positivity bias that distorts upward communication. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Supervisors and Employees n Leader-Member Exchange (LMX Theory) n Supervisor Influence n Markku Jokisaari and Jari-erik Nurmi (2009) q Levels of supervisor support were directly related to employee role clarity, job satisfaction, and changes in salary levels. q Employees reporting high perceived supervisor support also reported role clarity and job satisfaction that was greater than employees perceiving lower supervisor support. q Employees reporting high supervisor support enjoyed rates of salary increases that were higher than employees with less supervisor support. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Supervisors and Employees n Leader-Member Exchange (LMX Theory) n Performance Expectations and Feedback n Frequent gap in information and understanding between what the supervisor perceives and what an employee believes to be true. Supervisors and employees frequently differ on such important issues as basic job duties, performance expectations, amount and quality of communication exchange, and desirability of employee participation in decision making n Donald Campbell (2000) - common supervisor expectations important for employees: q Job and task competence q Interpersonal effectiveness q Organizational orientation q Enterprising qualities q Personal integrity Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Supervisors and Employees n Leader-Member Exchange (LMX Theory) n Mentors/Mentee Relationships q The mentor engages in coaching and advice extending beyond immediate job requirements to include information on how to be viewed as a successful contributor to the organization and how to make decisions likely to result in favorable organizational recognition q Mentors are most likely to select for mentoring those individuals who are similar to the mentor. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Peers n Peers are all organizational members of approximately the same organizational structure, role, and responsibility levels n Relationships with peers are characterized by both task and social interaction: peers communicate job information, advice, evaluation of performance, and personal feedback n Peer Advice Networks and Performance Evaluations q Peers are central to the advice networks in which most individuals participate. Advice networks form around information transfer, communicate professional values, and contribute to both retarding and stimulating innovation n Peer Friendships q provide overall positive benefits for organizational members including: improved workplace performance, reduced stress, favorable perceptions of personal support, a positive work environment, and the ability to engage in change and innovation. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Peers n Negative Peer Relationships n Patricia Sias and Tara Perry (2004) Five primary factors contributing to poor peer relationships and actual relationship deterioration: q Problem personality q Distracting life events q Conflicting expectations q Promotion q Betrayal Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Customers, Clients and Vendors n Relationships are based on exchanges of information about products, services, timing, delivery, quality, and cost. These relationships often are established through telemediated channels but remain important to the goals of all the parties involved in the relationship n Clarity of expectations among these parties is critical n Network Links and Network Roles q Liaisons n Link or connect groups with common information without being members of either group q Bridges n Link groups together by having membership in two or more groups. q Gatekeepers n Routinely receive information and determine whether to transmit that information to the next link or links in the chain q Participants n Individuals who participate in linked communication behaviors but who are not usually in liaison or bridge roles – not influential q Nonparticipants n Formal members of groups but do not affiliate with others in the group to the extent that participants do q Isolates all function differently in communication networks n An individual with few or no communication links throughout the organization Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Valuing diversity - ability to understand and appreciate the contributions that differences in people can make to organizations. n Diverse people bring different intrapersonal attitudes, experiences, expectations, and competencies to organizations. These differences can contribute to organizational effectiveness when those with different styles and values work together in interpersonal relationships characterized by mutual understanding, respect, and satisfaction. n Differences can produce conflict, tension, stereotyping, harassment, discrimination, abusive control, and exclusion, all of which contribute to a variety of negative organizational outcomes. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Trust and Interpersonal Relationships n Trust can be viewed as positive expectations about the behavior of others based on roles, relationships, experiences, and interdependencies Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Workplace Emotion, Balance and Interpersonal Relationships n Understanding the various types of workplace emotion and how they relate to balance between the personal and professional contributes to our abilities to understand complex organizational environments. n The issue is not whether emotion at work is relevant to our interpersonal relationships but how emotion impacts work and relationships. n E-mail exchanges routinely feature punctuation marks to assist with the lack of nonverbal cues such as smiles or frowns to express emotion Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Technology and Interpersonal Relationships n The virtual work environment is creating new challenges and experiences. Technology has changed and is changing literally all types of relationships in which we engage n We work across time zones, different languages, cultural differences, and geographic locations. n We work with people without extensive information about their backgrounds, values, or experiences. n We are expected to work effectively with others, using a variety of communications technologies Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Increasing Interpersonal Effectiveness n Cultural Intelligence q An individual’s ability to understand the behaviors of other people in terms of three classifications: those that are universally human, those that are specific to an individual, and those that are rooted in culture Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Increasing Interpersonal Effectiveness n Barriers to Valuing Diversity and Positive Approaches q Preconceptions and Beliefs That Foster Inaccurate Information and Confusion between Perceptions of Behaviors and Actual Behaviors n Positive Approach: Personalize Knowledge and Perceptions q Stereotypes That Limit the Potential Contributions of Individuals Based on Their Membership in a Group or Class n Positive Approach: Tolerance for Ambiguity q Prejudices That Produce Negative Emotional Reactions to Others n Positive Approach: Nonjudgmentalness q Stylistic Differences in Personal Communication That Inhibit Interpersonal Relationships n Positive Approach: Display of Respect Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Brenda Allen (2004) Mindful and Proactive Interactions q What preconceived notions do I have about this person based on social identity characteristics (whether we seem different or similar)? q Are those notions positive, negative, or neutral? q What’s the source of those preconceptions? q Will my preconceptions facilitate or impede communication? q Am I open to learning about this person and myself during this interaction? Why or why not? q Am I willing to be changed as a result of this interaction or experience? q What communication tools can I use to try to create genuine communication? FIGURE 5.5 Brenda Allen’s Checklist for Mindful and Proactive Interactions Based on Brenda Allen, Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity, 2004, p. 202. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Active listening - processes of hearing, assigning meaning, and verifying our interpretations. Increases the accuracy of message reception, enabling responses based on what was said, not on what might have been said. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Descriptive messages - messages characterized by ownership of perceptions and conclusions and language which presents facts, events, and circumstances all parties to communication are likely to observe or experience personally. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Message ownership - attempts to verbally communicate individual perceptions and feelings without attempting to establish blame or find unnecessary corroboration. n Descriptive language - language choice based on facts, events, and behavior as opposed to language choice describing attitudes, blame, or other subjective and vague concepts. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #1 n Describe an organization of which you have been a part. Outline your intrapersonal and interpersonal experiences. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #2 n If you were the head of a large organization, what theory or approach to motivation would you use? Why? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #3 n If you were the head of a large organization, what kind of superior-employee and peer relationships would you encourage? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #4 n Describe an occasion when an individual communication experience affected your sense of: organizational identification, work performance, trust, communication, or job satisfaction. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #5 n Describe an occasion when either valuing diversity, active listening, verbal ownership, or descriptive language contributed to organizational communication. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Fundamentals of Organizational Communication: Knowledge, Sensitivity, Skills, Values 9th Edition Prepared by Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; • any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Fundamentals of Organizational Communication Strategic Organizational Communication: Professional Applications of Organizational Communication Chapter Eleven Prepared by Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Describe strategic organizational communication n Define the role of the professional communicator in strategic organizational communication n Describe crisis communication Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Understand the complexity of strategic organizational communication n Develop an awareness of professional responsibilities for strategic organizational communication n Utilize analysis capabilities to select options for case problems Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Assess personal skills related to professional communication responsibilities n Relate strategic communication to ethical and value issues faced by organizations n Understand value dimensions of professional communication responsibilities Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Perspectives on Strategic and Organizational Communication n Strategic organizational communication is dynamic and influenced both within and without the organization. It is strategic, proactive and reactive. Strategic communication is closely related to organizational excellence and the ability of any organization to meet environmental challenges. n Planning frequently begins with an analysis of the organizational environment Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Strategic organizational communication - transactional processes in which organizational messages are deliberately generated, are based on environmental data, analysis and strategy selection, and are guided by organizational objectives. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Stakeholders - individuals and groups who have an interest in the organization and are able to influence the organization’s ability to meet its goals. n Publics - small or large group of stakeholders with interests and needs relative to a particular organization. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Communication Strategy vs. Tactics n Strategy involves choice q What issues are most important? What issues can or should be ignored? Who should present what? Why should it become a major theme? When is the best timing for communication? n Involves anticipating the reactions of others and planning with those reactions in mind. Strategy becomes the basis for action n Communication tactics are the actions—both planned and otherwise—that determine whether the strategic objective is realized. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Concepts n Environmental scanning - acquisition and use of information about events and trends in an organization’s external environment. q Eric Eisenberg and H. L. Goodall (1997) pointed out that boundary spanners, or organizational members who have direct contact with the public (such as salespeople or customer service representatives), can play an important role in gathering external data. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Concepts n Environmental scanning - Should encompass all factors likely to influence the organization, now and in the future q Identifying internal and external stakeholders and their interests and needs. q Point out trends and events in the competitive, economic, technological, political, social, cultural, ecological, and demographic arenas. q These data may be used to forecast and strategize for the short and long term. q Environmental scanning increasingly is conducted with interactive technologies. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Concepts n The global environment – customers, clients, donors, service users are literally everywhere —networked with sophisticated technologies, spanning diverse cultures and needs, challenging past understanding of multiple publics and environmental data Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n SWOT - strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats identified for strategic planning (Kenneth Andrews and C. Roland Christensen, 1971) q Strengths q Weaknesses q Opportunities q Threats Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Positioning Strategy n Strategic organizational communication, the focus is on the development of positioning strategy. q “a (competitive) strategy is a clear statement of why customers should choose a company’s products or services over those of competing companies.” (Eisenberg and Goodall, 1997) Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Positioning Strategy Most of the models are still based on the SWOT analysis and contain, in some form or another, the following phases: 1. Scanning and interpreting the internal and external environments 2. Formulating a mission, or vision for the future, and transforming it into specific objectives 3. Developing strategy and implementing supporting programs 4. Monitoring, reviewing, and revising the plan and its implementation. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Strategic Organizational Communication n Phillip Clampitt, Robert DeKoch, and Thomas Cashman (2000) q Effective communication strategy as having the following characteristics: n Linking to organizational goals n Legitimizing certain issues and delegitimizing others n Shaping organizational memory n Making sense of the confusing and ambiguous n Providing a proper point of identity n Continuously evolving Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Public relations - strategic organizational communication involving an organization’s image, internal communication, public affairs and issues management, media relations, and crisis management. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Image Communication n The planned building and maintaining of an organization’s reputation n The image or reputation of an organization is central to the ability of the organization to meet its overall goals or objectives To many, however, the term image building carries mixed connotations based on a skepticism of whether or not planned, communicated images reflect organizational reality Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Internal communications - planned and formalized communication prepared and disseminated by communication professionals to internal organizational members. q Seeking input from employees through surveys, interviews, meetings, or other methods; communicating the organization’s mission, objectives, strategies, and programs through training activities or the preparation and dissemination of newsletters, manuals, pamphlets, and other publications; establishing formalized structures to improve the quality and flow of organizational communication; creating Web sites for internal use; determining which social media will be utilized with employees; and in general managing all communications designed to help the organization achieve its strategic objectives. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Public affairs and issues management – shaping of public opinion regarding social and political issues important to an organization n Media relations - working with the media on behalf of the organization. n Risk communication – communication prepared to educate about potential risks and provide information about how to reduce potential harm. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Raymond Ewing (1997) Seven-step model of the issues management process: 1. Issue identification, or scanning the social and political environments for emerging issues 2. Issue analysis, or projecting how an issue will affect the organization 3. Development of a corporate/non-profit policy position on an issue 4. Development of specific action plans to deal with issues Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Raymond Ewing (1997) Seven-step model of the issues management process: 5. Implementation of action plans and communication of the organization’s positions on issues 6. Review of the results, including public reactions, objections, negotiations, and organizational adjustments 7. Continued focus on the issue until it no longer influences the organization. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Marketing - strategic organizational communication which is directed at bringing about an exchange between an organization and a customer. n Integrated marketing communications - process of managing all sources of information about a product which behaviorally moves the customer toward a sale and maintains customer loyalty. q The Marketing Mix n Product decisions n Pricing decisions n Place decisions n Promotion decisions Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Advertising—planned messages which are part of the promotional marketing mix which utilize media to reach intended audiences to stimulate a desired impact such as product purchase or behavior change. n Branding – process of developing product or service naming and identity statements which distinguish products or services from competitor products or services. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Crisis communication – communication response in emergency situations designed to minimize harm to the organization and assist in understanding and responding to the emergency. n Crisis management - Use of public relations to minimize harm to the organization in emergency situations that could cause damage. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Risk and Crisis Communication n The production of messages for the organization’s various publics with regard to potential risks and their consequences. n Risk messages often include information on how the organization is assessing or monitoring the risk, what preventive measures—if any—are in place, how the organization will respond if a perceived risk becomes a reality, and what individuals can do (self-efficacy) to reduce their personal or environmental risks. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Risk and Crisis Communication Kathleen Fearn-Banks (2008) concluded a crisis has five stages: 1. Detection 2. Prevention/preparation 3. Containment 4. Recovery 5. Learning.” The stages are not linear, with several stages potentially occurring at once. Communication professionals most often are involved in all stages. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Risk and Crisis Communication Strategic crisis communication 1. Informs publics 2. Acknowledges events with both empathy and a desire to establish credibility 3. Helps publics understand risks and current state of information; and 4. Honestly examines problems and resolution to problems. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Risk and Crisis Communication 6 Common Crisis Communication Mistakes 1. Failing to develop a crisis plan and failing to identify a core crisis response team. 2. Denying the serious nature of the event. 3. Attempting to block the public and media from essential information about the event. 3. Communicating only partial information 4. Failing to understand and respond to the differing needs of differing publics, stakeholders, or audiences. 5. Failing to express concern. 6. Blaming others without adequate support for the assertion. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Risk and Crisis Communication James Lukaszewski (1997) n Establishing communication priorities: q Those most directly affected q Employees q Those indirectly affected such as neighbors, customers, families, suppliers, government, regulators, and so on q The media and other channels of external communication. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Social media—Information created by organizations and individuals using highly accessible mostly interactive communication technologies Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Technology and strategic organizational communication – the website as a staple of strategic communication, increasing presence of social media, emerging use of enterprise social media (EMS) Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • George Cheney and Lars Christensen (2001) n Identified seven issues with ethical, moral, and even legal implications resulting from planned communication: q The posited character or integrity of the source of the message q The defensibility of a particular message q The legitimacy of a pattern or campaign of messages q The practical impact of a message or the cumulative effect of a series of messages q The openness of the structure of communication between an organization and its publics/audiences q The articulation/representation of genuine public interests q The question of shared responsibility. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #1 n Distinguish between strategic organizational communication and other forms of organizational communication. What special skills might be required to fulfill professional responsibilities in the field of strategic organizational communication? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #2 n Describe the relationship between the development of strategy and the communication functions of public relations and marketing. What are some communications activities public relations and marketing professionals might use to help carry out overall business strategy? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #3 n Give examples of ethical issues that a public relations or marketing professional might face. What possible behavior choices or solutions are available to the professional, and what are their implications? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #4 n Consider the importance of the organizational environment in the context of strategic organizational communication. Give an example of a professional communication responsibility or problem, and describe an approach or solution that utilizes two-way communication between the organization and its environment to improve the chance of a successful outcome. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #5 n Describe some strategic educational activities that a communication professional might use to help an organization improve adaptability, coping processes, and problem solving. Which activities do you deem most valuable and why? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Questions # 6 n Discuss the challenges organizational professionals face when strategically planning the use of social media. How can organizations know which media should be utilized and which should be avoided? Provide rationales for your choices. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Fundamentals of Organizational Communication: Knowledge, Sensitivity, Skills, Values 9th Edition Prepared by Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; • any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Fundamentals of Organizational Communication Career Options for Organizational Communication Chapter Twelve Prepared by Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Describe influences for career decisions n Identify career option areas and educational preparation for organizational communication n Describe 21st century careers Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Identify personal influences for career decisions n Understand employment matching n Assess individual career development needs Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Practice analysis capabilities for career decisions n Relate personal and organizational values to the employment match n Understand continuous change as important for careers Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Choosing a Communication Career n All careers are communication careers n Careers are the sum total of job experiences over time n Employment Match q Knowledge for Employment Matching q Sensitivity for Employment Matching q Skills for Employment Matching q Values for Employment Matching Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Employment match - when individual competencies match organization competencies and the individual becomes a working member of the organization. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Employment Match n Knowledge for Employment Matching q Develop knowledge about the functional requirements needed in specific occupational categories. n Sensitivity for Employment Matching q Know what expectations you have q Self-awareness q Know what sensitivities the organization has n Skills for Employment Matching q Know your technical qualifications n Values for Employment Matching q Evaluate your values versus those of the organization Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Internal communication careers - work within an organization to assist management in employee and management communication, coordinate a variety of training activities, coordinate internal communication media, facilitate team building, and develop numerous other communication activities. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Internal Communication Careers 1. Provide consultation, assistance, and guidance to management on matters relating to employee and management communication; coordinate employee communication pro-grams and activities; coordinate publishing of regular employee media including social media; advise, coordinate, and conduct attitudinal and other polls among employees; provide editorial and publishing services; and produce, edit, and distribute special publications. 2. Develop and maintain informational units to serve the needs of senior management and the communication department. 3. Develop, coordinate, and implement small-group, face-to-face communication programs to facilitate team building, problem identification, and problem solving. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n External communication careers - responsibility for external public relations activities; corporate advertising; community, shareholder, financial and government relations; corporate literature, sales promotions, and special productions. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • External Communication 1C. Gauidree aned drevselo p a full range of external public relations activities including advertising; crisis communication; community, shareholder, financial, and government relations; and the production of corporate literature, sales promotions, marketing, and special productions. 2. Direct and coordinate all activity in the development, implementation, and administration of an organizational identification system, covering all aspects of visual communication, materials, and media. 3. Evaluate, direct, and coordinate uses of new media including social media for all types of organizational communication and e-commerce. 4. Have administrative responsibility for public relations and development departments. 5. Have responsibility for risk and crisis communication. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Sales careers - representing products and services to potential customers. n Human services careers - responsibility for fund-raising, grant writing, and other formal budget justification processes. Human service professionals engage in counseling, design, administration, and evaluation of programs; they also engage in responsibilities similar to internal communication careers. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Careers in education- teaching in high schools, junior colleges, and universities and curriculum development including for on-line programs. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Research and information management careers - responsibility for the design and development of research programs to support the ongoing activities of the organization or to chart a course of change; responsibility for the acquisition and the interpretation of information and the selection of technologies to support decision making and e-commerce. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Management careers - responsibility for planning, coordinating, supervising, and controlling many of the activities of the organization. n Consulting careers - work as an external adviser to organizations to identify problems, evaluate performance, find solutions, and implement a wide variety of change activities. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Educational Preparation for Organizational Communication Careers n Broad liberal arts background with emphasis on combination of theory and practical courses n Overview of the human communication process, an introduction to basic concepts and theories in organizational communication, and an understanding of how theories of organizations relate to human communication n Development of oral skills for interpersonal, small-group, and public settings. n Basic research methods and statistics are essential for evaluating and collecting data, a responsibility of many communication positions Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • The Employment Search n Informational interview - Interview to gather data for problem solving and decision making n Employment interview - An exchange of questions between an individual seeking employment and the individuals responsible for evaluating job applicants q Effective employment interviewing involves preparation and practice q Prepare to provide concise but descriptive answers to a variety of questions about you q Role playing is a valuable method for improving your interviewing skills q Ask informed questions of the interviewer about the job Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Old School vs. New School n Michael Arthur, Priscilla Claman, and Robert DeFillippi (1995) n The old career paradigm n Implied mutual loyalty between employees and organizations. n Employee compliance was rewarded with job security. n Job rewards were deferred to the future, and n Career opportunities were mostly standardized and prescribed by the firm. n Employees often expected to stay with one organization for an entire career and relied on the organization to specify jobs and their associated occupational skill base. n Employees were expected to identify with their particular firm and forgo general development in favor of firm-specific learning. n Management set strategic direction and defined competitiveness, and n The corporate agenda generally discouraged independent enterprise. n There was little identification with other regional firms, which were generally viewed as competitors. n Corporate allegiance meant that project goals were subordinated to corporate policy and organizational constraints. n Loyalty to the work group was expected, and the organization formed a distinct boundary within which careers were expected to be pursued. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Old School vs. New School n Michael Arthur, Priscilla Claman, and Robert DeFillippi (1995) n The new career paradigm n The concept of discrete exchange means explicit exchange of specified rewards in return for task performance n Basing job rewards on the current market value of the work being performed n Engaging in disclosure and renegotiation on both sides as the employment relationship unfolds, and exercising flexibility as each party’s interests and market circumstances change n Occupational excellence means performance of current jobs in return for developing new occupational expertise n Employees identifying with and focusing on what is happening in their adopted occupation n Emphasizing occupational skill and development over the local demands of any particular firm n Getting training in anticipation of future job opportunities; and having training lead jobs Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Networked organization - partners or alliances across groups and organizations to leverage the best possible resources for a given project. n Cellular organization - collaborative but not considered permanent association of professionals working together for a specific project or service. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Allred, Snow, and Miles n Core competencies for the networked organization (p. 21) n Referral skills rely on the ability to analyze a problem and prescribe a solution within the network firm and across its partners. n Partnering skills refer to the capacity to conceptualize, negotiate, and implement mutually beneficial outcomes. n Relationship management involves giving high priority to the needs and preferences of key customers and partners. In dynamic multifirm networks, in which company participation may be periodic, relationships among past, present, and potential customers and partners must be carefully maintained Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #1 n Are most individuals aware of the influences that impact their career decisions? How might awareness of such personal influences be enhanced/used? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #2 n Review and add to the list of professional responsibilities of communication professionals. How are these responsibilities affected by advances in technology and the rapidly changing and competitive business environment? What are the implications for careers in the 21st century? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Fundamentals of Organizational Communication: Knowledge, Sensitivity, Skills, Values 9th Edition Prepared by Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; • any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Fundamentals of Organizational Communication Leadership and Management Communication Chapter Seven Prepared by Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Describe leadership from trait, style, transformational, discursive, and situational approaches n Distinguish between leadership and management n Clarify a personal “theory” of leadership Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Understand leadership styles, strategic objectives, and tactics n Assess leadership strategies and tactics n Practice analysis capabilities and skills using cases, transcripts of meetings, and group activities Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Relate leadership to organizational excellence n Understand the need for leadership from all organizational members n Describe principled and ethical leadership Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Leadership - process for guiding individuals, groups, and entire organizations in establishing goals and sustaining action to support goals. n Management - responsibility, specifically assigned by the organization, to direct and evaluate the work of others. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Trait approach - theory of leadership that assumed that leaders possessed innate traits that made them effective; commonly referred to as the “great man” theory. q Early theories of effective leadership assumed leaders had innate traits that made them effective. That is, great leaders were considered to be born with the ability for leadership. This theory of the “great man” first surfaced in the writings of the early Greeks and Romans and is prevalent today among those who believe that leadership cannot be developed, that you either have leadership qualities or you don’t. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Style approach - theories which attempt to identify a range of general approaches leaders use to achieve goals. The approaches are thought to be based on the leader’s assumptions about what motivates people to accomplish goals. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Autocratic - style of leader or manager who makes decisions with little influence from others. n Democratic - style of leader or manager who involves followers in decision making. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Laissez-faire - style of leader or manager who behaves as a nonleader. Individuals and groups are expected to make their own decisions based on a “hands off” approach from the leader. n Impoverished management - leadership style characterized by a low concern for interpersonal relationships and task accomplishment. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Middle-of-the-road management - style of leader who balances task and people concerns; commonly referred to as compromise management or leadership. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Country-club management - style of leader or manager who emphasizes interpersonal relationships at the expense of goal achievement. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Task management - style of leader or manager who is concerned with goals or task achievement while exhibiting little concern for personal relationships; commonly referred to as autocratic leadership. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Team management - team leadership or management is the theoretical ideal. Team leaders exhibit high concern for both task and interpersonal relationships by emphasizing goal accomplishment while supporting people. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Situational approaches - leadership theories that explore how leaders interact with followers and the requirements of a particular environment. q Fred Fiedler (1976) The approach or style an effective leader chose depended on a combination of task, relationship, power, and situational contingencies Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Situational Approaches n Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard (1977) q Effectiveness of a particular leader was related to the leader’s selection of behavior appropriate to the maturity level of the follower group. Maturity was based on achievement, motivation, ability, education, experience, and the willingness to participate responsibly in goal-oriented activities Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Transformational approaches - leadership theories that explore how leaders motivate followers by personal example, through appeals to higher level needs, and by the establishment of vision. n Hackman & Johnson (2009) q “The transactional leader is most concerned with the satisfaction of physiological, safety, and belonging needs. To meet these needs, a transactional leader exchanges rewards or privileges for desirable outcomes…” q Transformational leaders are creative, interactive, visionary, empowering, and passionate Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Empowerment - process of giving employees the maximum amount of power to do a job as they see fit; includes both responsibility and accountability for work performed n Warren Bennis (1992) q “Today’s leader must create an organizational culture where ideas come through unhampered by people who are fearful. Such leaders are committed to problem-finding, not just problem-solving. They embrace error, even failure, because they know it will teach them more than success. . .” Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Dispersed leadership - leadership responsibilities broadly distributed throughout the organization. n SuperLeadership q The art of leading others to lead themselves. q SuperLeaders create SuperFollowers, who become skilled self-leaders q The fundamentals of SuperLeadership include n Establishing a vision n Defining goals for the leader and for the followers n Reinforcing individuals for good performance n Using constructive contingent reprimands n Managing and facilitating change n Enhancing the self-efficacy of followers n Using models to teach desired and appropriate behaviors. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Concepts n Discursive approaches—examine leadership processes through discourses which influence the accomplishment or lack of accomplishment of tasks and goals. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Leadership Vs. Management n Distinction between leadership and formal authority n Bennis and Nanus (1985) q The vision leaders provide is the clearest of all distinctions between leaders and managers q “Great leaders often inspire their followers to high levels of achievement by showing them how their work contributes to worthwhile ends. It is an emotional appeal to some of the most fundamental human needs.” Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Leadership and Management Challenges n Confronting Ethics and Failures n Changing Organizational Forms n Global and Multicultural Changes n Chaos, Flux and Speed n Inclusive-Participation Processes n Building Trust Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Determinants of Leadership Effectiveness n Communication Competencies q Knowledge, sensitivity, skills, and values must all be understood and developed for both individuals and entire organizations to be effective in our emerging information era n Predispositions for Leadership Communication q The knowledge, sensitivity, skills, and values we bring to particular situations n Strategic Communication Objectives for Leadership q The general game plans leaders employ for conducting communication based on personal preferences or predispositions and on assessments of the probable outcomes within particular contexts n Communication Tactics for Leadership q Communication behaviors used to support authoritarian, participative, and avoidance preferences as well as to establish vision, manage meaning, generate trust, and communicate regard and success orientations Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Power bases - influence an individual has over another as a result of dependency on the powerful person. Power bases are commonly identified as legitimate, reward, coercive, referent, expert, and connection. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Legitimate power - power emerging from the positions, titles, or roles people occupy. n Reward power - power based on the leader’s control and distribution of tangible and intangible resources. n Coercive power - power based on the sanctions or punishments within the control of the leader. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Referent power - power based on others identifying with the leader. n Expert/information power - power based on information the leader knows as a result of organizational interaction or areas of technical specialty. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Connection power - power resulting from who the leader knows and the support he or she has from others in the organization. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Principled leadership - leadership that provides a consistent message, has a perspective for unleashing talent, practices ego suppression, and creates leaders. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Team Leader Principles 1. Avoid compromising the team’s objective with political issues. 2. Exhibit personal commitment to team goals. 3. Do not dilute the team’s efforts with too many priorities. 4. Be fair and impartial toward all team members. 5. Be willing to confront and resolve issues associated with inadequate performance by team members. 6. Be open to new ideas and information from team members. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • n Team Leader Principles 7. Provide help to other team members when needed and appropriate. 8. Demonstrate high standards of excellence. 9. Stand behind and support team decisions. 10. Demonstrate courage of conviction by directly confronting important issues. 11. Demonstrate leadership in ways that contribute to the team’s success. 12. Respond constructively to feedback from others. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • n Team Leader Behaviors for Decision Making n 1. Trust team members with meaningful levels of responsibility. n 2. Give team members the necessary autonomy to achieve results. n 3. Present challenging opportunities that stretch the individual abilities of team members. n 4. Recognize and reward superior performance. n 5. Stand behind the team and support it. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Identifying Constructive Communication Behaviors for Leadership n Task Responsibilities q Leaders have task, procedural, and interpersonal responsibilities n Procedural Responsibilities q responsible for procedures such as goal setting, agenda making, discussion clarification, and both consensus and disagreement identification n Interpersonal Responsibilities q Leaders make significant contributions to the interpersonal dynamics of groups Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #1 n Of the five approaches to leadership (trait, style, situational, transformational, or discursive), which, in your opinion, best describes leadership? Why? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #2 n Describe your own personal “theory” of leadership. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #3 n Think about a group or organization of which you have been a member. Outline the impact of leadership style, strategic objectives, and communication tactics on the group or organization’s effectiveness. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #4 n Describe differences between leadership and management. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #5 n How is excellence in leadership related to: vision, meaning, trust, positive self regard, and success orientation? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #6 n Discuss the implications of identifying guiding principles for leadership. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Fundamentals of Organizational Communication: Knowledge, Sensitivity, Skills, Values 9th Edition Prepared by Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; • any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Fundamentals of Organizational Communication Leadership and Management Communication Chapter Seven Prepared by Pamela S. Shockley-Zalabak Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Describe leadership from trait, style, transformational, discursive, and situational approaches n Distinguish between leadership and management n Clarify a personal “theory” of leadership Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Understand leadership styles, strategic objectives, and tactics n Assess leadership strategies and tactics n Practice analysis capabilities and skills using cases, transcripts of meetings, and group activities Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Objectives n Relate leadership to organizational excellence n Understand the need for leadership from all organizational members n Describe principled and ethical leadership Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Leadership - process for guiding individuals, groups, and entire organizations in establishing goals and sustaining action to support goals. n Management - responsibility, specifically assigned by the organization, to direct and evaluate the work of others. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Trait approach - theory of leadership that assumed that leaders possessed innate traits that made them effective; commonly referred to as the “great man” theory. q Early theories of effective leadership assumed leaders had innate traits that made them effective. That is, great leaders were considered to be born with the ability for leadership. This theory of the “great man” first surfaced in the writings of the early Greeks and Romans and is prevalent today among those who believe that leadership cannot be developed, that you either have leadership qualities or you don’t. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Style approach - theories which attempt to identify a range of general approaches leaders use to achieve goals. The approaches are thought to be based on the leader’s assumptions about what motivates people to accomplish goals. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Autocratic - style of leader or manager who makes decisions with little influence from others. n Democratic - style of leader or manager who involves followers in decision making. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Laissez-faire - style of leader or manager who behaves as a nonleader. Individuals and groups are expected to make their own decisions based on a “hands off” approach from the leader. n Impoverished management - leadership style characterized by a low concern for interpersonal relationships and task accomplishment. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Middle-of-the-road management - style of leader who balances task and people concerns; commonly referred to as compromise management or leadership. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Country-club management - style of leader or manager who emphasizes interpersonal relationships at the expense of goal achievement. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Task management - style of leader or manager who is concerned with goals or task achievement while exhibiting little concern for personal relationships; commonly referred to as autocratic leadership. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Team management - team leadership or management is the theoretical ideal. Team leaders exhibit high concern for both task and interpersonal relationships by emphasizing goal accomplishment while supporting people. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Situational approaches - leadership theories that explore how leaders interact with followers and the requirements of a particular environment. q Fred Fiedler (1976) The approach or style an effective leader chose depended on a combination of task, relationship, power, and situational contingencies Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Situational Approaches n Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard (1977) q Effectiveness of a particular leader was related to the leader’s selection of behavior appropriate to the maturity level of the follower group. Maturity was based on achievement, motivation, ability, education, experience, and the willingness to participate responsibly in goal-oriented activities Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Transformational approaches - leadership theories that explore how leaders motivate followers by personal example, through appeals to higher level needs, and by the establishment of vision. n Hackman & Johnson (2009) q “The transactional leader is most concerned with the satisfaction of physiological, safety, and belonging needs. To meet these needs, a transactional leader exchanges rewards or privileges for desirable outcomes…” q Transformational leaders are creative, interactive, visionary, empowering, and passionate Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Empowerment - process of giving employees the maximum amount of power to do a job as they see fit; includes both responsibility and accountability for work performed n Warren Bennis (1992) q “Today’s leader must create an organizational culture where ideas come through unhampered by people who are fearful. Such leaders are committed to problem-finding, not just problem-solving. They embrace error, even failure, because they know it will teach them more than success. . .” Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Dispersed leadership - leadership responsibilities broadly distributed throughout the organization. n SuperLeadership q The art of leading others to lead themselves. q SuperLeaders create SuperFollowers, who become skilled self-leaders q The fundamentals of SuperLeadership include n Establishing a vision n Defining goals for the leader and for the followers n Reinforcing individuals for good performance n Using constructive contingent reprimands n Managing and facilitating change n Enhancing the self-efficacy of followers n Using models to teach desired and appropriate behaviors. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Concepts n Discursive approaches—examine leadership processes through discourses which influence the accomplishment or lack of accomplishment of tasks and goals. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Leadership Vs. Management n Distinction between leadership and formal authority n Bennis and Nanus (1985) q The vision leaders provide is the clearest of all distinctions between leaders and managers q “Great leaders often inspire their followers to high levels of achievement by showing them how their work contributes to worthwhile ends. It is an emotional appeal to some of the most fundamental human needs.” Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Leadership and Management Challenges n Confronting Ethics and Failures n Changing Organizational Forms n Global and Multicultural Changes n Chaos, Flux and Speed n Inclusive-Participation Processes n Building Trust Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Determinants of Leadership Effectiveness n Communication Competencies q Knowledge, sensitivity, skills, and values must all be understood and developed for both individuals and entire organizations to be effective in our emerging information era n Predispositions for Leadership Communication q The knowledge, sensitivity, skills, and values we bring to particular situations n Strategic Communication Objectives for Leadership q The general game plans leaders employ for conducting communication based on personal preferences or predispositions and on assessments of the probable outcomes within particular contexts n Communication Tactics for Leadership q Communication behaviors used to support authoritarian, participative, and avoidance preferences as well as to establish vision, manage meaning, generate trust, and communicate regard and success orientations Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Power bases - influence an individual has over another as a result of dependency on the powerful person. Power bases are commonly identified as legitimate, reward, coercive, referent, expert, and connection. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Legitimate power - power emerging from the positions, titles, or roles people occupy. n Reward power - power based on the leader’s control and distribution of tangible and intangible resources. n Coercive power - power based on the sanctions or punishments within the control of the leader. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Referent power - power based on others identifying with the leader. n Expert/information power - power based on information the leader knows as a result of organizational interaction or areas of technical specialty. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Connection power - power resulting from who the leader knows and the support he or she has from others in the organization. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Key Terms n Principled leadership - leadership that provides a consistent message, has a perspective for unleashing talent, practices ego suppression, and creates leaders. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Team Leader Principles 1. Avoid compromising the team’s objective with political issues. 2. Exhibit personal commitment to team goals. 3. Do not dilute the team’s efforts with too many priorities. 4. Be fair and impartial toward all team members. 5. Be willing to confront and resolve issues associated with inadequate performance by team members. 6. Be open to new ideas and information from team members. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • n Team Leader Principles 7. Provide help to other team members when needed and appropriate. 8. Demonstrate high standards of excellence. 9. Stand behind and support team decisions. 10. Demonstrate courage of conviction by directly confronting important issues. 11. Demonstrate leadership in ways that contribute to the team’s success. 12. Respond constructively to feedback from others. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • n Team Leader Behaviors for Decision Making n 1. Trust team members with meaningful levels of responsibility. n 2. Give team members the necessary autonomy to achieve results. n 3. Present challenging opportunities that stretch the individual abilities of team members. n 4. Recognize and reward superior performance. n 5. Stand behind the team and support it. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Identifying Constructive Communication Behaviors for Leadership n Task Responsibilities q Leaders have task, procedural, and interpersonal responsibilities n Procedural Responsibilities q responsible for procedures such as goal setting, agenda making, discussion clarification, and both consensus and disagreement identification n Interpersonal Responsibilities q Leaders make significant contributions to the interpersonal dynamics of groups Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #1 n Of the five approaches to leadership (trait, style, situational, transformational, or discursive), which, in your opinion, best describes leadership? Why? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #2 n Describe your own personal “theory” of leadership. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #3 n Think about a group or organization of which you have been a member. Outline the impact of leadership style, strategic objectives, and communication tactics on the group or organization’s effectiveness. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #4 n Describe differences between leadership and management. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #5 n How is excellence in leadership related to: vision, meaning, trust, positive self regard, and success orientation? Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved
  • Discussion Question #6 n Discuss the implications of identifying guiding principles for leadership. Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved