Moises Asis cmacc 2009 apitherapy for mental disorders and chemical addictionsPresentation Transcript
APITHERAPY FOR MENTALDISORDERSAND SUBSTANCE ADDICTIONSMoisés Asís, MSW, JD, PhD. (CMACC 12/2009, New York)
APITHERAPY: Definition (2007)• “It is the Complementary andAlternative Medicine thatpromotes the use of beeproducts (honey andhoneydew, propolis,beeswax, pollen and beebread, apitoxin or bee venom,drone larvae, royal jelly, andwhole bees) for nutrition,enhancement of health and lifequality, prevention andtreatment of diseases, and forcosmetics. Apitherapycomprises, among its manyprocedures, the apitoxitherapyor bee venom therapy, and theapipuncture or acupuncture bybeestings or apitoxinmicroinjections.”
ALL DISEASES AREPSYCHOSOMATIC• … but some onesare morepsychosomaticthan others.
D.E.W.N.I.S.: Apitherapy Protocolfor Mental Disorders &Addictions:1. Detoxification2. Energy3. Wellness in General4. Nutrition5. Immune System Boost6. Synergy with Other Procedures& Medications
Apitherapy will be used• For treatment of mental disordersand addictions.• For synergies of such treatments.• For treatment of medical conditionsassociated to such conditions andtreatments.
Some D.E.W.N.I.S. Tips:1. Clear drugs from body, and manage withdrawal,purification of organism: ad libitum tea with honey,propolis, other bee products.2. Diet on high doses of honey, propolis, pollen forwithdrawal symptoms and for synergy with othertreatments.3. Bee products for drug-related medical problems.4. Psychotherapy, counseling, social work.5. Involve, educate patients, families, community.6. Improving self-image is important: Use Apitherapycosmetics.7. Beekeeping is an activity requiring discipline,physical activity, contact with nature, and bodyclean from drug/alcohol odors.
Honey• Its fast assimilation preventsalcoholic fermentation.• Euphorizant.• Very valuable for fastdetoxification of alcoholics.• For weakness (asthenia)and mental/physicalexhaustion.• Depressive conditions.• Beneficial on body weightand blood lipids in type 2diabetes.*• For dengue virus prevention.
…Honey• Antitoxic properties.• High energy value (3.3 cal/g)• Insomnia.• Antioxidant, nutritive, andenergetic properties.• Antianemic.• Increases libido, hasaphrodisiac properties.• Antitumor activitiy in lungcarcinoma.*
…Honey• For stress andhyperactivity.• Helps healradiotherapy-impairedwounds.*• Improves sleep.• Hepatoprotectiveeffects.• Prevents liver damage.Facilitates theproduction of liverglycogen.**
Pollen and Bee Bread• Contains almost allvitamins.• It is the best knownsource of protein innature: it contains the22 essentialaminoacids.• Recommended for liverdisorders.• Disintoxicant.• Antioxidant activity*.
Propolis• Contains gammaglobulins.• Antitoxic properties.• Can be eitherimmunostimulant orimmunodepressant.• Extraordinary antioxidantproperties.• Stimulates collagensynthesis of vascular walls.• Stimulates wound healing.*• Very valuable in cases ofrhinitis, inflammation of nasalmucosa, septal erosion, andother disorders of respiratorypathways.
…Propolis• Has activity against microbial activity of Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis,Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and fungus Candida albicans.Also parasites (example: Leishmania tropica).*• Effective against microbial dental infections and gum disease.**• Caffeic acid, crysin, and naringin have radioprotective effect.***• Protects against pesticide toxicity, alleviates toxicity ofaluminium chloride.****• Pinocembrin, the most abundant flavonoid in propolis, hasneuroprotective, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiinflammatoryproperties.*****
…Propolis• Action against breast andprostate cancers.*• CAPE protects against livercancer at doses of 200-400mg/kg.**• CAPE induces apoptosis ofhuman pancreatic cancercells and suppresses thegrowth of neurofibromatosistumor.***• Propolis is effective againstdepression and fatigue.• Water-soluble components ofpropolis may mitigateamnesia at doses of 100mg/kg, and have potential forpreventing Alzheimer’sdisease.****
Royal Jelly• Immunostimulant.• Stimulant, invigorating, andeuphorizant.• Improves physical, sexual,and intellectual performance.• Significant delay in the onsetof lupus.*• Antidepressant.• Regulates arterial pressure.• Antibacterial,antiinflammatory,vasodilative, hypotensive,disinfectant, antioxidant,antihypercholesterolemic,antitumor, antibrowning.**• Antitoxic.
…Royal Jelly• Increases content ofhaemoglobin, leukocites,glucose, and blood redcells.• Effective for mooddisorders.• Enhances strength andmetabolism.• Adenosinemonophosphate N1-oxidemay help heal braininjuries.*• Protective effect on livertissue.**• Action againstPseudomonasaeruginosa.***
Beeswax• For inflammations ofnasal mucosa.• In avitaminosis A: 4,100IU of vitamin A/100 g• Antioxidant properties.• Removes teeth tartarand nicotine stain,activates salivation andand gastric fluid,strengthens gums.
Apitoxin or Venom• Immunostimulant.• Effective for arthritis, multiplesclerosis, lupus, chronicfatigue syndome.• Normalization of arterialhypertension.• Improves brain activity andmetabolism of central andperipheric nervous systems.• Increases peristalticmovements.• Increases metabolism.• Improves liver functioning.• Induces cancer cell death(apoptosis) in many cancercell lines.*
…Apitoxin or Venom• Helps to repigmentationin vitiligo skin.*• Melittin promotesapoptosis of humanhepatocellularcarcinoma by activatingCa2+/calmodulin-dependent proteinkinase.**• Active againsttrypanosomiasis.***
Mental Disorders: DSM-IVThe Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of MentalDisorders is a reference work consulted bypsychiatrists, psychologists, physicians in clinicalpractice, social workers, medical and nursingstudents, pastoral counselors, and otherprofessionals in health care and social service fields.The books title is often shortened to DSM, or anabbreviation that also indicates edition, such as DSM-IV-TR, which indicates fourth edition, text revision ofthe manual, published in 2000, and contains some370 diagnostic entries.
PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICATIONS:SIDE EFFECTSThe dramatic increase in the use of psychotropic medications is evident. A Healthand Safety Alert, Excessive Psychotropic Medication and PsychotropicMedication Side Effects (2002), describes the following serious side effectscommon to most psychotropic drugs:• Allergic reaction (difficulty breathing, swelling of lips/face/tongue, rash orfever).• Change in level of alertness (excess sleepiness, insomnia or confusion).• Eating problems (nausea, vomiting, weight gain or loss).• Change in stool pattern (constipation, diarrhea).• Change in heartbeat (slow, fast, irregular) or blood pressure (high or low).• Fainting or dizziness, especially with change in position such as uponstanding.• Abnormal posture, movement, or gait.• Yellowing of eyes or skin.• Unusual bruising or bleeding.
Concerns on Side-Effects ofPsychotropic Medication• http://www.medicationsense.com/articles/oct_dec_03/suicides_homicides. html: Suicides and Homicides in Patients TakingPaxil, Prozac, and Zoloft: Why They KeepHappening -- And Why They Will Continue –• http://organicconsumers.org/school/antidepressants060413.: Experts Say Antidepressant Drugs CauseSuicides Instead of Preventing Them -• http://www.antidepressantsfacts.com/2000-05-16-School-Shootings-Psychotropic-D: School Shootings Linked to Psychotropic DrugsSuch as Prozac, Ritalin, Luvox, and Paxil -
www.free_republic.comBrandeis University via sciencedaily.com ^| 2006-01-04• Psychotropic drug prescriptions for teenagersskyrocketed 250 percent between 1994 and2001, rising particularly sharply after 1999,when the federal government allowed direct-to-consumer advertising and looserpromotion of off-label use of prescriptiondrugs, according to a new Brandeis Universitystudy in the journal Psychiatric Services.
APITHERAPY OFMENTAL DISORDERSApitherapy of Nervous Exhaustion• Honey + pollen + soy lecithin, oral.Apitherapy of InsomniaHoney diluted in water, oral.• Honey from linden (Justicia pectoralis), oral.• Honey from acacia (Acacia sp.) or other fluidhoney, massage.• Pollen from linden (Justicia pectoralis), oral.
Apitherapy of Stress and AnxietyDisorders (panic disorder, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder,and generalized anxiety disorder)• Drone larvae (lyophilized or freeze-dried) + propolis(powder), 2 capsules a day, for 2 - 3 months.• Honey (1 kg) + pollen (100 g); mixed and left inenfleurage over 48 hours; one spoonful (or more) halfan hour before breakfast. Honey (500 g) + pollen (20g) + royal jelly (2 g); mix pollen and royal jelly withhoney, store in hermetic amber bottles in a dry andfresh place; teaspoons 2 - 3 times a day beforemeals, for 1 – 1.5 month and, if necessary, to repeattreatment after a 2 -3 weeks break. Crystallizedhoney is preferred.• Complement: Passion flower (pasiflora, pasionaria, ormaracuyá, Pasiflora incarnata) infusion or tincture.
Apitherapy of Mood Disorders(depressive disorders and dysthymicdisorder; bipolar disorders andcyclothymic disorder)• Honey + propolis (powder), 2 capsules a dayfor 2 - 3 months.• Honey (500 g) + pollen (20 g) + royal jelly (2g); mix pollen and royal jelly with honey:store in hermetic amber bottles and in a dryand fresh place; teaspoons 2 - 3 times a daybefore meals, for 1 – 1.5 month and, ifnecessary, to repeat treatment after a 2 – 3weeks break.
Apitherapy of DissociativeDisorders (dissociative amnesia,fugue, identity disorders [MPD],depersonalization disorder)• Drone larvae (lyophilized or freeze-dried) +propolis (powder), 2 capsules a day for 2 – 3months.• Honey (500 g) + pollen (20 g) + royal jelly (2g); mix pollen and royal jelly with honey:store in hermetic amber bottles and in a dryand fresh place; teaspoons 2 - 3 times a daybefore meals, for 1 – 1.5 month and, ifnecessary, to repeat treatment after a 2 – 3weeks break.
Apitherapy of SomatoformDisorders (somatization disorder,conversion disorder, hypochondriasis)• Drone larvae (lyophilized or freeze-dried) +propolis (powder), 2 capsules a day, for 2 - 3months.• Honey (500 g) + pollen (20 g) + royal jelly (2g); mix pollen and royal jelly with honey:store in hermetic amber bottles and in a dryand fresh place; teaspoons are taken 2 - 3times a day before meals, for 1 – 1.5 monthand, if necessary, to repeat treatment after a2 - 3 weeks break.
Apitherapy of SexualDysfunctions (hypoactive sexual desiredisorder, erectile dysfunction or impotence, sexualarousal disorder, hypoactive sexual desire disorder)• Drone larvae (lyophilized or freeze-dried), 2 capsulesa day for 2 – 3 months.• Propolis supositories ( 2,5 %), 5 g each night beforesleep, for 2 continuous weeks followed by another 2-week break.• Venom apipuncture for 7 days in points ST36, LR3,LI4, LI10, LI11, KI2, KI3, KI9, KI14, KI15, KI17, BL11,BL13, BL22, BL23, BL31, BL32, BL40, BL42, BL43,CV3, CV4, CV5, CV6, GV4, GV14.• Venom micro-stings on the base or pelvic inlet ofpenis bulbous branch.
…Apitherapy of SexualDysfunctions (hypoactive sexual desiredisorder, erectile dysfunction…)• Honey oral.• Pollen, 2 teaspoons aday, 2-3 months.• Also, diet supplementedwith honeycomb, beebread and royal jelly.• In addition, 30 g deginseng (Panaxquinquefolium, P.repens, P. schinseng) +red pitahaya(Acanthocereuspitajaya), 3 times a day.
…Apitherapy of SexualDysfunctions (hypoactive sexual desiredisorder, erectile dysfunction…)In addition, 1 teaspoon ofjuice or infusion of any ofthe following plants:• ashwagandha (Withaniasomnifera),• black pepper (Piper nigrum),• coriander (Coriandrumsativum),• English lavender (Lavandulastoechas),• thyme (Thymus sp.),• celery (Apium graveolensdulce),• basil (Ocimum basilicum),• orégano (Origanum vulgare),• damiana (Turneraaphrodisiaca),• muira puanua(Ptychopetalum olacoides),• cinnamon (Cinnamumzeylanicum),• bay laurel (Laurus nobilis),• catuaba (Erythroxylumvacciniifolium).
Addictions. What can we do when theperson suffers instead of or moreover an addiction?• Most definitions refer toaddiction as the compulsiveneed to use a habit-formingsubstance, or an irresistibleurge to engage in abehavior. Two otherimportant defining featuresof addiction are tolerance,the increasing need for moreof the substance to obtainthe same effect, andwithdrawal, the unpleasantsymptoms that arise whenan addict is prevented fromusing the chosen substance.
185 Million People the World Over Abuse of IllegalDrugs (The Boston Globe, 2005). Abuse of Illegal,Legal, and Prescription Drugs Are a Challenge forModern World
Journal of the American MedicalAssociation 293(3):298, 2005:• 17,000 deaths related toillegal drugs in the U.S.• 20,308 deaths related tohomocide.• 20,308 deaths related tosuicide.• 26,347 deaths related to caraccidents• 85,000 deaths related toalcohol consumption.• 435,000 deaths related totobbaco comsumption.
Main Causes of Death in U.S.(pop. 300 million inhabitants):• Heart Diseases 710.760• Malignant Neoplasms (Cancer) 553.091• Tobacco, Alcohol, & Ill. Drugs 537.000• Cerebrovascular Disorders 167.661• Respiratory Disorders 122.009• Non Intentional Injuries 97.900• Diabetes mellitus 69.301• Influenza and Pneumonia 65.313• Alzheimer’s Dementia 49.558• Nephritis, Nephrotic Syndr., Nephrosis 37.251• Septicemia 31.224• Other Causes 499.283
Reward and Addiction. Interveningmechanisms• Human beings and other organismshave rewarding behaviors: pleasantstimuli provide positive reinforcement,which lead to a repetition of behavior.• There are natural rewards and artificialrewards (drugs).
Natural Rewards• Food• Water• Sex• Nurturing
Tolerance• When drugs such as heroin are used repeatedly over time,tolerance may develop.• Tolerance occurs when the person no longer responds to the drugin the way that person initially responded. Stated another way, ittakes a higher dose of the drug to achieve the same level ofresponse achieved initially. So for example, in the case of heroinor morphine, tolerance develops rapidly to the analgesic effects ofthe drug. [The development of tolerance is not addiction, althoughmany drugs that produce tolerance also have addictive potential.]• Tolerance to drugs can be produced by several differentmechanisms, but in the case of morphine or heroin, tolerancedevelops at the level of the cellular targets. For example, whenmorphine binds to opiate receptors, it triggers the inhibition of anenzyme (adenylate cyclase) that orchestrates several chemicals inthe cell to maintain the firing of impulses.• After repeated activation of the opiate receptor by morphine, theenzyme adapts so that the morphine can no longer cause changesin cell firing. Thus, the effect of a given dose of morphine orheroin is diminished
Dependence: Definition• With repeated use of heroin or any other drug,dependence also occurs.• Dependence develops when the neurons adapt to therepeated drug exposure and only function normally inthe presence of the drug.• When the drug is withdrawn, several physiologicreactions occur.• These can be mild (e.g. for caffeine) or even lifethreatening (e.g. for alcohol).• This is known as the withdrawal syndrome. In thecase of heroin, withdrawal can be very serious andthe abuser will use the drug again to avoid thewithdrawal syndrome.
The action of heroin(morphine)• Heroin is an addictive drug, although not allusers become addicted; other factors areimportant in producing addiction, such as theenvironment and the personality of the user.• Heroin produces euphoria or pleasurablefeelings and can be a positive reinforcer byinteracting with the reward pathway in thebrain.
Heroin-Related Disorders• Malnutrition• Dehydration• Weight loss• Fatigue• Constipation• Collapsed veins• Abscesses• Inflammation under theskin• Kidney failure• HIV (shared needles)• Pneumonia & otherpulmonarycomplications• Infection of the heartlining and valves• Clogged blood vesselsthat lead to the lungs,heart, liver, brain, andkidneys.• Spontaneous abortions,premature births andstillbirths
HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis andOther Infectious Diseases• Drug injectors who do not enter treatment are up tosix times more likely to become infected with HIVthan injectors who enter and remain in treatment.• Drug users who enter and continue in treatmentreduce activities that can spread disease, such assharing injection equipment and engaging inunprotected sexual activity.• Participation in treatment also presents opportunitiesfor screening, counseling, and referral for additionalservices.• The best drug abuse treatment programs provideHIV counseling and offer HIV testing to their patients.
Heroin WithdrawalSymptoms• Drug craving• Restlessness• Insomnia• Cold flashes with goosebumps (“coldturkey”)• Diarrhea and vomiting• Uncontrollable kicking movements(“kicking the habit”)
Heroin TraditionalTreatment• Detoxification (clearing drug frompatient’s body and managingwithdrawal).• Life in a drug-free environment.• Outpatient drug-free programs(counseling)…
…Heroin TraditionalTreatment. Drug therapies:• Methadone (synthetic opiate that blocks the effect ofheroin for 24 hours).• LAAM (ORLAAM) [levo-alpha-acetyl-methadol],synthetic opiate that blocks the effects of heroin forup 72 hours.• Naltrexone, blocks for @ 1 year.• Suboxone and Subutex (brand names ofbuprenorphine).• Naloxone, treatment of cases of overdoses. Blocksthe effects of morphine, heroin, and other opiates.
Long-term Effects ofEcstasy:Neurotoxic?• When people use Ecstasy repeatedly or long term,there may be changes in their brain chemistry thatsuggest that the serotonin neurons are damaged.• One major clue is that serotonin itself and itsmetabolites (remind students that serotonin that istaken back up into the terminal is metabolized byenzymes) are diminished in the brains of animalstreated with ecstasy.• Moreover, the best evidence that we have so far isthat even 7 years after a brief exposure to Ecstasy,serotonin levels in monkey brains have not fullyreturned to normal.
Long-term effects of drug abuse(PET Scan)NormalCocaine Abuse (10d.a.)Cocaine Abuse (100 d.a.)
easuring Brain Activity in Response to DruUse Position Emission Tomography (PET)(PET)
ControlControl On CocaineOn Cocainewww.drugabuse.gov
The brain on drugsThe brain on drugs1-2 Min 3-4 5-66-7 7-8 8-99-10 10-20 20-30
PET Scan: The “memory” of drugsPET Scan: The “memory” of drugsNaturalNatural CocaineCocaineBrain FrontBrain FrontBrain BackBrain BackNon-activatedNon-activatedAmygdalaAmygdalaActivatedActivatedAmygdalaAmygdala
Drugs have long-termconsequences
Tobacco-Related Disorders (22.3% ofdeaths in the United States)• Acute Risks: Shortness ofbreath, exacerbation ofasthma, harm to pregnancy,sexual impotence, infertility,and increased serum carbonmonoxide.• Long-Term Risks: Heartattacks and strokes, lung andother cancers (larynx, oralcavity, pharynx, esophagus,colon, pancreas, bladder,cervix, some leukemia),C.O.P.D. (chronic obstructivepulmonary diseases: chronicbronchitis and emphysema),long-term disability, and needfor extended care.
…Tobacco-RelatedDisorders• Environmental Risks: Increasedrisk of lung cancer and heartdisease in spouses; higher rates ofsmoking in children of tobaccousers; increased risk of low birthweight, S.I.D.S. (Sudden InfantDeath Syndrome), asthma, middleear disease, and respiratoryinfections in children of smokers.• The risk of stomach ulcersincreases.• The senses of smell and taste aredulled.• Smokers are more likely todevelop cataracts and other eyeproblems.• Teeth turn yellow.• Premature wrinkling.
…Marijuana-Related Disorders• Depression• Fatigue• Weight increase, lethargy,amotivational syndrome• Effects on fetus: Low birthweight, developmentaldifficulties, excessive tremblingand irritability.• HOWEVER, 11 States havedecriminalized possession ofsmall amounts of marijuana, it isused legally.• Marijuana is prescribed forstimulating appetite in cancerand AIDS patients.• Marijuana reduces nauseas ofchemotherapy, and in general.
Inhalants: Nitrous Oxyde, Amyl Nitrite, Butyl Nitrate,Chlorhydrocarburates (Spray Cans), Hydrocarbures(Gasoline, Glues, Solvents, White-out)• Euphoria,disorientation, sedation,conjuntival injection,acute toxicity for CNS,liver, and kidneys.• Nitrates: suddenhypoxemia,hypotension• Damage to peripheralnerves, CNS, liver,kidneys.• Arrhythmia and cardiacarrest.
Food-Addiction Related Diseases• Anorexia, Bulimia, Pica• Obesity• High Blood Pressure• Blood-Clot Disorders (DVT,stroke, embolism, othercerebrovascular accidents)• Sleep Apnea• Type 2 Diabetes• Increase Risk of SomeCancers• Heart Disease• Respiratory Problems
Components of Comprehensive DrugAddiction Treatment
Matching Patients toIndividual Needs• No single treatment is appropriate for all individuals.• Matching treatment setting, interventions, and services to eachindividual’s particular problems and needs is critical to his orher ultimate success in returning to productive functioning inthe family, workplace, and society.• Effective treatment attends to multiple needs of the individual,not just his or her drug use.• To be effective, treatment must address the individual’s druguse and any associated medical, psychological, social,vocational, and legal problems.
Duration of Treatment• Individuals progress through drug addiction treatment at variousspeeds, so there is no predetermined length of treatment.• Good outcomes are contingent on adequate lengths oftreatment.• Generally, for residential or outpatient treatment, participationfor less than 90 days is of limited or no effectiveness, andtreatments lasting significantly longer often are indicated.• For methadone maintenance, 12 months of treatment is theminimum, and some opiate-addicted individuals will continue tobenefit from methadone maintenance treatment over a period ofyears.
Medical Detoxification• Medical detoxification safely manages the acutephysical symptoms of withdrawal associated withstopping drug use.• However, medical detoxification is only the firststage of addiction treatment and by itself does littleto change long-term drug use.• While detoxification alone is rarely sufficient to helpaddicts achieve long-term abstinence, for someindividuals it is a strongly indicated precursor toeffective drug addiction treatment.
Counseling and Other BehavioralTherapiesBuild skillsto resistdrug useReplacedrug-usingactivitiesMotivationImproveproblem-solvingabilitiesFacilitateinterpersonalrelationships,family,communitywww.drugabuse.gov
Medications for DrugAddiction• Medications are an important element of treatment for manypatients, especially when combined with counseling and otherbehavioral therapies.• Methadone and levo-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM) are veryeffective in helping individuals addicted to heroin or otheropiates stabilize their lives and reduce their illicit drug use.• Naltrexone is also an effective medication for some opiateaddicts and some patients with co-occurring addiction toalcohol.• For persons addicted to nicotine, a nicotine-replacementproduct (such as patches or gum) or an oral medication (suchas bupropion) can be an effective component of treatment.• For patients with mental disorders, both behavioral treatmentsand medications can be critically important.www.drugabuse.gov
Motivation toEnter/Sustain Treatment• Treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective.• Strong motivation can facilitate the treatment process.• Sanctions or enticements in the family, employmentsetting, or criminal justice system can increasesignificantly both treatment entry and retention rates andthe success of drug treatment interventions.• Individuals who enter treatment under legal pressure haveoutcomes as favorable as those who enter treatmentvoluntarily.
…For example, Smokingcessation programs face somebarriers:• Withdrawal symptoms.• Fear of failure.• Weight gain.• Lack of support.• Depression.• Enjoyment of tobacco.• Of the 2.4 milliondeaths that occur eachyear in the US, cigarettesmoking is a root causeof 400,000 of them(20% of all deaths), butnicotine is much moreaddictive than anyother drug.
Effectiveness ofTreatment• According to several studies, drug treatment reduces drug use by40 to 60 percent and significantly decreases criminal activity duringand after treatment.• For example, a study of therapeutic community treatment for drugoffenders demonstrated that arrests for violent and nonviolentcriminal acts were reduced by 40 percent or more.• Methadone treatment has been shown to decrease criminalbehavior by as much as 50 percent.• Research shows that drug addiction treatment reduces the risk ofHIV infection and that interventions to prevent HIV are much lesscostly than treating HIV-related illnesses.• Treatment can improve the prospects for employment, with gains ofup to 40 percent after treatment.• Although these effectiveness rates hold in general, individualtreatment outcomes depend on the extent and nature of thepatient’s presenting problems, the appropriateness of the treatmentcomponents and related services used to address those problems,and the degree of active engagement of the patient in the treatmentprocess.
Self-Help and DrugAddiction Treatment• Self-help groups can complement and extend the effects ofprofessional drug addiction treatment.• The most prominent self-help groups are those affiliated withAlcoholics Anonymous (AA), Narcotics Anonymous (NA), andCocaine Anonymous (CA), all of which are based on the 12-step model and Smart Recovery.• Most drug addiction treatment programs encourage patientsto participate in a self-help group during and after formaltreatment.
Cost-Effectiveness ofDrug Treatment• Drug addiction treatment is cost-effective in reducing drug use andits associated health and social costs.• Treatment is less expensive than alternatives, such as not treatingaddicts or simply incarcerating addicts. For example, the averagecost for 1 full year of methadone maintenance treatment isapproximately $4,700 per patient, whereas 1 full year ofimprisonment costs approximately $18,400 per person.• According to several conservative estimates, every $1 invested inaddiction treatment programs yields a return of between $4 and $7in reduced drug-related crime, criminal justice costs, and theftalone. When savings related to health care are included, totalsavings can exceed costs by a ration of 12 to 1.• Major savings to the individual and society also come fromsignificant drops in interpersonal conflicts, improvements inworkplace productivity, and reductions in drug-related accidents.
Apitherapy of Addictions• Apitherapy Can Be an Non-Expensive, Affordable Part of theSolution
Apitherapy of SubstanceAddictions (cocaine, cannabis,metamphetamines, opioids, and others)• Beeswax, to chew and eathoneycomb pieces.• Royal jelly, 1 teaspoon aday.• Drone larvae oral.• Honey, 6 teaspoons every20 minutes, 3 continuedcycles.• Honey, oral, ad libitum,disolved in tea (Camelliasinensis).• Bee bread, ad libitum,disolved in tea.
Substance addictions(…)• Pollen, ad libitum,disolved in tea.• Propolis 500 mgcapsules, 1 capsule 1hour before each meal.• Propolis ointment,massage with pressurein acupuncture pointsLI4, LI10, LI11, LI20,• and in chiapi points(both sides of nasalseptum, between nasalbone and nasalcartilage).
Substance addictions(…)• For their role as hepatoprotectors, reconstituyents,immunoregulators, and biostimulants, bee productsare an excellent supplement for guaranteeing thatpatients are receiving a daily total of:• 5,000 IU of vitamin A, 75 mg of each component ofvitamin B complex, 1,500 mg of vitamin C, 800 mg ofvitamin E, 3,000 mg of glutathione, 1,000 mg decoline, 250 mg of L-carnitine, 500 mg of N-acetylcysteine, 400 mg of selenium, 50 mg of zinc, 4mg of copper, 200 mg of chromium, flavonoids, andother antioxidants.
Substance addictions(…)As desintoxicants and hepatoprotectors, thesemedicinal plants can also be used:• milk thistle (Silybum marianum),• ginger (Zingiber officinale),• burdock (Arctium lappa),• dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and• liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra).In the case of opioids, treatment can becomplemented with passion flower (Pasifloraincarnata) infusion or tincture.
Apitherapy of Alcoholand NicotineAddictions• Beeswax, to chew and eathoneycomb pieces.• Beeswax chewing forwithdrawal anxiety.• Royal jelly, 1 teaspoon aday.• Drone larvae oral.• Honey, 6 teaspoons every20 minutes, 3 continuedcycles.• Honey, oral, ad libitum,disolved in tea (Camelliasinensis).• Bee bread, ad libitum,disolved in tea.
…Apitherapy of Alcoholand NicotineAddictions• Propolis tinture in water, halfan hour before meals reduceappetite.• Propolis 500 mg capsules,1 capsule 1 hour beforeeach meal.• Propolis ointment, massagewith pressure in acupuncturepoints LI4, LI10, LI11, LI20,• and in chiapi points (bothsides of nasal septum,between nasal bone andnasal cartilage).
…Apitherapy of Alcoholand NicotineAddictions• In treating alcohol addiction, it is also recommendedan infusion of 10 – 20 g of powdered root of pueraria(Pueraria lobata, P. thomsonii).• Thanks to their role as hepatoprotectors,reconstituyents, immunoregulators, andbiostimulants, bee products are an excellent supplentfor guaranteeing that patients are receiving a dailytotal of 5,000 IU of vitamin A, 75 mg of eachcomponent of vitamin B complex, 1,500 mg of vitaminC, 800 mg of vitamin E, 3,000 mg of glutathione,1,000 mg de coline, 250 mg of L-carnitine, 500 mg ofN-acetylcisteine, 400 mg of selenium, 50 mg of zinc,4 mg of copper, 200 mg of chromium, flavonoids, andother antioxidants.
…Apitherapy of Alcoholand NicotineAddictionsAs desintoxicants andhepatoprotectors thesemedicinal plants can also beused:• milk thistle (Silybummarianum),• ginger (Zingiber officinale),• burdock (Arctium lappa),• dandelion (Taraxacumofficinale) and• liquorice (Glycyrrhizaglabra).