ORACLE EXADATA
By: Moin Khalid
What is Exadata?
• Complete Oracle database server
• Disk storage system
• CPU, memory, network hardware
• Operating syste...
Exadata Unified Workload Transformation
Single Machine for…
• Data Warehousing
• OLTP
• Database Cloud

OLTP with Analytic...
Pre-built and Optimized Out-of-the-Box
Exadata Architecture
Complete Database platform using standard servers for Compute and Storage
1. Scale-Out Database Serve...
Exadata X3 | Database In-Memory Machine
What is standard about Exadata?
• Off the shelf hardware
• Intel x86 processors
• Standard Sun disk drives, memory
• Infin...
What is unique about Exadata?
• Storage Servers have Oracle database specific features
• Smart Scan – returns only needed ...
Exadata Innovations
Exadata Intelligent Storage Grid
• Data Intensive processing runs in Exadata
Storage Grid
1. Filter rows and columns as da...
Exadata Smart Scan
1. Database Servers
• Perform complex database
processing such as joins,
aggregation, etc.
2. Exadata S...
Exadata Storage Index
Transparent I/O Elimination with No Overhead

• Exadata Storage Indexes maintain
summary information...
Storage Index with Joins Example
Exadata Hybrid Columnar Compression
Highest Capacity, Lowest Cost

1. Data is organized and compressed by
column
• Dramati...
Exadata X3 Database In-Memory
1. X3 mass memory hierarchy delivers extreme
Machine

performance
• Automatically moves all ...
Exadata VS DB with SAN
Comparison of three DB server types
Compare two types of database servers to demonstrate
features unique to Exadata
– DB s...
Rows, Columns, and Blocks
• A SQL table is a collection of rows – one row per sale
• A row is a list of columns – date, pr...
Database Server with Just Disks

DATABASE SERVER

INDEXES

DISKS

BLOCKS

COMPRESSION

MEMORY
CACHE

RESULTS

USER
Database Server with SAN
Disk Array (e.g. XP 24000)

Database Server

INDEXES

NETWORK

DISKS

BLOCKS

MEMORY
CACHE

BLOCK...
Exadata with Smart Scan
Cell Storage Server

Database Server

INDEXES

NETWORK

DISKS

BLOCKS

COMPRESSION

MEMORY
CACHE

...
Exadata without Smart Scan
Cell Storage Server

Database Server

INDEXES

NETWORK

DISKS

BLOCKS

MEMORY
CACHE

BLOCKS

ME...
Observations
•

DB server with SAN differs from full Exadata system
– Full database blocks copied over SAN network While R...
Why use Exadata?
•
•
•
•

New set of performance enhancing features
All other Oracle features still available
Easy to use ...
Exadata Management
Exadata Storage Management &
Administration
1. Enterprise Manager
• Manage & administer Database and ASM (auto storage man...
Enterprise Manager 12c
Integrated H/W + S/W management for Exadata

1. Hardware view
• Schematic of cells, compute nodes
a...
Upgrade and Scaling
Scale to 18 Racks by Just Adding Cables
Full Bandwidth and Redundancy

Scale to more than 18 Racks by adding InfiniBand sw...
Seamless Upgrades and Expansions
1. A single Database Machine can have
servers from different generations
2. Databases and...
Exadata Flash Performance Scales
Linearly
Exadata scales using
– True Scale-Out
– InfiniBand
– Smart Storage
Exadata VS Teradata
Teradata Comparison to Oracle Architecture

loader

loader

Oracle – Exadata
MPP Extension to Shared Memory
& Disk

Terada...
Exadata is a 2 tier Architecture
Things to Watch
Things to watch out for
• Databases tuned for Exadata are not portable
– Datafiles with HCC won’t work on non-Exadata
syst...
Things to watch out for – page 2
• HCC and tables > 255 columns buggy
– Wrong results, errors
– Wrong optimizer stats

• N...
Recommendations
•
•
•
•

Small number of RAC nodes – 2 if possible
Use as few new features as possible
Fewer than 256 colu...
Thanks You
Intro to Exadata
Intro to Exadata
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Intro to Exadata

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Oracle Exadata is a packaged solution offering from Oracle, configured with bundled hardware, storage and database, which is touted to be optimized for handling scalable data warehouse-type workloads in query and analysis.

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  • One Stop Shop – everything from Oracle – Like IBM mainframe of oldPreconfigured hardware optimized for Oracle DB.Oracle Exadata is a packaged solution offering from Oracle, configured with bundled hardware, storage and database, which is touted to be optimized for handling scalable data warehouse-type workloads in query and analysis.
  • Oracle has repeatedly claimed that the Exadata X2 system has significantly improved performance and scalability system-wide, resulting in scalability up to petabytes and beyond. There are actually two Oracle Exadata Database Machine products: Exadata X2-2 and Exadata X2-8. The X2-8 is a full-rack only system, primarily intended for large OLTP and consolidation environments. Both platforms consist of Oracle Database 11g Release 2, Oracle RAC (Real Application Clusters) Database server grid, an InfiniBand interconnect, the Oracle Enterprise Linux operating system, and the Exadata Storage Server Grid using either high-performance (600GB) or high capacity (3TB) disk storage.
  • Hundreds of engineer years spent optimizing and hardening the system end-to-end – Frees I/T talent to focus on business needs Standard platform improves support experience Runs all existing Oracle Database workloads Building block of the Oracle CloudCan save from multiple vendor involvements
  • Each cell server takes up 3 rows on the rack. It has three rows of four disks each. Is a Linux server with bunch of disks. One small green light per disk, one large green light per server. 7 servers in this picture – top of rack.High-performance storage server built from industry standard components • 12 disks - 600 GB 15000 RPM High Performance SAS or 3TB 7200 RPM High Capacity SAS • 2 Six-Core Intel Xeon Processors (E5-2630L) • Dual ported 40 Gb/sec InfiniBand • 4 x 400 GB Flash Cards• Intelligent Exadata Storage Server Software
  • Can buy hardware, OS, database separately – theoretically could reconfigure as standard Oracle database server(s) with RAC
  • storage servers = cell servers – disk I/O subsystem like SAN. These are the three main PERFORMANCE features
  • Exadata Smart Scan processes queries at the storage layer, returning only relevant rows and columns to the database server. As a result, much less data travels over fast 40GB InfiniBand interconnects--dramatically improving the performance and concurrency of simple and complex queriesExadata storage servers also run more complex operations in storage – Join filtering – Incremental backup filtering – I/O prioritization – Storage Indexing – Database level security – Offloaded scans on encrypted data – Data Mining Model Scoring  10x reduction in data sent to DB servers is common
  • A storage index is an in-memory structure that holds some information about the data inside specified regions of physical storage. This information tells the storage cell which areas of the disk do not contain the values the query is interested in, so those areas are not accessed during a scan.Storage indexes reside in the memory of the storage servers—also called storage cells—and significantly reduce unnecessary I/O by excluding irrelevant database blocks in the storage cells. Physical disk is divided into exadata cells normally 1MB in size. On every 1MB storage index is applied.
  • The biggest hump for the EHCC feature is its own comfort zone i.e. database with less transactions and low concurrency. On a database which does frequent transactions and reads the data, the feature stands defeated.
  • Caches Write I/Os in PCI flash in addition to Read I/Os Transparently accelerates write intensive workloads – 20X more write IOPS than disk on X3 – 10X more write IOPs than disk on V2 and X2  Persistent write cache speeds database recovery  Exadata Flash Cache is much more effective than flash tiering architectures used by others – Caches current hot data, not yesterday’s – Caches data in granules 8x to 16x smaller than tiering Greatly improves the effectiveness of flash
  • Demonstrate what is different about Exadata and what is not by comparing it to two other types of Oracle database servers. Compare/contrast.
  • blocks read from disk to memory and copied across SAN have unneeded rows and columns. Results can be small subset of entire table or full copy of table.
  • Similarity between this and cell server. In this case the indexes and compression operate at the database level. Red is bad – entire blocks copied. Green is good – small result set. Indexes reduce disk blocks read from disk. Compression fits more rows per block.
  • here the SAN looks like a cell server but there are no indexes, compression and the full blocks are copied over the SAN. SAN cache is like DB cache – caches blocks
  • Similar to the san in that the disks and db server are separate but the database like processing is in the cell. But then what about the DB server? Hash and sort areas would be good to show. Also, can mix both methods. Talk here about increasing hash and sort area size for OBIA but leaving buffer cache small. Explain PGA and SGA? Results go to PGA which is where hashing and sorting caching is.
  • Just like with SAN.
  • key point is blocks copied over fiber network for SAN versus results over infiniband for Exa. Last part leads to how to turn on off Smart scan. key point of smart scan slides.DB server with disks looks like Exadata Cell serverIndexesCompressionmemory cachereturns small subset of full data
  • New tools for our tool bagASM (auto storage management)Storage Indexes
  • Command line utility to manage Exadata cells (CLI)Oracle Integrated Lights Out Manager (ILOM)Oracle Integrated Lights Out Manager (ILOM) is the service processor embedded on all Oracle's SPARC Enterprise T-series and Sun Fire x86 servers, including all rack mounts and blades. Oracle ILOM enables full out-of-band management, providing a “Just like being there” remote management capability
  • Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c uses a holistic approach to manage the Exadata Database Machine and provides comprehensive lifecycle management from monitoring to management and ongoing maintenance for the entire engineered system.Enterprise Manager is a web-based graphical interface that enables you to perform management operations on the database like startup and shutdown, object creation, and schema management.
  • Start Small and Grow 1. Eighth Rack2. Quarter Rack3. Half Rack4. Full RackUnique Architecture Makes it Fastest at the Lowest Cost
  • ExadataShared everything = resource contentionParallelism is conditional and unpredictableScalability with diminishing returnsTeradataShared nothing = no resource contentionParallelism is unconditional and predictableLinear scalability with a slope of one
  • Unlike Teradata Database, which performsall query processing within the nodes,Exadata cells only perform initial columnprojections from the select list, and rowrestrictions using the WHERE clausepredicates. Exadata can also perform somefact table row restrictions based on joineddimensions (for star schema joins). TheExadata cells transmit the resulting rowsets to the Oracle database server, where allother query operations are executed, justas they have always been.
  • Flash memory (storage server cache) slowNormal RAM – 1000x faster than diskCell server cache (Flash) – 10x faster than disk
  • Intro to Exadata

    1. 1. ORACLE EXADATA By: Moin Khalid
    2. 2. What is Exadata? • Complete Oracle database server • Disk storage system • CPU, memory, network hardware • Operating system • Database software • Fully installed and configured
    3. 3. Exadata Unified Workload Transformation Single Machine for… • Data Warehousing • OLTP • Database Cloud OLTP with Analytics and Parallelism of Warehousing Warehousing with Interactivity, Availability, and Security of OLTP
    4. 4. Pre-built and Optimized Out-of-the-Box
    5. 5. Exadata Architecture Complete Database platform using standard servers for Compute and Storage 1. Scale-Out Database Servers • 128 to 160 CPU Cores per rack • 2TB to 4TB DRAM 1. Scale-Out Intelligent Storage Servers • 2-socket storage servers, Exadata Storage Software • Up to 500TB disk per rack • 22TB Flash memory cards per rack 1. InfiniBand Network • Unified internal connectivity ( 40 Gb/sec )
    6. 6. Exadata X3 | Database In-Memory Machine
    7. 7. What is standard about Exadata? • Off the shelf hardware • Intel x86 processors • Standard Sun disk drives, memory • Infiniband network adapters and switches • Linux operating system • Oracle 11gR2 database software
    8. 8. What is unique about Exadata? • Storage Servers have Oracle database specific features • Smart Scan – returns only needed data • Storage Indexes – only accesses needed disk blocks • Hybrid Columnar Compression – fits data into fewer disk blocks
    9. 9. Exadata Innovations
    10. 10. Exadata Intelligent Storage Grid • Data Intensive processing runs in Exadata Storage Grid 1. Filter rows and columns as data streams from disks (168 Intel Cores) 2. Example: How much product X sold last quarter • Exadata Storage Reads 10TB from disk • Exadata Storage Filters rows by Product & Date • Sends 100GB of matching data to DB Servers 3. Scale-out storage parallelizes execution and removes bottlenecks
    11. 11. Exadata Smart Scan 1. Database Servers • Perform complex database processing such as joins, aggregation, etc. 2. Exadata Storage Servers • Storage Server is smart storage, not a DB node • Search tables and indexes, filtering out data that is not relevant to a query • Cells serve data to multiple databases enabling OLTP and consolidation • Simplicity, and robustness of storage appliance
    12. 12. Exadata Storage Index Transparent I/O Elimination with No Overhead • Exadata Storage Indexes maintain summary information about table data in memory • Store MIN and MAX values of columns • Typically one index entry for every MB of disk • Eliminates disk I/Os if MIN and MAX can never match “where” clause of a query • Completely automatic and transparent
    13. 13. Storage Index with Joins Example
    14. 14. Exadata Hybrid Columnar Compression Highest Capacity, Lowest Cost 1. Data is organized and compressed by column • Dramatically better compression 2. Speed Optimized Query Mode for Data Warehousing • 10X compression typical • Runs faster because of Exadata offload! 3. Space Optimized Archival Mode for infrequently accessed data • 15X to 50X compression typical
    15. 15. Exadata X3 Database In-Memory 1. X3 mass memory hierarchy delivers extreme Machine performance • Automatically moves all active data from disk to memory 2. DRAM memory expanded to 2 or 4 TB for hottest data • 4 to 40 TB of compressed user data 3. Flash memory expanded 4X to 22 TB per rack • 40 to 200 TB of compressed user data – ALL active data • 1.5 Million SQL random read I/Os per second for OLTP • 100 GB/sec SQL data scan rate for reporting and warehouses
    16. 16. Exadata VS DB with SAN
    17. 17. Comparison of three DB server types Compare two types of database servers to demonstrate features unique to Exadata – DB server attached to a Storage Area Network (SAN) – Exadata • With Smart Scan • Without Smart Scan
    18. 18. Rows, Columns, and Blocks • A SQL table is a collection of rows – one row per sale • A row is a list of columns – date, product, customer, amount,… • A table is broken up into equal sized blocks each with a number of rows = rows size/block size = 8000 bytes/80 bytes = 100 rows per block • Results of queries are a subset of the columns and a subset of the rows of a table
    19. 19. Database Server with Just Disks DATABASE SERVER INDEXES DISKS BLOCKS COMPRESSION MEMORY CACHE RESULTS USER
    20. 20. Database Server with SAN Disk Array (e.g. XP 24000) Database Server INDEXES NETWORK DISKS BLOCKS MEMORY CACHE BLOCKS MEMORY CACHE COMPRESSION RESULTS USER
    21. 21. Exadata with Smart Scan Cell Storage Server Database Server INDEXES NETWORK DISKS BLOCKS COMPRESSION MEMORY CACHE RESULTS USER
    22. 22. Exadata without Smart Scan Cell Storage Server Database Server INDEXES NETWORK DISKS BLOCKS MEMORY CACHE BLOCKS MEMORY CACHE COMPRESSION RESULTS USER
    23. 23. Observations • DB server with SAN differs from full Exadata system – Full database blocks copied over SAN network While Results are only copied over Exadata network – Database server caches blocks from SAN • Exadata Smart Scan can be turned off – Without Smart Scan Exadata works just like DB server with SAN
    24. 24. Why use Exadata? • • • • New set of performance enhancing features All other Oracle features still available Easy to use new features Easy to bypass new features
    25. 25. Exadata Management
    26. 26. Exadata Storage Management & Administration 1. Enterprise Manager • Manage & administer Database and ASM (auto storage management) • Monitor the Exadata Database Machine Hardware 2. Auto Service Request (ASR) • File SRs automatically for common hardware faults 3. Comprehensive Command Line Interface (CLI) • Local Exadata Storage cell management • Distributed shell utility to execute CLI across multiple cells 4. Embedded Integrated Lights Out Manager (ILOM) • Remote management and administration of hardware
    27. 27. Enterprise Manager 12c Integrated H/W + S/W management for Exadata 1. Hardware view • Schematic of cells, compute nodes and switches • Hardware components alerts 2. Software/system view • Performance, availability, usage by databases, services, clusters • Software alerts db, cluster, ASM • Topology view of DB systems/clusters 3. Configuration view • Version summary of all components along with patch recommendations
    28. 28. Upgrade and Scaling
    29. 29. Scale to 18 Racks by Just Adding Cables Full Bandwidth and Redundancy Scale to more than 18 Racks by adding InfiniBand switches
    30. 30. Seamless Upgrades and Expansions 1. A single Database Machine can have servers from different generations 2. Databases and Clusters can span across multiple hardware generations 3. New software runs on older hardware
    31. 31. Exadata Flash Performance Scales Linearly Exadata scales using – True Scale-Out – InfiniBand – Smart Storage
    32. 32. Exadata VS Teradata
    33. 33. Teradata Comparison to Oracle Architecture loader loader Oracle – Exadata MPP Extension to Shared Memory & Disk Teradata SharedNothing
    34. 34. Exadata is a 2 tier Architecture
    35. 35. Things to Watch
    36. 36. Things to watch out for • Databases tuned for Exadata are not portable – Datafiles with HCC won’t work on non-Exadata system – Applications that have been tuned to work well on Exadata will be slow on non-Exadata • Can’t control, no documentation for storage indexes – What columns are they on? – What column types can they be on?
    37. 37. Things to watch out for – page 2 • HCC and tables > 255 columns buggy – Wrong results, errors – Wrong optimizer stats • Newness issues – Bugs, hangs, crashes, unexpected results – Lack of documentation – Lack of trained people
    38. 38. Recommendations • • • • Small number of RAC nodes – 2 if possible Use as few new features as possible Fewer than 256 columns per table Get Exadata VM from Oracle for sandbox
    39. 39. Thanks You
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