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BT-202 Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi. Dr. Amita Pandey Sept 9, 2011
Types of Lipids <ul><li>Lipids with fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Waxes </li></ul><ul><li>Fats and oils (triglycerides) </...
STORAGE LIPIDS <ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Triglycerides </li></ul><ul><li>- hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic...
FATTY ACIDS <ul><li>-Saturated FAs </li></ul><ul><li>-Unsaturated FAs </li></ul>
FATTY ACIDS -high melting point -poor solubility in water
FATTY ACIDS -Low melting points -Occur in  cis  form
-poor solubility is due to long non-polar HC chains -melting point is due to the degree of packing of FAs -FAs are present...
PUFAs <ul><li>The double bond is at the methyl end of the HC chain. </li></ul><ul><li>This carbon is called omega carbon <...
PUFAs and cardiovascular disease <ul><li>Imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs (Optimum ratio is 1:1 to 4:1) </li></...
Properties of Saturated Fatty Acids <ul><li>Contain only single C –C bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Closely packed  </li></ul><ul...
Properties of Unsaturated Fatty Acids Contain one or more double C =C bonds Nonlinear chains do not allow molecules to pac...
Triacylglycerols / Triglycerides -three FA molecules linked to  one glycerol molecule -two types of triacylglycerols -simp...
Triacylglycerols <ul><li>Stored energy  </li></ul><ul><li>- adipocytes in vertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>-seeds in plants <...
Trans Fatty Acids
Trans Fatty Acids - Hydrogenation converts double bonds in oils to single bonds.  -helps improve stability of oils during ...
Trans Fatty Acids <ul><li>-partial hydrogenation also converts the cis- double bond to trans double bonds </li></ul><ul><l...
Waxes <ul><li>Composed of FA molecules </li></ul><ul><li>linked to long-chain alcohol molecule through an ester linkage </...
LIPIDS
Structural LIpids <ul><li>Phosphoplipids  </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolipids  </li></ul><ul><li>– Glycerophospholipids  </li></...
Glycerophospholipids/Phosphoglycerides <ul><li>They have a glycerol backbone. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroxyls at C1 & C2 are  ...
Glycerophospholipids/Phosphoglycerides <ul><li>Parent compound is phosphatidic acid where the X is hydrogen atom </li></ul...
Glycerophospholipids/Phosphoglycerides
Glycerophospholipids/Phosphoglycerides Phosphatidylinositol , with inositol as polar head group,  -a membrane lipid  -has ...
Glycerophospholipids/Phosphoglycerides Phosphatidylcholine, with choline as polar head group is a common membrane lipid.
Glycerophospholipids/Phosphoglycerides Ether lipids -plasmalogen -platelet-activating factor
Galactolipids/Sulfolipid <ul><li>Found in membranes of  </li></ul><ul><li>plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Thylakoid membrane...
Archaeal ether lipids
Sphingolipids <ul><li>Are derived from lipid  </li></ul><ul><li>Sphingosine </li></ul><ul><li>The amino group of sphingosi...
Sphingolipids
Sphingolipids
Sphingomyelin <ul><li>a phosphocholine or  </li></ul><ul><li>phosphethanolamine </li></ul><ul><li>  head group.  </li></ul...
Glycosphingolipid <ul><li>Cerebrosides </li></ul><ul><li>- present on the outer  </li></ul><ul><li>surface of PM </li></ul...
Gangliosides <ul><li>Oligosacharides as their polar head group </li></ul><ul><li>Have Neu5Ac also called sialic acid at te...
Function of Sphingolipids <ul><li>Present in PM of neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Act as recognition sites on </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Phopholipases </li></ul><ul><li>Lysophopholipases </li></ul>
Sterols <ul><li>Cholesterol in animals </li></ul><ul><li>Stigmasterol in plants </li></ul><ul><li>Ergasterol in fungi </li...
LIPIDS IN THE CELL <ul><li>Lipids exist in cells as </li></ul><ul><li>-plasma lipoproteins </li></ul><ul><li>-plasma membr...
LIPOPROTEINS <ul><li>- complexes of lipids and proteins </li></ul><ul><li>-are water soluble </li></ul><ul><li>Chylomicron...
<ul><li>Very Low Density Lipoproein (VLDL): </li></ul><ul><li>90% lipids. Transport of triglycerides synthesized in  the l...
<ul><li>High Density Lipoproteins: </li></ul><ul><li>50% lipids. Transport of cholesterol from tissues to  liver for catab...
LIPIDS AND BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES <ul><li>Lipid bilayer </li></ul><ul><li>Vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>-Liposomes </li></ul><u...
Lipid composition of  plasma membrane and organelle membrane of rat hepatocytes
<ul><li>Fluid Mosaic Model </li></ul><ul><li>S. J. Singer and G. L. Nicolson (1972) proposed the fluid mosaic model for me...
<ul><li>- Peripheral protein  </li></ul><ul><li>(Extrinsic protein) </li></ul><ul><li>-Integral protein </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Integral membrane proteins and Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>-hydrophobic residues span the membrane (α-helical) </li><...
<ul><li>Hydropathy Index </li></ul>-Determination of protein conformation -sequence of 20 hydrophobic residues
Lipid-linked membrane proteins <ul><li>-lipid anchors </li></ul><ul><li>-ionic attractions </li></ul>inside outside
Movement of lipids in the bilayer <ul><li>Uncatalyzed  </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyzed </li></ul><ul><li>Flippases </li></ul><...
Transport across membrane
<ul><li>Solute concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical potential </li></ul>Simple diffusion
Facilitated diffusion <ul><li>Transporters or  </li></ul><ul><li>permeases </li></ul>
Classification of transporters
<ul><li>Carriers </li></ul><ul><li>- bind to substrate with high stereospecificity </li></ul><ul><li>-transport rates are ...
<ul><li>GLUT 1-12: </li></ul><ul><li>-Transports glucose out of liver cells upon glycogen  metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Ch...
<ul><li>Active transport </li></ul><ul><li>P-type ATPases: </li></ul><ul><li>-Reversible phosphorylated by ATP </li></ul><...
SERCA pump Na+ K+ ATPase
<ul><li>F-Type ATPases </li></ul><ul><li>-Catalyze the passage of protons by ATP hydrolysis </li></ul><ul><li>-transport c...
<ul><li>V-type ATPases </li></ul><ul><li>-responsible for maintaining acidic pH in vacuoles, lysosomes, endosomes, golgi c...
<ul><li>ABC Transporters </li></ul><ul><li>-ATP dependent transporters </li></ul><ul><li>-transport amino acids, peptides,...
<ul><li>Secondary Active Transport </li></ul><ul><li>-Major facilitator superfamily (MFS) </li></ul><ul><li>-12 transmembr...
AQUAPORINS (AQPs) <ul><li>-secretion of sweat,  saliva, and tears occur through AQPs </li></ul><ul><li>-Arabidopsis has 38...
Ion-selective channels <ul><li>-rate of flux through the channels is several orders of magnitude greater than transporters...
<ul><li>K +  ion channel </li></ul><ul><li>Na + -ion channel (voltage gated) </li></ul><ul><li>Nicotinic acetylcholine rec...
 
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Transcript of "Sept 9 bt202"

  1. 1. BT-202 Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi. Dr. Amita Pandey Sept 9, 2011
  2. 2. Types of Lipids <ul><li>Lipids with fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Waxes </li></ul><ul><li>Fats and oils (triglycerides) </li></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>Sphingolipids </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids without fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul>
  3. 3. STORAGE LIPIDS <ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Triglycerides </li></ul><ul><li>- hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic acid at one end. </li></ul><ul><li>A 16-C fatty acid: CH 3 (CH 2 ) 14 - COO - </li></ul><ul><li> Non-polar polar </li></ul><ul><li>-most naturally occurring fatty acids have an even number of carbon atoms. </li></ul>
  4. 4. FATTY ACIDS <ul><li>-Saturated FAs </li></ul><ul><li>-Unsaturated FAs </li></ul>
  5. 5. FATTY ACIDS -high melting point -poor solubility in water
  6. 6. FATTY ACIDS -Low melting points -Occur in cis form
  7. 7. -poor solubility is due to long non-polar HC chains -melting point is due to the degree of packing of FAs -FAs are present in blood in two forms -serum albumin -esters or amides
  8. 8. PUFAs <ul><li>The double bond is at the methyl end of the HC chain. </li></ul><ul><li>This carbon is called omega carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Two most important PUFAs are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Omega -3- fatty acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omega-6-fatty acids </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. PUFAs and cardiovascular disease <ul><li>Imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs (Optimum ratio is 1:1 to 4:1) </li></ul><ul><li>Humans cannot synthesize omega-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA; 18:3 (Δ 9,12,15 ) </li></ul><ul><li>ALA is used for synthsesis of two other important PUFAs i.e. EPA and DHA </li></ul>
  10. 10. Properties of Saturated Fatty Acids <ul><li>Contain only single C –C bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Closely packed </li></ul><ul><li>Strong attractions between chains </li></ul><ul><li>High melting points </li></ul><ul><li>Solids at room temperature </li></ul>
  11. 11. Properties of Unsaturated Fatty Acids Contain one or more double C =C bonds Nonlinear chains do not allow molecules to pack closely Few interactions between chains Low melting points Liquids at room temperature
  12. 12. Triacylglycerols / Triglycerides -three FA molecules linked to one glycerol molecule -two types of triacylglycerols -simple (eg. tripalmitin) -mixed -hydrophobic molecules
  13. 13. Triacylglycerols <ul><li>Stored energy </li></ul><ul><li>- adipocytes in vertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>-seeds in plants </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Trans Fatty Acids
  15. 15. Trans Fatty Acids - Hydrogenation converts double bonds in oils to single bonds. -helps improve stability of oils during frying -increase shelf life
  16. 16. Trans Fatty Acids <ul><li>-partial hydrogenation also converts the cis- double bond to trans double bonds </li></ul><ul><li>-trans fatty acids increase the risk of coronary heart disease </li></ul>
  17. 17. Waxes <ul><li>Composed of FA molecules </li></ul><ul><li>linked to long-chain alcohol molecule through an ester linkage </li></ul>
  18. 18. LIPIDS
  19. 19. Structural LIpids <ul><li>Phosphoplipids </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolipids </li></ul><ul><li>– Glycerophospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>Archeal ether lipids </li></ul><ul><li>-Sphingolipids </li></ul>
  20. 20. Glycerophospholipids/Phosphoglycerides <ul><li>They have a glycerol backbone. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroxyls at C1 & C2 are </li></ul><ul><li>esterified to fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>C3 hydroxyl is esterified to </li></ul><ul><li>phosphate </li></ul>
  21. 21. Glycerophospholipids/Phosphoglycerides <ul><li>Parent compound is phosphatidic acid where the X is hydrogen atom </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 fatty acids tend to be non-identical. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Glycerophospholipids/Phosphoglycerides
  23. 23. Glycerophospholipids/Phosphoglycerides Phosphatidylinositol , with inositol as polar head group, -a membrane lipid -has roles in cell signaling.
  24. 24. Glycerophospholipids/Phosphoglycerides Phosphatidylcholine, with choline as polar head group is a common membrane lipid.
  25. 25. Glycerophospholipids/Phosphoglycerides Ether lipids -plasmalogen -platelet-activating factor
  26. 26. Galactolipids/Sulfolipid <ul><li>Found in membranes of </li></ul><ul><li>plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Thylakoid membrane </li></ul><ul><li>sulfolipid </li></ul>
  27. 27. Archaeal ether lipids
  28. 28. Sphingolipids <ul><li>Are derived from lipid </li></ul><ul><li>Sphingosine </li></ul><ul><li>The amino group of sphingosine can form an amide bond with a fatty acid carboxyl, to yield a ceramide. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sphingolipids
  30. 30. Sphingolipids
  31. 31. Sphingomyelin <ul><li>a phosphocholine or </li></ul><ul><li>phosphethanolamine </li></ul><ul><li> head group. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in myelin sheath </li></ul>
  32. 32. Glycosphingolipid <ul><li>Cerebrosides </li></ul><ul><li>- present on the outer </li></ul><ul><li>surface of PM </li></ul><ul><li>-head group attached </li></ul><ul><li>to sugar </li></ul><ul><li>-no phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>-galactose (neural) </li></ul><ul><li>-glucose (non neural) </li></ul><ul><li>Globosides </li></ul><ul><li>-more than one sugar </li></ul><ul><li>(D-glucose, D-galactose) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Gangliosides <ul><li>Oligosacharides as their polar head group </li></ul><ul><li>Have Neu5Ac also called sialic acid at termini </li></ul><ul><li>Negatively charged </li></ul><ul><li>GM, GD, GT, or GQ </li></ul>
  34. 34. Function of Sphingolipids <ul><li>Present in PM of neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Act as recognition sites on </li></ul><ul><li> the cell </li></ul><ul><li>eg., recognition of blood type </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Phopholipases </li></ul><ul><li>Lysophopholipases </li></ul>
  36. 36. Sterols <ul><li>Cholesterol in animals </li></ul><ul><li>Stigmasterol in plants </li></ul><ul><li>Ergasterol in fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Act as precursors </li></ul>
  37. 37. LIPIDS IN THE CELL <ul><li>Lipids exist in cells as </li></ul><ul><li>-plasma lipoproteins </li></ul><ul><li>-plasma membrane </li></ul>
  38. 38. LIPOPROTEINS <ul><li>- complexes of lipids and proteins </li></ul><ul><li>-are water soluble </li></ul><ul><li>Chylomicrons: 99% lipids. Involved in transportation of triglycerides absorbed in the intestine to liver, skeletal muscles and </li></ul><ul><li>adipose tissue </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Very Low Density Lipoproein (VLDL): </li></ul><ul><li>90% lipids. Transport of triglycerides synthesized in the liver to adipose tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate density Lipoproteins (IDL): </li></ul><ul><li>not detectable in blood </li></ul><ul><li>Low Density Lipoprotein: </li></ul><ul><li>78% lipids. Transport of cholesterol (mostly as acyl esters), synthesized in the liver. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>High Density Lipoproteins: </li></ul><ul><li>50% lipids. Transport of cholesterol from tissues to liver for catabolism. </li></ul>Lipoprotein lipases
  41. 41. LIPIDS AND BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES <ul><li>Lipid bilayer </li></ul><ul><li>Vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>-Liposomes </li></ul><ul><li>-Bangosomes </li></ul>
  42. 42. Lipid composition of plasma membrane and organelle membrane of rat hepatocytes
  43. 43. <ul><li>Fluid Mosaic Model </li></ul><ul><li>S. J. Singer and G. L. Nicolson (1972) proposed the fluid mosaic model for membrane structure, which suggested that membranes are dynamic structures composed of proteins and phospholipids. </li></ul><ul><li>-Lipids are assymetrically distributed </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>- Peripheral protein </li></ul><ul><li>(Extrinsic protein) </li></ul><ul><li>-Integral protein </li></ul><ul><li>(Intrinsic proteins) </li></ul><ul><li>-Amphitropic proteins </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Integral membrane proteins and Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>-hydrophobic residues span the membrane (α-helical) </li></ul><ul><li>-Tyr and Trp residues are present </li></ul><ul><li>-positive inside rule (Lys, His , and Arg) </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Hydropathy Index </li></ul>-Determination of protein conformation -sequence of 20 hydrophobic residues
  47. 47. Lipid-linked membrane proteins <ul><li>-lipid anchors </li></ul><ul><li>-ionic attractions </li></ul>inside outside
  48. 48. Movement of lipids in the bilayer <ul><li>Uncatalyzed </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyzed </li></ul><ul><li>Flippases </li></ul><ul><li>Floppases </li></ul><ul><li>Scramblases </li></ul>
  49. 49. Transport across membrane
  50. 50. <ul><li>Solute concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical potential </li></ul>Simple diffusion
  51. 51. Facilitated diffusion <ul><li>Transporters or </li></ul><ul><li>permeases </li></ul>
  52. 52. Classification of transporters
  53. 53. <ul><li>Carriers </li></ul><ul><li>- bind to substrate with high stereospecificity </li></ul><ul><li>-transport rates are slow </li></ul><ul><li>-are saturable </li></ul><ul><li>Channels </li></ul><ul><li>- less stereospecific </li></ul><ul><li>-faster than carriers </li></ul><ul><li>-oligomeric proteins </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>GLUT 1-12: </li></ul><ul><li>-Transports glucose out of liver cells upon glycogen metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Chloride-bicarbonate exchanger </li></ul><ul><li>-anion exchange (AE) protein </li></ul><ul><li>-increases the rate of HCO - 3 transport across erythrocyte membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Three general classes of </li></ul><ul><li>transport system </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Active transport </li></ul><ul><li>P-type ATPases: </li></ul><ul><li>-Reversible phosphorylated by ATP </li></ul><ul><li>-cation transporters </li></ul><ul><li>-membrane proteins with 8-10 membrane spanning regions </li></ul><ul><li>-Ca 2+ ATPases and Na + K + ATPases </li></ul><ul><li>-bacteria pump out toxic heavy metal ions such as Cd 2+ and Cu 2+ </li></ul>
  56. 56. SERCA pump Na+ K+ ATPase
  57. 57. <ul><li>F-Type ATPases </li></ul><ul><li>-Catalyze the passage of protons by ATP hydrolysis </li></ul><ul><li>-transport can occur in either direction </li></ul><ul><li>-also called ATP synthases as in mitochondria and chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>-F o F 1 ATPase in bacteria and A o A 1 ATPases in Archaea </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>V-type ATPases </li></ul><ul><li>-responsible for maintaining acidic pH in vacuoles, lysosomes, endosomes, golgi complex and secretory vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>-two domains V o (integral domain) and V 1 (peripheral domain) </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>ABC Transporters </li></ul><ul><li>-ATP dependent transporters </li></ul><ul><li>-transport amino acids, peptides, proteins, metal ions, lipids, bile salts and also drugs </li></ul><ul><li>-MDRI also called multi-drug transporter in humans </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Secondary Active Transport </li></ul><ul><li>-Major facilitator superfamily (MFS) </li></ul><ul><li>-12 transmembrane domains </li></ul><ul><li>-lactose transporter of E. coli. </li></ul><ul><li>-Na + -glucose symporters </li></ul>Lactose permease
  61. 61. AQUAPORINS (AQPs) <ul><li>-secretion of sweat, saliva, and tears occur through AQPs </li></ul><ul><li>-Arabidopsis has 38 AQPs </li></ul>
  62. 62. Ion-selective channels <ul><li>-rate of flux through the channels is several orders of magnitude greater than transporters – 10 7 to 10 8 /sec </li></ul><ul><li>-not saturable </li></ul><ul><li>-have a gated response </li></ul><ul><li>-ligand-gated </li></ul><ul><li>-voltage-gated </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>K + ion channel </li></ul><ul><li>Na + -ion channel (voltage gated) </li></ul><ul><li>Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (ligand gated) </li></ul><ul><li>GABA receptors </li></ul>
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