Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Sept 14, 2011 new
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Sept 14, 2011 new

219

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
219
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. BT-202 Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi. Dr. Amita Pandey Sept 14, 2011
  • 2.
    • Nucleotide
    • Nucleoside
    • 2’-deoxy-D-ribose
    • D-ribose
    • Pyrimidines
    • Purines
  • 3. Deoxyribonucleotide: -dAMP -dGMP -dTMP -dCMP Ribonucleotide: -AMP -GMP -UMP -CMP Nucleoside: -Deoxyadenosine -Deoxyguanosine -Deoxythymidine -Deoxycytidine Nucleoside: -Adenosine -Guanosine -Uridine -Cytidine
  • 4.
    • Minor bases
    • -methylated
    • -hydroxymethylated
    • -glycosylated
  • 5.
    • Phosphodiester bond
  • 6. Hydrolysis of RNA molecules Mixture of 2’- and 3’- monophoaphate derivatives
  • 7.
    • Oligonucleotide
    • -50 nucleotides polymer
    • Polynucleotide
    • -longer polymers
  • 8. DNA structure by Watson and Crick 1953 -hydrophobic interactions -van der Waals interactions -dipole-dipole interactions -hydrogen bonds
  • 9.
    • Primary structure:
    • -nucleotide sequence
    • Secondary structure:
    • -stable structure taken up by nucleotides
    • Tertiary structure:
    • -folding of chromosomes
  • 10.
    • Frederich Miescher (1868 ): isolated and characterized DNA from leukocytes and called it “ nuclein ” . He found that it was rich in phosphorus and nitrogen.
    • O. T. Avery, C. MacLeod, and M. McCarty (1940s) : first time said DNA was the genetic material.
    • A.D. Hershey and M. Chase (1952) : confirmed that DNA not protein is the genetic material.
    • E. Chargaff (1940s) : “Chargaff’s rules” he said that A = T and G = C.
    • R. Franklin and M. Wilkins (1950s) : DNA molecules are helical with two periodicities along their long axis.
  • 11.
    • Watson and Crick (1953) :
    • -hydrophillic phosphate and deoxyribose on outside
    • -hydrophobic bases on inside
    • -two grooves
    • -hydrogen bonding between base pair
    • -antiparallel
    • -10.5 bp in each turn
    • -complementary
  • 12.
    • Complementarity laid the foundation for DNA replication
  • 13. B-form is the most stable A form B-form Z-form -A-form arises dehydration -Z-form is detectable in both bacteria and eukaryotes
  • 14.
    • Palindrome
    • Mirror repeats
    • Hairpins
    • Cruciforms
  • 15.
    • Triplex DNA
    • G tetraplex
    Hoogstein pairing
  • 16.
    • F. Jacob and J. Monod (1961) : proposed the name messenger RNA.
    • Transcription: process of forming mRNA on DNA template.
    • Monocistronic: mRNA encoding a single polypeptide.
    • Polycistronic: mRNA encoding for more than one polypeptide.
  • 17. mRNA G pairs with C and A pairs with U
  • 18.
    • A-form of RNA is predominant form
    • Hairpins are most common secondary structures
  • 19.
    • rRNA: provides peptidyl transferase activity during translation
      • Large subunit (LSU): 18S rRNA
      • Small subunit (SSU): 5S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNAs
  • 20. Reversible denaturation and annealing of DNA -viscosity of DNA -pH -temperature -absorption of UV light -hypochromic effect -hyperchromic effect
  • 21.
    • Melting point t m
    • -higher GC content higher melting temp
    Partially denatured DNA
  • 22. Hybridization
    • Hybrid duplexes
    • - temperature
    • -evolutionary relationship
    • Southern hybridization
    • Northern hybridization
  • 23. Mutations
    • Alteration in DNA structure that produce permanent changes in the genetic information
    • -deamination
    • cytosine undergoes
    • deamination spontaneously
    • Adenine deaminates to Hypoxanthine
    • Guanine deaminates to Xanthine
  • 24.
    • -depurination
    • -apurinic or apyrimidinic
  • 25.
    • Radiation
    • - cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers
    • -6-4 photoproduct
    • Ionizing radiation
    • -ring opening
    • -fragmentation of bases
  • 26.
    • Chemicals
    • -deaminating agents eg. Nitrous acid
    • -alkylating agents
    • Oxidative damage
    • -hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radicals
  • 27. Learning check!
    • Phosphatidylethanolamine has a net charge of
    • at pH 7.0.
    • zero
    • Lipids molecules are the only essential components of biological membranes.
    • True
    • False
    • Lipids in bilayer have high ratio of diffusion.
    • lateral
    • Palmitic acid is a acid.
    • fatty
  • 28.
    • Match
    • Glycerophospholipids Cholesterol
    • Sphingolipids Phosphatidylcholine
    • Steroid Spingomyelin
    • Lipids containing hydrocarbon chain serve as energy stores.
    • True
    • False
    • Ergosterol is a glucorticoid.
    • True
    • False
    • Polyunsaturated Fas contain multiple bonds.
    • double
    • Phospholipases are enzymes that catalyz e of glycophospholipids.
    • hydrolysis
  • 29.
    • Which of the following is not a complex lipid
    • Triacylglycerol
    • Glycolipids
    • Sphingolipids
    • Phospholipids
    • Sphingolipids are significant components of biological membranes.
    • True
    • False
    • Which FA would have a melting temperaturehigher than palmitic acid (16:0)?
    • Myristic acid (14:0)
    • Palmitic acid (16:1)
    • Oleic acid (18:1)
    • Stearic acid (18:0)
  • 30. Assignment # 4
    • Lehninger:
    • Question 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9.

×