CCU

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CCU

  1. 1. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTIONA. Background Food is one of the topics that have always been discussed among thescholars. This is because food is the basic necessity for the well-being of human.Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It isusually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such ascarbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested byan organism and assimilated by the organisms cells in an effort to produceenergy, maintain life, or stimulate growth. Historically, people secured food through two methods: hunting andgathering, and agriculture. Today, most of the food energy consumed by theworld population is supplied by the food industry. Food safety and food security are monitored by agencies like theInternational Association for Food Protection, World Resources Institute, WorldFood Programmed, Food and Agriculture Organization, and International FoodInformation Council. They address issues such as sustainability, biologicaldiversity, climate change, nutritional economics, population growth, watersupply, and access to food. The right to food is a human right derived from the International Covenanton Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), recognizing the "right to anadequate standard of living, including adequate food", as well as the"fundamental right to be free from hunger". Many cultures have a recognizable cuisine, a specific set of cookingtraditions using various spices or a combination of flavors unique to that culture,which evolves over time. Other differences include preferences (hot or cold, 1spicy, etc.) and practices, the study of which is known as gastronomy. Manycultures have diversified their foods by means of preparation, cooking methods, The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  2. 2. and manufacturing. This also includes a complex food trade which helps thecultures to economically survive by way of food, not just by consumption. Somepopular types of ethnic foods include Italian, French, Japanese, Chinese,American, Cajun, Thai, and Indian cuisine. Various cultures throughout the worldstudy the dietary analysis of food habits. While evolutionarily speaking, asopposed to culturally, humans are omnivores, religion and social constructs suchas morality, activism, or environmentalism will often affect which foods they willconsume. Food is eaten and typically enjoyed through the sense of taste, theperception of flavor from eating and drinking. Certain tastes are more enjoyablethan others, for evolutionary purposes. In this case, we have to know the perspective of Islamic views towards thefood. The Quran contains many passages that give Muslims advice abouthealthfuleating habits and nutrition. These passages not only relate to the preservationof a human beings physical well- being, but also to his spiritual health.Encouragement to eat only good and pure foods is combined with warnings toremember Allah and avoid Satan. In this way, Muslims are shown that eating isnot merely an action to satisfy the hungry body, but that, as in all of mansactions, it has an effect on how well or how poorly a Muslim will serve AllahSWT. Some places in the Quran specifically mention the benefits of certain foods.They not only give a list of lawful foods, but also an idea of what types of thingsis, in general, good for man. Specific foods that are mentioned include milk,dates, grapes, honey, corn, grains, nutritious plants, olives and livestock. It isalso mentioned, in conjunction with these foods, that reflection on their lifecycles will tell man something about his own existence. 2 The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  3. 3. The Islamic perspective on genetically modified foods, much like that ofother religions, is complex and goes deeper than simply a determination ofwhether a certain food is halal or not (although that is certainly part of it).B. The Formulation of the Problem Based on the perspective of Islamic view towards the food that has explainedabove, the writer wants to know these that has related with the culture. Theproblems which occurred are: 1. What is the food? 2. How does the perspective of Islamic view toward food? 3. What are the Malaysian foods? 4. How does the perspective of Islamic view toward Malaysian food?C. The Aims of Study According to the background above, there are some objectives of this study. They are: 1. To know what the food in perspective of Islamic view is. 2. To know how the Malaysian food from perspective of Islamic view. 3 The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  4. 4. CHAPTER II CONTENT1. The food in perspective of Islamic view As we know, the food is any substance consumed to provide nutritionalsupport for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and containsessential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals.The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organismscells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.Nutrition: Islamic Perspective A highly important factor of health promotion is proper nutrition. Choosingwholesome food and avoiding what is unwholesome are essential to health.God says in the Quran: Eat of the good things which We have provided for you.(2:173) Eat of what is lawful and wholesome on the earth. (2:168)Describing the Prophet (pbuh) God says: He prohibits them from all that is foul.(7:157) To abstain from eating without a valid reason is contrary to healthprotection. Hence, Islam does not approve of it. God says in the Quran: Do notforbid yourselves the wholesome things God has made lawful for you. (5:87) Healthy nutrition means having a balanced diet, in order to maintain thebalance that God has established in all matters, and to which reference is madein the Quran: "And He enforced the balance. That you exceed not the bounds; butobserve the balance strictly, and fall not short thereof". (55:7-9)Healthy nutrition means a diet balanced in quantity. Eating too much is contraryto Islamic teachings. 4 In the Quran we read: Eat and drink, but avoid excess. (20:81) The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  5. 5. According to a hadith, the Prophet (pbuh) said: "No human being fills acontainer to worse effect than he fills his own stomach. It is sufficient for ahuman being to have a few bites to keep him fit (which means that it is sufficientto have only what one needs to maintain strength and well-being). If he must eat(or according to another version "If a human being cannot resist thetemptation..."), then let him use one-third for food, one-third for drink and one-third for breathing". Another authentic hadith quotes the Prophet (pbuh) as saying: "The food ofone person will be sufficient for two, and the food of two people will be sufficientfor four, and the food of four will be sufficient for eight". Healthy nutrition also means a diet balanced in its contents. This meansthat it must have a mixture of the different types of food which God hasgraciously provided for His creation, so that it satisfies all the body needs interms of proteins, fat, carbohydrates, salts and vitamins. Most of these arementioned in the Quran: He created cattle which give you warmth, benefits andfood to eat. (l6:5) It is He who subdued the seas, from which you eat fresh fish.(16:l4) It is recommended by nutritionists that to have a healthy diet most peopleshould be eating: More fruit and vegetables More starchy foods such as rice, bread, pasta (try to choose wholegrain varieties when you can) and potatoes Less fat, salt and sugar Some protein-rich foods such as meat, fish, eggs and pulses Its also important to eat a variety of foods to make sure we get all the nutrients our bodies need. 5 The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  6. 6. Top 5 practical tips 1. Start the day with a good breakfast - Eating breakfast can help curb the cravings for the wrong kinds of food and maintains a steady blood sugar level throughout the morning period. 2. Never skip lunch - Skipping lunch leads to a drop in energy levels, alertness and coping ability. It can also slow metabolism which is self- defeating if you are trying to lose weight. 3. Drink plenty of water - Water re-hydrates the body much better than sugary fizzy drinks. If you are dehydrated youre likely to feel tired and have a headache, which will slow you down. 4. Replace chocolates with fruit or a low-fat yoghurt - This will reduce your days calorie and fat count significantly and ensure that you are taking in more vitamins and nutrients. 5. Ideally try to eat slowly and stop when youre full.What are the main laws or beliefs relating to food? Eating is a matter of faith in Islam. Muslim dietary practise is fundamentallyabout obeying God. All practising Muslim believers obey God Almighty by eatingthe allowed foods (halal) and avoiding the forbidden foods (haram) which arementioned in the Qur’an and in the sayings of the final prophet Muhammad(Peace Be Upon Him). The following are a list of Muslim dietary practises.Muslims follow these because it is God’s word in the Qur’an. The health benefits(which are now apparent with the development of science) of the Muslim dietmerely qualify the wisdom of God’s word and shed light on God’s benevolence. Itis God’s commandments that are crucial; the health benefits are secondary. Recite the name of God (Allah) before eating and thank God after finishing. It 6is a good thing to eat by the right hand and in company. Muslims mustpronounce the name of Allah on all animals while slaughtering. The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  7. 7. Think and contemplate in every item of food you eat by remembering Godthe creator the Designer, The Organiser and the Provider. A prayer-like statemay be achieved in this way. It is important to eat only when you are hungry. When you do eat, youshould not eat in excess. As advised by the Prophet, one should divide his / herstomach into 3 parts - a third each for food, fluid, and respiration. Remember thehungry when you eat. One could avoid going to hell by feeding a hungry dyingperson or animal. Halal pure healthy meat, chicken, fish, milk, olive oil and honey are highlyrecommended in IslamHealthy Eating: Islamic PerspectiveWhy its essential for our physical and spiritual well-being To live in Islam is not merely preparing for the Hereafter, but also to live acomplete way of life right here in this world. Hence, the question of healthyliving, which has become a much-discussed issue nowadays, is not new toMuslims. From an Islamic perspective health is viewed as one of the greatest blessingsthat Allah has bestowed on mankind. It should be noted that the greatestblessing after belief is health. Health is indeed a favour that we take for granted. We should expressgratitude to Allah for bestowing us with health, and we should try our utmost tolook after it. Allah has entrusted us with our bodies for a predestined period oftime. He will hold us to account on how we looked after and utilised our bodiesand health. 7 The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  8. 8. The Importance of a balanced diet Various verses and texts within Islam promote the eating of healthywholesome food and eating in moderation. Allah clearly states in the Quran:"Eat of the good things which We have provided for you. (2:173) Eat of what islawful and wholesome on the earth." (2:168) A healthy nutritious diet must also be balanced, in order to maintain thebalance that Allah has established in all things, this is addressed in the Quranwhen Allah says: "And He enforced the balance. That you exceed not the bounds; but observe thebalance strictly; and fall not short thereof." (55:7-9) As we know, eating excessively causes harm to our systems. Many ailmentsare related to uncontrolled eating habits such as, diabetes, vascular diseases,stroke, heart attack etc. It has been said that the stomach is the home of illhealth and is usually responsible in some way to ill health. Islam teaches us toeat moderately: "Eat and drink, but avoid excess." (20:81). Over indulgence and wasting of food are further dissuaded in the Hadith ofthe Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him): "No human being has ever filled a container worse than his own stomach. Theson of Adam needs no more than a few morsels of food to keep up his strength,doing so he should consider that a third of his stomach is for food, a third for drinkand a third for breathing." (Ibn Maja)Physical and spiritual well-being At a physical level, the Quran and the sunnah encourage healthy eating, andat the same time forbid all substances that cause bodily harm: intoxicants, drugs, 8and so forth. Fruits and vegetables, dates, yoghurt, milk, natural honey, black The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  9. 9. seeds, and the like are especially emphasized for their nutritious quality andhealth benefits. From a spiritual angle, controlling our diet trains us in self-control. Whenfood is spread out in large delicious quantities and there is a temptation to gorgeourselves, we are required to control our appetites and develop a sense ofmoderation in eating. With regards to moderation, Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) said:"Muslims should be people who eat only when they are hungry." That is to say,unnecessary snacks taken in between meals should be avoided. The Prophet alsosaid: "It is good to be always a little hungry." Thus, over-eating can be avoided. Fasting in Ramadhan, apart from the spiritual and other self-control benefitsderived from it, also has health benefits. It cleanses and relaxes the stomach andgives it a "rest from work" for about 16 hours a day for a month once a year.Other than the Ramadhan fast, Muslims are urged to undertake voluntary fastingas much as they could at any time throughout the year. Some Muslims make apoint to fast every Monday and Thursday following the Sunnah (practice) of theProphet. Fasting is also enabling a Muslim to lose fat and unnecessary weight.2. Malaysian Foodsa. Culture of Malaysia The culture of Malaysia draws on the varied cultures of the different peopleof Malaysia. The first people to live in the area were indigenous tribes that stillremain; they were followed by the Malays, who moved there from mainland Asiain ancient times. Chinese and Indian cultural influences made their mark whentrade began with those countries, and increased with immigration to Malaysia.Other cultures that heavily influenced that of Malaysia include Persian, Arabic, 9and British. The many different ethnicities that currently exist in Malaysia havetheir own unique and distinctive cultural identities, with some crossover. The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  10. 10. Arts and music have a long tradition in Malaysia, with Malay art dating backto the Malay sultanates. Traditional art was centered on fields such as carving,silversmithing, and weaving. Islamic taboos restricted artwork depictinghumans until the mid-20th century. Performing arts and shadow puppet showsare popular, and often show Indian influences. Various influences can be seen inarchitecture, from individual cultures in Malaysia and from other countries.Large modern structures have been built, including the tallest twin buildings inthe world, the PETRONAS Twin Towers. Malaysian music has a variety of origins,and is largely based around percussion instruments. Much early Malaysianliterature was based on Indian epics, which remained unchanged even as Malaysconverted to Islam; this has expanded in recent decades. English literatureremained restricted to the higher class until the arrival of the printing press.Locally created Chinese and Indian literature appeared in the 19th century. Cuisine is often divided along ethnic lines, but some dishes exist which havemixed foods from different ethnicities. Each major religious group has its majorholy days declared as official holidays. Official holidays differ by state; the mostwidespread one is Hari Merdeka, which celebrates the independence of Malaya.Although festivals often stem from a specific ethnic background, they arecelebrated by all people in Malaysia. Traditional sports are popular in Malaysia,while it has become a powerhouse in international sports such as badminton.Malaysia hosted the Commonwealth Games in 1998, the first CommonwealthGames where the torch passed through more countries than England and thehost. The Malaysian government has taken the step of defining Malaysian Culturethrough the "1971 National Culture Policy", which defined what was consideredofficial culture, basing it around Malay culture and integrating Islamic influences. 10This especially affected language; only Malay texts are considered official The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  11. 11. cultural texts. Government control over the media is strong, and most mediaoutlets are related to the government in some way.b. Malaysian Food Malaysian Food is not one particular distinction of food but a culinarydiversity originating from its multi-ethnic population of Malay, Indian, Eurasian,Chinese, Nyonya and the Indigenous peoples of Borneo. A brief look into thepast and how this multi-ethnic country came to be, is essential in order tocomprehend how such a cosmic array of food, has now come to be known allover the world as Malaysian Food. Presented here are some of the variousdelicious and popular dishes from this rainbow of gastronomic spectrum, withpictures and detailed recipes, from each unique ethnic kitchen. Malaysias cuisine reflects the multiethnic makeup of its population, and isdefined by its diversity. Many cultures from Malaysia and the surrounding areashave greatly influenced Malaysian cuisine, with strong influence from Malay,Chinese, Indian, Thai, Javanese, and Sumatran cuisines. Much of this is due toMalaysia being a part of the ancient spice route. The cuisine is very similar tothat of Singapore and Brunei, and also bears resemblance to Filipino cuisine. Thedifferent states of Malaysia have varied dishes, and often the food in Malaysia isdifferent from the original dishes. Sometimes food not found in its original culture is assimilated into another;for example, Chinese restaurants in Malaysia often serve Malaysian dishes. Foodfrom one culture is sometimes cooked using styles taken from another. Thismeans that although many Malaysian dishes originate from another culture, theyhave their own identities. Often the food in Malaysia is different from theoriginal dishes; for example, Chinese food is often sweeter in Malaysian versionsthan the original. The Peranakans, Chinese who moved to Malaysia centuries 11ago, have their own unique cuisine that Chinese cooking techniques with Malayingredients. The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  12. 12. During a dinner food is not served in courses, but all at once. Rice is popularin many Malaysian dishes. Chilli is commonly found in Malaysian dishes,although this does not make them spicy. Noodles are common. Pork is rarelyused in Malaysia, because of the large Muslim population. Some celebrationshave food associated with them, and mooncakes are often eaten duringMooncake Festival. Here, there is some Malaysia’s cuisine:1. Nasi Lemak A popular dish based on rice in Malaysia is nasi lemak: rice steamed with coconut milk to give it a rich fragrance, and served with fried anchovies, peanuts, sliced cucumber, hard boiled eggs and a spicy chilli paste known as sambal. For a more substantial meal, nasilemak can also be served with a choice of curries, or a spicy meat stew calledrendang. Of Malay origin, nasi lemak is often called the national dish. Although itis traditionally a breakfast dish, because of the versatility of nasi lemak in beingable to be served in a variety of ways, it is now often eaten at any time of the day.The Malaysian Indian variety of the sambal tends to be a bit more spicy, and theMalay sambal in a nasi lemak tends to be a bit sweeter. Nasi lemak is not to beconfused with nasi dagang, which is sold on the east coast of Malaysia —Terengganu and Kelantan — although both nasi lemak and nasi dagang canusually be found sold side-by-side for breakfast.2. Noodles Noodles are another popular food, particularly in Malaysian Chinese cuisine,but used by other groups as well. Noodles such as bi hoon (米粉, Hokkien: bí- 12hún, Malay: bihun; rice vermicelli), kuay teow (粿條, Hokkien: kóe-tiâu) or hofun (河粉, Cantonese: ho4 fan2; flat rice noodles), mee (麵 or 面, Hokkien: mī, The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  13. 13. Malay: mi; yellow noodles), mee suah (麵線 or 面线, Hokkien: mī-sòaⁿ; wheatvermicelli), yee meen (伊麵 or 伊面, Cantonese: ji1 min6; golden wheat noodles),langka (冬粉, Hokkien: tang-hún, Cantonese: dung1 fan2; transparent noodlesmade from mung beans), and others provide a source of carbohydrate besidesthe ubiquitous serving of rice that accompanies every meal.3. Pork Pork is largely consumed by the non-Muslim community in Malaysia like theMalaysian Chinese, natives like Iban, Kadazan, Orang Asli and expatriates. AllMalaysian Malays are Muslim and therefore do not consume pork since Islamforbids it but does not prohibit others from producing and consuming porkproducts. Pork can be bought in wet markets, supermarkets and hypermarkets.During the Nipah virus epidemic, over a million pigs were culled in an effort tocontain the outbreak.4. Fruit Malaysias climate allows for fruit to be grown all year round. Most tropicalfruits are either grown in Malaysia or imported from neighbouring countries.The demand for fruits is generally quite high. Some notable fruits include: The durian, a fruit with a spiky outer shell and a characteristic odour is a local tropical fruit that is notable because it provokes strong emotions either of loving it or hating it. It is also known as the "King of the Fruits". The rambutan also has a distinctive appearance, being red or yellow in colour (when ripe) and having fleshy pliable spines or hairs on its outer skin. The mangosteen, often called the "Queen of the Fruits". The lychee, which has a bumpy red skin and sweet, sometimes made with 13 tea to make it sweet. They are sold all year round. The mango, a refreshing fruit The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  14. 14. The longan, which name translates to Dragon Eye in Chinese, and is called mata kucing in Malay (literally cats eye) and its similar to lychee The guava, a fruit that comes in two varieties : "jambu air", meaning water guava and "jambu batu", meaning rock guava. It is a crisp and sweet tasting fruit.5. Typical festive fare during Hari Raya Puasa or Hari Raya Haji (clockwise from bottom left): beef soup, nasi himpit (compressed rice cubes), beef rendang, and sayur lodeh. Apam balik - bread like puff with sugar, corn, and coarse nut in the middle. Ayam percik - grilled chicken with spicy sauce. Ayam goreng kunyit - deep fried chicken, marinated in a base of turmeric and other seasonings. Ikan bakar - grilled/barbecued fish with either chilli, kunyit (turmeric) or other spice based sauce. Ikan pari - barbecued stingray Ikan asam pedas - A sour stew of fish (usually mackerel), tamarind, chili, tomatoes, okra and Vietnamese coriander (Malay: daun kesum). Kangkung belacan is water convolvulus wok-fried in a pungent sauce of shrimp paste (belacan) and hot chilli peppers. Various other items are cooked this way, including petai (which is quite bitter when eaten raw; some older generation Malays still eat it as is) and yardlong beans. Keropok lekor, a specialty of the state of Terengganu and other states on the east coast of Peninsula Malaysia, is a savoury cake made from a combination of batter and shredded fish. Sliced and fried just before serving, it is eaten with hot sauce. 14 Kuih (plural: kuih-muih) is usually a selection of cakes, pastries and sweetmeats eaten as a snack during the morning or during midday, and The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  15. 15. are an important feature during festive occasions. It is a tradition shared by both the Malay and the Peranakan communities. Some example include: o Onde onde - small round balls made from glutinous rice flour with pandan [screwpine] leaves essence, filled with palm sugar and rolled in fresh grated coconut. o Kuih talam - steamed layered coconut pudding made of rice flour, sago flour and coconut milk is cooked by steaming. Pandan leaves lends aroma and the green color to one layer. A white coconut layer goes on top. o Pulut inti - a kind of steamed dry rice pudding made from glutinous rice & coconut milk. It is traditionally wrapped in banana leaves folded into a pyramid shape, and topped with fresh grated coconut sweetened with palm sugar. o Layer Cake - a sweet cake with many layersMamak Culture Mamak (Indian Muslims) dishes have developed a distinctly Malaysian style.Available throughout the country, the omnipresent Mamak stalls or restaurantsare particularly popular among the locals as they offer a wide range of food andsome outlets are open 24 hours a day. A type of Indian Muslim meal servedbuffet-style at specialist Mamak eateries is called nasi kandar (analogous to theIndonesian nasi padang , where you pay for what you have actually eaten), whiterice or briyani rice served with other dishes of curry either with chicken, fish,beef, or mutton, and usually accompanied with pickled vegetable and papadums. 15 The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  16. 16. CHAPTER III CONCLUSIONA. Conclusion Food is an essential prerequisite for life and as such the primary goal ofeating and drinking is to enable the body to function normally. With food, or thelack of it, the destinies of individuals are greatly influenced. We should "eat tolive", and "not live to eat". The Holy Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) recommendedeven for pious man the quantity of food "which is just sufficient to keep his back-bone erect". Nutrition is a matter of life-long eating habits which become set with age.Dietary patterns also vary from one person to another according to thedifference of cultural and geographic environment to another. To ensure aproper supply of the essential nutrients, we must combine food sources of thesenutritients in the right amounts. This results in a healthy well-balanced diet. The Quran contains many passages that give Muslims advice about healthfuleating habits and nutrition. These passages not only relate to the preservationof a human beings physical well- being, but also to his spiritual health.Encouragement to eat only good and pure foods is combined with warnings toremember Allah and avoid Satan. In this way, Muslims are shown that eating isnot merely an action to satisfy the hungry body, but that, as in all of mansactions, it has an effect on how well or how poorly a Muslim will serve AllahSWT. Since a Muslim wants to direct his activities towards serving Allah in the bestway, the object of eating is to nourish his or her body so that it will be in the bestpossible condition for doing so. In several verses, the Arabic word "tayyeb" is 16used to describe healthful food. Tayyeb is translated as "good" and it meanspleasing to the taste as well as pure, clean, wholesome and nourishing. Foods The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  17. 17. which are not tayyeb and which cause one to lose control of the body and mindwill not help one to prosper. They distract from the worship of Allah and causeone to lose sight of why it is necessary to eat at all. Thus, a Muslim should striveto get the vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and so forth that his bodyneeds to function well and avoid falling into eating habits that slow him down ormake him weak. As we see in the second chapter, food is very important for our life. Food isany substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usuallyof plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such ascarbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested byan organism and assimilated by the organisms cells in an effort to produceenergy, maintain life, or stimulate growth. The Malaysian food in perspective of Islamic view can show by the culture ofMalaysia and the kinds of Malaysia’s cuisines. In fact, as most Malays (not allMalaysians are Malay!) are Muslim, pork or any food that comes from a pig isnever used in Malay cuisine. Even cutlery and crockery used to serve Muslimsmust not have been used to serve pork. They are also prohibited from consuming the flesh of predatory animals andpredatory birds (ducks are allowed), rodents, reptiles, worms, amphibians(frogs) and the flesh of dead animals. Muslims can only eat meat that is halal.Halal is a way of slaughtering according to the Islamic rites.B. Suggestion We have to respect the other cultures and should not consider that ourculture is better than the other culture, especially in our perspective as Moslemtowards Malaysia’s food or the others. If we do not respect to them, they do not 17also respect to our culture. We have to choose the right foods based on our faith. The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food
  18. 18. BIBLIOGRAPHYhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/food#p_searchhttp://www.sabahtourism.comhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysian_cuisine#mw-head 18 The Perspective of Islamic View towards Malaysian Food

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