Stress Management


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Stress Management

  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Stress has been defined as a physical, mental or emotional response to events which cause mental or bodily tension. </li></ul><ul><li>stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Problems with definition <ul><ul><li>One problem with a single definition is that stress is made up of many things It is a family of related experiences, pathways, responses and outcomes caused by a range of different events or circumstances. Different people experience different aspects and identify with different definitions </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Types of stress <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul>
  5. 5. Classified in to two <ul><li>Positive stress (Eustress ) </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoyment </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Negative stress (distress) </li></ul><ul><li>Unpleasant feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Physical damage </li></ul><ul><li>Death of an individual </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sources of stress <ul><li>Environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational factors </li></ul><ul><li>Individual factors </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental uncertainties </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in business cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Political uncertainties </li></ul><ul><li>Technical uncertainties </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>2. Organizational factors </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure to avoid errors or complete task in limited time period </li></ul><ul><li>Task demands are factors related to a persons job </li></ul><ul><li>Role of individuals to play in an organization </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>3. Individual factors </li></ul><ul><li>Employees personal life like family issues, economic problems and personality characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Broken families, wrecked marriages and other family issues </li></ul><ul><li>Economic problems created by individuals </li></ul><ul><li>A persons basic dispositional nature </li></ul><ul><li>Stressors are additive – stress builds up </li></ul>
  10. 10. Potential stressors and experienced stressors <ul><li>a) Internal </li></ul><ul><li>perception </li></ul><ul><li>Job experience </li></ul><ul><li>Locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>b) Externals </li></ul><ul><li>Self – efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Hostility </li></ul>
  11. 11. Consequences of stress <ul><li>Physiological symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>People feel little stress when they have the time, experience and resources to manage a situation. They feel great stress when they think they can't handle the demands put upon them. Stress is therefore a negative experience </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Physiological symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Specialists in the health and medical sciences researched topics </li></ul><ul><li>Least direct relevance to students of O B </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>2. Psychological symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Job – related stress cause job dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Job dissatisfaction is the most obvious psychological stress </li></ul><ul><li>Authority and responsibility, lack of clarity in their duties </li></ul><ul><li>Less control over the pace of their work </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Behavioral symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>It includes changes in productivity, absence and turn over as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking and consumption of alcohol and sleep disorder </li></ul>
  15. 15. Managing stress <ul><li>Individual approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational approaches </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Individual approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Effective individual strategies include time management techniques, physical exercise, relaxation, training </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing time management principles like making daily list of activities, prioritizing it by importance and urgency, knowing what the work to be done. </li></ul><ul><li>Non competitive physical exercise to deal with excessive stress levels </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce tension through relaxation techniques such as meditation, hypnosis and biofeedback </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Organizational approach </li></ul><ul><li>Improved personnel selection and job placement </li></ul><ul><li>Use of realistic goal setting and redesigning of jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Training in stress management techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Increased employee involvement improves motivation, morale and commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Improved organizational communication </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of corporate wellness programs </li></ul>
  18. 18. How can one manage stress better? <ul><li>Become aware of the stressors and the emotional and physical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing what can be changed </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the intensity of the emotional reactions to the stress </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to moderate our physical reserves </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining our emotional reserves </li></ul>