Communication PIC-Microcontroller Lab
Course by JAOM Center, Feb. 2013
Based on IEEE 802.15.4 Standard (Addressing)
Designed for sensor and control networks
Used for applications that require:
Low Power Consumption
Low Data Rate
Two lower layers, the physical layers (PHY) and the media access
layer (MAC) are defined by the IEEE 802.15.4 specification.
The PHY deals with the implementation of the direct sequence
spread spectrum (DSSS) radio hardware in 2.4GHz band
The MAC handles access to the PHY layer.
The above layers are defined by the ZigBeeAlliance, except the
application layer which is defined by the end user.
Coordinator : One coordinator exists in each network.
• Each network has 1 coordinator
• Coordinator selects channel and PAN ID
• Other devices then join the PAN
• Usually powered by something stable
• 16-bit address is always 0
• Assigns 16-bit address for the router and end devices
Routers: Many routers exist in each network.
• Often powered by something stable
• Can have as many as you want
• Issues a request on startup to find a coordinator/network it
• Can talk to any device
• If an end device is sleeping it stores its data
• Coordinator can act as a “super router”
End Devices: Many end devices exist in each network.
Usually battery powered
They sleep most of the time and wake up regularly to collect
and transmit data.
Devices such as sensors are configured as end devices.
They are connected to the network through the routers.
Can have as many as you want
A peer-to-peer network can be established by:
configuring each module to operate as an End
Device (CE = 0)
disabling End DeviceAssociation on all modules
(A1 = 0)
setting ID and CH parameters to be identical
across the network.
ZBEE 16-bit Address
Short 16-bit addresses.The module can be configured
to use short 16-bit addresses as the Source Address by:
Setting (MY < 0xFFFE).
Setting the DH parameter (DH = 0) will configure the
DestinationAddress to be a short 16-bit address (if DL <
For two modules to communicate using short addressing, the
DestinationAddress of the transmitter module must match
the MY parameter of the receiver.
ZBEE 64-bit Address
Long 64-bit addresses.The RF module’s serial number
(SL parameter concatenated to the SH parameter) can
be used as a 64-bit source address when the MY (16-
bit Source Address) parameter is disabled.When the
MY parameter is disabled (MY = 0xFFFF or 0xFFFE),
the module’s source address is set to the 64-bit IEEE
address stored in the SH and SL parameters.
One to All
Any RF module within range will accept a packet that
contains a broadcast address.
To send a broadcast packet to all modules regardless of
16-bit or 64-bit addressing.
Sample Network Configuration (All modules in the
DL (Destination LowAddress) = 0x0000FFFF
DH (Destination High Address) = 0x00000000
XBEE to XBEE connection (without PIC)
16-bit & 64 bit
Using PIC for an application