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The female andmale reproductivesystems ensure thesexual maturationof each individualand produce cellsnecessary topropagate the nextgeneration.
The reproductivesystems of the maleand female havesome basicsimilarities andsome specializeddifferences. Most ofthe reproductiveorgans of both sexesdevelop from similarembryonic tissuesand are thereforehomologous.
Both male andfemalereproductivesystems havegonads: ovaries infemales (whichproduce oocytes)and testes in males(which producesperm). Inaddition, thesegonads alsoproduce sexhormones.
Fertilizationoccurs whenthe male spermmeets thefemale oocytesin the femaleFallopian tubes Male Female
The sexual unionbetween a male andfemale is known as:copulation, coitus, orsexual intercourse.
Puberty is associated with activation of the male and femalereproductive systems to a functional state: males can produce spermand females experience first menstrual bleeding (menarche). Pubertyis initiated by hormones secreted by the hypothalamus and by theanterior pituitary gland.
Both systems have gonads that produce gametes and sex hormones,and both systems are latent until puberty. However, males havecontinuous sperm production after puberty while females have arelatively fixed number of ova released periodically.
Females have a “relatively” fixed number of ova releasedperiodically after puberty and before menopause.
In both males and females, the perineum, is a diamond-shaped areabetween the thighs. Note the anterior triangle (urogential triangle),which contains the urethral and vaginal orifices in the female and thebase of the penis and scrotum in males. The posterior triangle (analtriangle) is the location of the anus in both sexes.
VesicouterinepouchThe parietal peritoneum dips down between the uterus and the bladder toform the vesicouterine pouch. It also dips down between the uterus andthe rectum to form the rectouterine pouch (Douglas’ cul-de-sac)
Syringe inserted into vagina with the help of a speculum and forceps uterus Culdocentesis to remove fluid to diagnose Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID).
The primary sexorgans are theovaries. Theaccessory sexorgans includethe uterine tubes(Fallopian tubes),uterus, vagina,clitoris, andmammary glands
The ovaries are solid,ovoid structurespositioned in the upperpelvic cavity on bothsides of the uterus.They are slightlylarger than an almond.
A double fold of theperitoneum, called themesovarium, attaches to eachovary and secures it to thebroad ligament.
Each ovary is anchored to the posterior aspect of the broad ligament by an ovarian ligament,which is the superior portion of the round ligament of the uterus.
Blood vessels of suspensory ligamentThe suspensory ligamentsattach to the lateral edge of Each suspensory ligamenteach ovary and project contains an ovarian artery,superolaterally to the ovarian vein, nerves, andpelvic wall. smooth muscle.
Fertilization occurs within the Fallopian tubes (oviducts, uterinetubes, or salpinges)
Note sperm normally encountering the egg in the Fallopian tube.This view also demonstrates that ovulation occurs within theperitoneal cavity.
Each Fallopian tube is supported by aspecific portion of the broad ligamentBroad ligament
The inner lining of the Fallopian tube (mucosa) is coated with cilia that propel theegg towards the uterus. The muscular wall of the Fallopian tube (muscularis) alsocarries out peristaltic contractions to aide egg movement. The serosa covers theoutside of the Fallopian tube.
Note that the sperm cells must migrate against the flow created bythe cilia in the Fallopian tube.
If implantation occurs outside the uterus, an ectopic pregnancyoccurs. An egg getting stuck in the Fallopian tube (tubal pregnancy)is a common site for such ectopic pregnancies. See the clinical view
The uterus is a thick-walledmuscular organ shaped like aninverted pear. It is where anegg normally implants.
Normally (see below), the uterus is angled anterosuperiorly acrossthe superior surface of the bladder, a position referred to asanteverted. If the uterus was tilted posteriorly towards the rectum, itwould be called retroverted.
The uterus provides a site for implantation of the pre-embryo,nourishes the developing embryo/fetus, expels the fetus at birth, andsheds its inner lining every month if pregnancy does not occur.
The vagina (Latin for “sheath” or “scabbard”) is the organ thatreceives sperm during intercourse and also is the exit duringmenstruation and parturition.
The vagina is about 3.6 inches long and extends from the vaginalorifice to the cervix. The uterus attaches at nearly a 90 degree angle Vagina
The vagina Sperm deposited in theis the vagina quicklycopulatory encounter the egg in theorgan of Fallopian tube sothe female fertilization can occur.
Note that females, unlike males, have an open road from theirvagina all the way to their peritoneal cavity. This makes PID morelikely. FINISH START
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)is a common cause of infertility andectopic pregnancies because it eithernarrows or blocks the Fallopian tubes.
A wet suit should beworn to preventcontaminated lakewater being propelledby hydrostaticpressure up thevagina, uterus, andFallopian tubes intothe peritoneal cavitywhen a female waterskier falls. The is alsoa concern in highvelocity water slides.Pelvic inflammatorydisease could result.
The inner lining of the adult female vagina is slightly acidic Vaginal rugae
female Vaginal rugae allow considerable stretching of the vagina during coitus. The vagina of an adult female is normally acidic because of the normal flora bacteria that thrive in the vagina. male
The vaginal orifice may be partially, or completely, obstructed by athin membrane called the hymen (maidenhead).
Different appearances of the hymen. It may be torn by activitiesunrelated to intercourse and an intact hymen is NOT a sureindication of virginity. If desired, it can easily be removed byminor surgery in a doctor’s office.
Retained menstruation by an imperforate hymen (hematocolpos) in afemale who has just reached puberty
Excision of animperforatehymen to allowmenstrual bloodto escape in afemale who hasreached puberty.
Note suspensoryligaments(suspensoryligaments of Cooper)
Each mammary gland iscomposed of 15-20 lobes,each with its own drainagepathway to the nipple
Milk is producedin the alveoli inthe lobes of alactating female,which is thencollected intotiny ducts. Theseducts merge intolactiferous ducts,each of whichexpand into alactiferous sinusnear the nipple.The milk is thenejected from thenipple.
Stimulation of thematernal nipple isessential in promotingproduction and releaseof milk. Read aboutlactation and after painsin your text if you desire.
The primary sexorgans are theovaries whichproduce eggs(ova) and thefemale sexhormonesestrogen andprogesterone.These sexhormonesincrease atpuberty anddecrease aftermenopause.
Secondary sexcharacteristics arefeatures that are notessential for thereproductive process, butgenerally are consideredto be sexual attractants.Examples are bodyphysique, pattern of bodyhair, breast development,etc.
Venous drainage is identical to that seen with the testes. Note theright ovarian vein drains directly into the inferior vena cava whilethe left ovarian vein drains into the left renal vein.
Blood is brought to the vaginal walls by branches of the internaliliac artery.
Females aremore prone todysfunctions anddiseases of thereproductiveorgans thanmales.
Gynecology is thespecialty concernedwith dysfunction anddiseases of the femalereproductive system.Obstetrics deals withpregnancy andchildbirth. Manydoctors do both(OB/GYN)
Normal hysterosalpingographyAbnormalhysterosalpingographyshowing blockedFallopian tubes.
Note inflation with carbon dioxide gas.Mons pubis