FRANKFINN INSTITUTE OF AIR HOSTESS TRAINING Nasik Center A4 Batch Air Travel Industry Unit Title Mohit Mohan Koyande Learner Name Ms. Nirali Shah Assessor Name BTEC HNC in Aviation, Hospitality and Travel Management Course Title
Air transport is one of the most dynamic industries in the world. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is a global trade organization.
Over 60 years, IATA has developed the commercial standards that built a global industry. Today, IATA’s mission is to represent, lead and serve the airline industry . Its members comprise some 230 airlines - the world’s leading passenger and cargo airlines among them - representing 93 percent of scheduled international air traffic.
A large network of Industry Suppliers and Service Providers gathered by IATA provides solid expertise to airlines in a variety of industry solutions.
IATA assigns 3-letter IATA Airport Codes and 2-letter IATA airline to make the work easier for Pilots, Controllers, Travel Agents, Frequent Flyers, Computers And Baggage Handlers.
Electronic tickets are handy for P assengers – they would no longer have to worry about losing tickets and changes to itineraries could be made more easily because e-tickets exists as the digital record in Airline Computer and passengers usually have a print of copy of their receipt which contains reservation number and the e-ticket number.
Today, Passenger can book there ticket from anywhere in the world using Internet.
In my opinion, IATA is very important for the growth and development of Air Travel Industry. IATA is constantly putting efforts to make the traveling easier for Passenger.
If IATA was not there, the industry might be following same old age techniques, like multi-layered paper tickets, too many procedures at the same time the security and safety of the passenger would be at Risk.
So, I can say that if IATA was not there, traveling would have been complicated, risky and on top, would be all Chaos.
The United Federation of Travel Agents’ Associations (UFTAA) emanates from the Universal Federation of Travel Agents’ Associations created in Rome, Italy, on November 22nd, 1966. UFTAA’s mission is to be an international forum where matters affecting the world travel industry are addressed, representing and defending the interests of incoming and outgoing tour operators, travel and tourism agencies before the governmental bodies, suppliers and other entities of international scope. It also aims at strengthening its members’ image and enhance the world travel and tourism industry and a sustainable tourism.
From my observation, I admit that travel without UFTAA is next to impossible.
I can say these things on the basis that the main mission of UFTAA is representing and defending the interests of tour operators, travel and tourism agencies and if UFTAA is not there, these all agencies will be affected as no one will be there to represent and support them. So, this will directly or indirectly affect the passengers and at last, the Air Travel Industry.
So, I can conclude by saying that travel without UFTAA – No Way!
The migrations of Indo-European peoples into Italy probably began about 2000 B.C. and continued down to 1000 B.C. From about the 9th century B.C. until it was overthrown by the Romans in the 3rd century B.C., the Etruscan civilization dominated the area.
For the next seven centuries, until the barbarian invasions destroyed the western Roman Empire in the 4th and 5th centuries A.D., the history of Italy is largely the history of Rome.
Italy remained politically fragmented for centuries, it became the cultural center of the Western world from the 13th to the 16th century.
After 1800, Italy was unified by Napoleon, who crowned himself king of Italy in 1805; but with the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Austria once again became the dominant power in a disunited Italy. Austrian armies crushed Italian uprisings in 1820–1821 and 1831.
In the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini, a brilliant liberal nationalist, organized the Resurrection, which laid the foundation for Italian unity. Disappointed Italian patriots looked to the House of Savoy for leadership.
The annexation of Venetia in 1866 and of papal Rome in 1870 marked the complete unification of peninsular Italy into one nation under a constitutional monarchy.
Rome – The Colosseum The Colosseum or Roman Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre is an elliptical amphitheatre in the center of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire.
Rome – The Colosseum The monumental structure has fallen into ruins, but even today it is an imposing and beautiful sight, and it is also one of the new seven wonders.
Rome – Trevi Fountain The Trevi Fountain is a fountain in the Trevi rione in Rome, Italy, standing 25.9 meters high and 19.8 meters wide, it is the largest Baroque fountain in the city.
Venice – Gondola Serenade The gondola is the symbol of Venice, it provides a very special view of the city.
A visit to Venice is not complete unless you take a Gondola Serenade down the world famous Grand Canal. Venice – Gondola Serenade
Venice – Bridge of Sighs This bridge which connects the Doges Palace with the prisons, representative of a symbol of Venetian power.
The bridge name originated from the suggestion that prisoners would sigh at their final view of the beautiful and mesmerizing Venice through the two small windows before being taken down to their cells. Venice – Bridge of Sighs
Pisa – Leaning Tower of Pisa The Leaning Tower of Pisa or simply The Tower of Pisa is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa.
Pisa – Leaning Tower of Pisa This monument is mostly famous for its strong inclination. Even today the great mass continues to sink very slowly about 1 mm every year.
Called Helvetia in ancient times, Switzerland in 1291 was a league of cantons in the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1648 the Treaty of Westphalia gave Switzerland its independence from the Holy Roman Empire.
French revolutionary troops occupied the country in 1798 and named it the Helvetic Republic, but Napoléon in 1803 restored its federal government. By 1815, the French- and Italian-speaking peoples of Switzerland had been granted political equality.
In 1874, Switzerland’s banking system became the world's leading repository for international accounts.
In 1891, the constitution was revised with unusually strong elements of direct democracy, which remain unique even today.
Zurich – Swiss National Museum The Swiss National Museum is one of the most important art museums of cultural history in Europe and the world.
Zurich – Swiss National Museum It contains Switzerland’s largest collection of objects regarding the cultural history of Switzerland. Its exhibition covers all periods, from prehistory to the 21st century.
Zurich – Rhine Falls The Rhine Falls (Rheinfall in German) are the Largest Plain Waterfalls in Europe.
Boat trips can be taken up to the Rhine falls. There are also viewing platforms with a spectacular view of the falls built on both sides of the Rhine. Zurich – Rhine Falls
Interlaken – Mount Titlis The Titlis is a mountain in the Urner Alps of Switzerland. It is located on the border between the cantons of Obwalden and Berne in Switzerland, overlooking Engelberg (Obwalden).
At Mount Titlis, you can enjoy a magnificent ride in the world's first revolving 'Rotair' gondola, which offers a 360° panoramic view of the Alps. Interlaken – Mount Titlis
Lucerne – Lion Monument The Lion Monument in Lucerne is a giant dying lion carved out of a wall of sandstone rock above a pond at the east end of the medieval town.
It was designed as a memorial for the mercenary soldiers from central Switzerland who lost their lives while serving the French king Louis XVI during the French Revolution. Lucerne – Lion Monument
Geneva – Jet d'Eau The Jet d'Eau, or Water-Jet, is a large fountain in Geneva and it is also one of the city's most famous Landmarks.
The Jet d’Eau operates in summer and during the Motor Show in early March. It’s illuminated after dark. Geneva – Jet d'Eau
Archeological excavations indicate that France has been continuously settled since Paleolithic times. The Celts, who were later called Gauls by the Romans, migrated from the Rhine valley into what is now France.
Julius Caesar conquered part of Gaul in 57–52 B.C., and it remained Roman until Franks invaded in the 5th century A.D
The Treaty of Verdun (843) divided the territories corresponding roughly to France, Germany, and Italy among the three grandsons of Charlemagne.
The House of Valois and the House of Bourbon progressively unified the country through a series of wars and dynastic inheritance. The monarchy reached its height during the 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV of France.
At this time France possessed the largest population in Europe and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture.
Napoleon Bonaparte seized control of the Republic in 1799, making himself First Consul, and later Emperor of what is now known as the First Empire (1804–1814).
Louis-Napoleon was unseated following defeat in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 and his regime was replaced by the Third Republic.
France had colonial possessions, in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, its global overseas colonial empire was the second largest in the world behind the British Empire.
France was a victorious nation in World War I and World War II.
France next turned its attention to decolonialization in Africa; the French protectorates of Morocco and Tunisia had received independence in 1956. French West Africa was partitioned and the new nations were granted independence in 1960. Algeria, after a long civil war, finally became independent in 1962
The French Parliament approved a bill in July 2008 that ends the 35-hour work week and tightens criteria for strikes and unemployment payments.
Paris – Eiffel Tower The Eiffel Tower is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris.
The Tower has become a global icon of France and is one of the most recognizable structures in the world. Paris – Eiffel Tower
Paris – Arc De Triomphe The Arc de Triomphe, is a monument in Paris, honors those who fought for France, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars.
On the inside and the top of the arc there are all of the names of generals and wars fought. Underneath is the tomb of the unknown soldier from World War I. Paris – Arc De Triomphe
Paris – The Louvre The Louvre Museum (French: Musée du Louvre) is a Historic Monument and national museum of France and the most important Art Museum in the world.
Nearly 35,000 objects from the 6th millennium BC to the 19th century AD are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square metres (652,300 square feet). Paris – The Louvre
Paris – The Disneyland Disneyland Paris provides a great family vacation, while allowing the family to also enjoy the city of Paris a few minutes away.
Occupying 140 acres, it is the largest Disney park based on the original in California. The park opened as Euro Disneyland on 12 April 1992. Paris – The Disneyland
Nice – Promenade des Anglais The Promenade des Anglais ("Walk of the English") or Promenade or, for short, La Prom, is a celebrated promenade along the Mediterranean at Nice, France.
On Sundays, bicyclists, babystrollers, and whole families can be seen out for a stroll along the Promenade. It has also become a favorite place for skateboarders and in-line skaters. Nice – Promenade des Anglais
Nice – Sainte Jeanne D’ Arc Church Sainte Jeanne d'Arc is a Catholic church located in Nice, France noticeable for its original architecture. It is dedicated to Joan of Arc.
The ethno genesis of the Germanic tribes is assumed to have occurred during the Nordic Bronze Age, or at the latest, during the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and northern Germany, the tribes began expanding south, east and west in the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well as Iranian, Baltic, and Slavic tribes in Eastern Europe.
The medieval empire resulted from the eastern portion of Carolingian Empire and existed in varying forms from 962 until 1806. Its territory stretched from the Eider River in the north to the Mediterranean coast in the south.
The Congress of Vienna convened in 1814 and founded the German Confederation but disagreement with restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, demanding unity and freedom.
Conflict between King William I of Prussia and the increasingly liberal parliament erupted over military reforms in 1862, and the king appointed Otto von Bismarck the new Prime Minister of Prussia.
The state known as Germany was unified as a modern nation-state in 1871, when the German Empire was forged, with the Kingdom of Prussia as its largest constituent.
The assassination of Austria's crown prince on 28 June 1914 triggered World War I. Germany, as part of the unsuccessful Central Powers, suffered defeat against the Allied Powers in one of the bloodiest conflicts of all time.
An armistice putting an end to the war was signed on 11 November and Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles in June 1919.
In 1939, growing tensions from nationalism, militarism, and territorial issues and a pact promising support from the Soviet Union led the Germans to launch a war against Poland, which was followed by declarations of war from Britain and France. This marked the beginning of World War II in Europe.
On 22 June 1941, Hitler broke the pact with the Soviets and invaded the Soviet Union. The same year, Japan attacked the American base at Pearl Harbor, and Germany declared war on the United States.
As Allied forces landed on the beaches of Normandy and made rapid advances into German territory. Germany's defeat soon followed. On 8 May 1945, the German armed forces surrendered after the Red Army occupied Berlin.
The western sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, were merged on 23 May 1949, to form the Federal Republic of Germany and on 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic.
On 12 September 1990,Germany regained full sovereignty.
Based on the Bonn-Berlin Act, adopted by the parliament on 10 March 1994, Berlin was chosen to be the capital of the unified state, The relocation of the government was completed in 1999.
Since reunification, Germany has taken an active role in the European Union and NATO.
- For visiting these countries we require only one visa, i.e., Schengen Visa, through which we can enter into the boundaries any Schengen Country. So, we don’t have to carry separate visa for every second country, therefore lesser documents to carry.
- Except for Switzerland, where the currency is Swiss Franc, every country, viz., Italy, France, Germany have same currency, i.e., Euros. So, you don’t have to convert your money from one currency to another while entering into another country.
The Schengen Visa has made traveling between Schengen member countries much easier and less bureaucratic. Traveling on a Schengen Visa means that the visa holder can travel to any (or all) member countries using one single visa, thus avoiding the hassle and expense of obtaining individual visas for each country. The Schengen visa is a “visitor visa”. It is issued to citizens of countries who are required to obtain a visa before entering Europe. The purpose of the visit must be leisure, tourism, or business. A Schengen visa allows the holder to travel freely within the Schengen countries for a maximum stay of up to 90 days in a 6 month period.
Mode of Transport Mode of Transport Eurail Coach
Eurail Eurail is one of the easiest ways to discover Europe – hassle-free rail transport in a continent of many languages, indigenous cultures, and a beautiful countryside.
Eurail which is one the best and the most famous rail systems in the world offers nearly 5,000 options to suit your precise travel plan and budget! Whether you’re traveling consecutive days or intermittently, you’ll find the Eurail Pass as the best bet. Eurail
Depending on the countries you want to visit in Europe, you can purchase any of the numerous Eurail Passes or Point to Point sector tickets between cities. All these can be purchased in Indian Rupees in India. Eurail
Coach European bus travel is usually affordable and often very comfortable. Bus stations are located in city centers, often adjacent to or in striking distance of train stations.
Bus often travels through rural districts beyond the reach of trains and main thoroughfares. So, this means that you will be able to see parts of Europe, in particular small towns, villages, and mountain territories, that you won't be able to experience from a train or plane. Coach
So, if you're not travelling with a rail pass, then bus travel is definitely worth considering, with the bus and coach service in some European countries offering a better alternative to the rail network. Coach
The assignment was a very great source of knowledge for me. From the assignment, I come to know history and natural tourist attractions of many countries. I also learnt the documents required to visit those countries. I got to know, how to make an itinerary, filling a ticket and at the same time about the various organizations which are helping our travel industry to grow.
So, I can conclude that the assignment was a great learning experience for me which will definitely help in years to come.