Fuel theft prevention system

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Fuel theft prevention system

  1. 1. DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM [Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.]
  2. 2. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 1 TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter 1 Introduction.................................................................................................................. 4 1.1 Introduction to Fuel cocks.................................................................................................... 5 1.2 History of Fuel cocks ........................................................................................................... 6 1.3 Objective of project.............................................................................................................. 7 1.4 Idea....................................................................................................................................... 7 1.5 Working principle ................................................................................................................ 7 Chapter 2 Survey ........................................................................................................................... 9 2.1 Survey of existing product in market................................................................................... 9 . 2.1.1 Existing product breakup....................................................................................... 10 2.2 Market survey of various fuel cocks.................................................................................. 11 2.2.1: Market Survey Conclusion........................................................................................ 11 Chapter 3 Fuel theft process in two wheelers............................................................................. 12 Chapter 4 Design......................................................................................................................... 13 4.2.1 Properties of selected material Alhe30........................................................................ 15 4.2.2 Chemical Testing on the selected material [AL HE-30]............................................. 16 4.3 Design of Work piece ........................................................................................................ 17 4.3.1 Design of top profile.................................................................................................... 18 4.3.2 Design of front profile ............................................................................................ 19 4.3.3 Design of Side profile.................................................................................................. 20 Chapter 5 Solenoid...................................................................................................................... 21 5.1 Solenoid Valve................................................................................................................... 21 5.2 Basic working of Solenoid................................................................................................. 22 5.3 Types of Solenoids............................................................................................................. 23 5.4.1 Selected Solenoid Specification .................................................................................. 24 5.5 Solenoid Manufacturer....................................................................................................... 25 5.6 Solenoid Breakup............................................................................................................... 25 Chapter 6 Fabrication............................................................................................................... 27 6.1 Computer Numeric Control (CNC) machine..................................................................... 27 6.1.1 Vertical Milling Machine .......................................................................................... 27 6.1.2 Digital readout Drilling machine- ............................................................................. 27 6.2 Parts of a CNC Machine .................................................................................................... 28
  3. 3. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 2 6.2.1 Machine Control Unit (MCU)..................................................................................... 28 6.2.2 Tool changer................................................................................................................ 28 6.2.3 Tool Holder and Machine Tool ................................................................................... 29 6.2.4 Workbench................................................................................................................... 29 6.2.5 Cutting fluid................................................................................................................. 30 6.3 Machining Processes.......................................................................................................... 30 6.4 Mating of the work piece with the Solenoid...................................................................... 31 6.4.1 External Threading on the Solenoid............................................................................ 31 6.4.2 Internal Threading on Work piece............................................................................ 32 Chapter 6 Electricals System....................................................................................................... 33 6.1 Electrical Specifications Sheet........................................................................................... 33 6.2 Wiring Diagram ................................................................................................................. 34 6.3.1 Ignition Switch................................................................................................................ 34 6.4 Handle bar switch............................................................................................................... 35 Chapter 7 Testing & Observations............................................................................................ 36 7.1 Dry testing.......................................................................................................................... 36 7.2 Testing with Petrol (Wet testing)....................................................................................... 37 7.3 Flow rate testing................................................................................................................. 38 7.3.1 Flow rate test results.................................................................................................... 39 7.4 Precautions ......................................................................................................................... 40 Chapter 8 Scope for mass production & Cost report.................................................................. 41 8.1 Rising demand for two wheelers in India .......................................................................... 41 8.3 Cost of Prototype................................................................................................................ 42 8.4. Cost of Project................................................................................................................... 43 8.5 Scope for future modifications........................................................................................... 44 Chapter 9 Conclusion & Bibliography ....................................................................................... 45 9.1 Conclusion.......................................................................................................................... 45 BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................................... 46 TABLE OF FIGURES
  4. 4. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 3 Figure 1 Working of solenoid valve............................................................................................. 7 Figure 2 : Bajaj pulsar 180 fuel tap ............................................................................................... 9 Figure 3: Bajaj pulsar 180 Fuel tap Breakup............................................................................... 10 Figure 4 : Fuel theft Process........................................................................................................ 12 Figure 5 : Side View.................................................................................................................... 13 Figure 6: Front View ................................................................................................................... 13 Figure 7 : Top View..................................................................................................................... 13 Figure 8 : Isometric View............................................................................................................ 13 Figure 9 : Aluminium HE-30 block ............................................................................................ 14 Figure 10: Top View.................................................................................................................... 18 Figure 11: Front View ................................................................................................................. 19 Figure 12: Side View................................................................................................................... 20 Figure 13 : Working of a Solenoid Valve ................................................................................... 22 Figure 14 : Normally Closed Solenoid Valve ............................................................................. 23 Figure 15: Normally Open Solenoid Valve................................................................................. 23 Figure 16: Symbol ....................................................................................................................... 23 Figure 17: Solenoid valve............................................................................................................ 25 Figure 18: Solenoid Body............................................................................................................ 25 Figure 19: Solenoid actuator ....................................................................................................... 26 Figure 20: CNC Machine ............................................................................................................ 27 Figure 21: Control Board............................................................................................................. 28 Figure 22: Tool Changer ............................................................................................................. 28 Figure 23: Tool Holder................................................................................................................ 29 Figure 24: Work Bench ............................................................................................................... 29 Figure 25: Cutting Fluid .............................................................................................................. 30 Figure 26: External Threading..................................................................................................... 31 Figure 27: Internal Threading...................................................................................................... 32 Figure 28: SOLENOID AND WORKPIECE ............................................................................. 32 Figure 29: Sealing of workpiece.................................................................................................. 32 Figure 30: Circuit Diagram ......................................................................................................... 34 Figure 31: Ignition Unit............................................................................................................... 34 Figure 32: Switch Unit Modification .......................................................................................... 35 Figure 33: Ignition and Switch Set.............................................................................................. 36 Figure 34: Wet Testing................................................................................................................ 37 Figure 35: Solenoid Setup ........................................................................................................... 38 Figure 37: Washers...................................................................................................................... 40 Figure 36: Coolant....................................................................................................................... 40 Figure 38: Fuel Pump .................................................................................................................. 42 LIST OF TABLES
  5. 5. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 4 Table 1: Market Survey of various Fuel Taps..........................................................11 Table 2: Properties of Aluminium.............................................................................14 Table 3 : Chemical Test Result .................................................................................16 Table 4 : Specification Sheet.....................................................................................24 Table 5 : Electricals Used..........................................................................................33 Table 6 : Flow Rate Test Result................................................................................39 Table 7 : Market research of 2-wheelers manufacturing companies........................41 Table 8 : Cost of Prototype .......................................................................................42 Table 9 : Cost of Raw Materials Used ......................................................................43 Table 10 : Cost of Project..........................................................................................44 Chapter 1 Introduction
  6. 6. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 5 1.1 Introduction to Fuel cocks Fuel cocks are a very important part in a vehicle. The fuel cock determines the flow of fuel from the fuel tank to the Engine via the carburettor/MPFI. A fuel cock avoids the flooding of the carburettor/MPFI of a vehicle. It also gives a sense of how much fuel is present in the tank courtesy the Reserve option. Though the exact amount of fuel cannot be accurately determined due to which a fuel gauge has become a regular feature in almost all the bike now-a-days. It consists of a dial which is driven by a sensor inside the tank. Even this cannot give accurate reading even though it costs @ Rs. 900/- for the sensor and the dial costs Rs.1200/-. Over a period of time, this gauge fails due to a variety of reasons, including the failure of the sensor inside the tank. Costing anywhere between Rs.125/- to Rs.250/- for an original fuel cock, it gives us a control of the flow of the fuel from the tank to the engine. When a vehicle is stationary, there is no point in having the engine running. If the engine is not running, there is no point in fuel flowing from the tank to the engine! A knob is provided in the fuel cock which can be turned to “OFF” state so that the fuel does not flow to the engine. When the level of the fuel has dropped beyond a certain level wherein it becomes important to fill up the tank, the engine stalls! This is because While in “ON” state, No more fuel can pass into the engine. There is fuel existing in the tank, but as no fuel flows into the engine, the vehicle tends to stall. The knob of the fuel cock has to be turned to the “Reserve” state so that the remaining fuel can now pass. Ideally, a person should have the tank filled up so that there may not be a “DRY FUEL TANK” condition. A person needs to physically bring his hand below the fuel tank to change over the position of the knob. This may become a dangerous proposition when the vehicle is “running” and a switch over from “ON” to “RESERVE” has to be made while the vehicle is in “running” condition. These Fuel cocks cannot be operational in cars because of the remoteness of the fuel tank. Also, these fuel cocks can operate only where there is gravity flow of petrol. Another aspect is the ease with which fuel can be pilfered out. One just has to bring a bottle, remove the pipe from the carburettor, turn the knob to desired state and remove as much petrol as he desires. Fuel being a costly commodity surely needs protection. If fuel can be robbed so easily, these fuel cocks will need more security. A lot of companies have introduced a set of key operated fuel cocks where the knob is operable by means of a key which shall have to be positioned as the knob is positioned. More the number of keys more are the chances of a person forgetting. Since the fuel cock key has to be separate from the vehicle key because the fuel line is away from the front panel instrument cluster, it becomes a second set of keys which a person shall need to carry and take care of. A new version of fuel cock’s more commonly seen in vehicles like TVS Scooty pep, Honda Activa etc. exists which does have a kind of automation. The fuel cock Employed does have an advantage here as fuel pilferage is very difficult in these vehicles as the seat also acts as a locking mechanism. Moreover, there is no fuel line visible fuel line coming out of the vehicle
  7. 7. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 6 which can be tampered with. This kind of a fuel cock is available in the market, though not readily, costing Rs.232/-. This fuel cock has its own disadvantage as it does not have a reserve option. The “Fuel theft prevention system” is an attempt to improvise the existing Fuel Cock concept and achieve automation in the Valve control. It also attempts to provide a “Pilfer proof” mechanism so that an important and costly commodity “Petrol” is not robbed from the vehicle. 1.2 History of Fuel cocks Older motorcycles have a fuel petcock valve mounted on or nearby the fuel tank to control the supply of gasoline. In the United Kingdom it is known as a petrol tap. Meriden Triumph Bonneville’s have two petrol taps, one on each side of the tank. The petcock typically has three positions: '''on''', '''off''', and '''reserve'''. The reserve position accesses the bottom portion of the fuel tank. Its functionality is especially useful on older or more basic motorcycles, which may not possess a fuel gauge. Many motorcycles now have an automatic, vacuum operated, petcock, with '''on''' and '''reserve''' as well as sometimes a '''prime''' position, which bypasses the vacuum operation and allows fuel to flow to the carburettor without the engine turning over. Another common option is to have a vacuum operated petcock with no reserve, and instead use a sensor in the tank to turn a light on when low on fuel. In most cases these will not have an '''off''' option either, and the petcock will be entirely transparent to the rider and not accessible without removing the fuel tank. When operating a motorcycle the fuel management process often proceeds as follows: when regarding vintage motorcycles, the petcock is set to the off position when the motorcycle is not being operated. This is to eliminate fuel overflow and leakage via the carburettor. Before starting the engine the petcock is turned to the '''on''' position in order to provide gasoline to the fuel delivery system. While operating the engine there will reach a point at which fuel consumption causes the level of gasoline in the fuel tank to fall below that which can be accessed by the petcock in the '''on''' position. At that time continued operation of the engine can be maintained. This operation is achieved by accessing the remaining fuel in the fuel tank via rotating the valve in the petcock to the '''reserve''' position
  8. 8. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 7 1.3 Objective of project The main objective of the project is the Automation of the Fuel Control knob by integrating Liquid Petroleum gas Solenoids used in Cars to restrict humans from operating it in the parked condition. Attention was mainly given in the design of the work piece and its integration with the solenoids. The functioning of these Solenoids is connected directly to the Vehicle ignition. The secondary aim is to provide a Toggle switch with LED on the Handle bar assembly of a motorcycle for easy change between the “main” and the “reserve”. 1.4 Idea The “fuel theft prevention system” is based on two solenoid valves; in parallel; connected to the fuel tank by a differential levelled piping system. The piping system also provides the primary filtering. Every vehicle has a magneto which is the standard power generation unit of a vehicle. The Magneto is a simple dynamo which is driven by the engine. Whenever the crank rotates; the rotor of the magneto rotates thereby giving a power supply. The Power generated in the magneto is AC which is smoothened to DC using a Bridge rectifier circuit for ensuring higher values of current as against the other methods of rectification. There is no precise voltage or current which is required by the Bobins thought there is a lower cut-off of 9V below which the solenoid will fail to function. The Magneto’s are designed to provide a standard 12 V supply. A higher voltage will only enhance the performance of the Solenoid. The rectified power to the valve is given through a “Toggle Switch” which ‘Toggle’s’ between Main/Reserve. The condition of the engine is directly proportional to the operation of the valve. When the engine is in ON state, the Valve Main/Reserve will be ON; In OFF state, neither of the valve’s will be ON. The toggle switch ensures that only one of the two valves operates at any given time. 1.5 Working principle After the Valve has been fit to the vehicle, all wiring done, one has to just start the vehicle to enable the opening of the valve. There is no need of any intervention like pushing a switch etc. of the user of the vehicle to operate the valve. The user’s only intervention is required when pushing the Figure 1 Working of solenoid valve
  9. 9. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 8 toggle switch whenever the fuel level has dropped below the Main Level.  When the solenoid valve gets energized, the Plunger/Ball is attracted to the core-pin and is displaced from the position of rest of the plunger which is a NC (Normally Closed) position.  When the Plunger/Ball gets displaced, the sealing between the inlet/outlet is disrupted and fuel flows through the valve to the outlet and ultimately to the engine through carburettor or MPFI.  The fall in the level would mean that the vehicle would stall as the engine goes dry.  Now the Toggle switch may be pushed to the Reserve position, where the Reserve valve will open, supplying the engine with fuel available in the Reserve of the tank.
  10. 10. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 9 Chapter 2 Survey 2.1 Survey of existing product in market The Bajaj pulsar fuel tap is the standard product available in the market for all pulsar motorbikes. In our project we have considered this type of standard fuel tap as the sample specimen for our design requirements. Costing anywhere between Rs.125/- to Rs.250/- for an original fuel cock, it gives us a control of the flow of the fuel from the tank to the engine. When a vehicle is stationary, there is no point in having the engine running. If the engine is not running, there is no point in fuel flowing from the tank to the engine! A knob is provided in the fuel cock which can be turned to “OFF” state so that the fuel does not flow to the engine. When the level of the fuel has dropped beyond a certain level wherein it becomes important to fill up the tank, the engine stalls! This is because While in “ON” state, No more fuel can pass into the engine. There is fuel existing in the tank, But as no fuel flows into the engine, the vehicle tends to stall. The knob of the fuel cock has to be turned to the “Reserve” state so that the remaining fuel can now pass. Ideally, a person should have the tank filled up so that there may not be a “DRY FUEL TANK” condition. A person needs to physically bring his hand below the fuel Main Fuel Line Reserve Fuel Line Fuel outlet Fuel Control Knob Figure 2 : Bajaj pulsar 180 fuel tap
  11. 11. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 10 Tank to change over the position of the knob. This may become a dangerous proposition when the vehicle is “running” and a switch over from “ON” to “RESERVE” has to be made while the vehicle is in “running” condition . 2.1.1 Existing product breakup Figure 3: Bajaj pulsar 180 Fuel tap Breakup The components of the selected sample product are: 1. Main Line – The plastic pipe having a mesh (filter) through with the fuel passes when the knob is in ‘ON’ mode. 2. Reserve line - The plastic pipe having a mesh (filter) through with the fuel passes when the knob is in ‘RESERVE’ mode. 3. Fuel Outlet – This is a brass pipe outlet from the fuel tap which connects to the carburettor. It is observed to have an orifice diameter of 3.0 mm. 4. Fuel Control Knob – This knob is responsible for the changing between the main and the reserve fuel line. This also has an ‘OFF’ feature which prevents the fuel to enter the carburettor.
  12. 12. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 11 2.2 Market survey of various fuel cocks Table 1: Market Survey of various Fuel Taps 2.2.1: Market Survey Conclusion  The brands considered for the survey where Bajaj Pulsar, TVS victor, Hero Honda CD100, Pricol (Automatic).  It was observed that manufactures have various outlet orifice diameters which also have a role to play in mileage.  Hero Honda CD100 is seen to have the highest mileage & the smallest Orifice diameter.  Standard Material used is Mild steel/Aluminium body, Brass pipe and Rubber. Some alterations were seen depending on the cost of the bike. PARAMETER BAJAJ PULSAR HERO HONDA (CD100) TVS VICTOR PRICOL AUTOMATIC 141001 660105 UCAL Scooty AF Cock Assembly FILTERING 2 Level 1 Level 2 Level Filtering inside the tank no secondary Filtering INLET DIAMETER Φ4 Φ4.5 Φ5.3 Φ7 OUTER DIAMETER Φ4 Φ2.8 Φ4.0 Φ3.5 PORTSEALING Metal Disc/ Rubber Metal Disc/Rubber Metal Disc/ Rubber Rubber Diaphragm With Projection onto flat metal Surface MATERIAL Al/Rubber Al/Rubber Al/Rubber Al/Rubber FITMENT 2 Bolts to tank 2 Bolts to tank 2 Bolts to tank Single Bolt FLOW RATE 15 -30 Lit/Hr. 15 –30 Lit/Hr. 15 -30 Lit/Hr. 15 -30 Lit/Hr.
  13. 13. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 12 Chapter 3 Fuel theft process in two wheelers Figure 4 : Fuel theft Process Most of the lower end bikes in India are susceptible to fuel theft. An average fuel tank contains approximately Rs1000-1200 worth of fuel. This makes it very important for the manufacture’s to safeguard this aspect. The simple fuel theft process is illustrated above in 2 steps with just a pair of scissors and bottle.  STEP 1 Disconnect/Cut the pipe from the fuel tap to the carburettor and suck the fuel till it flows. Make sure the fuel tap is in the “ON” or “RESERVE” mode.  STEP 2 Place the pipe in the bottle till enough fuel is siphoned. Put the pipe back to the carburettor.
  14. 14. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 13 Chapter 4 Design 4.1 Assembly Overview Figure 6: Front View Figure 5 : Side View Figure 7 : Top View Figure 8 : Isometric View
  15. 15. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 14 4.2 Material Selection for work piece Figure 9 : Aluminium HE-30 block Diameter/Width 0.2% Proof Tensile Elongation < 19.99mm 250 MP 295 MP 8% (A) 20 - 149.9mm 260 MP 310 MP 8% (A) 150 - 199.9mm 240 MP 280 MP 6% (A) 200 - 250.0mm 200 MP 270 MP 6% (A) Table 2: Properties of Aluminium Material selected – Aluminium alloy Grade selected: - HE-30 Reasons for selection-:- • Light weight, • Easily machine-able , • High tensile strength , • High metal removal rate, • Corrosion resistant, • Neutral to flammable liquid(petrol), • Non – magnetic material, • Highly reflective surface & finish quality.
  16. 16. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 15 4.2.1 Properties of selected material Alhe30 Weight Aluminium is light with a density one third that of steel, 2.700 kg/m3. Strength Aluminium alloys commonly have tensile strengths of between 70 and 700 MP. The range for alloys used in extrusion is 150 – 300 MP. Unlike most steel grades, aluminium does not become brittle at low temperatures. Instead, its strength increases. At high temperatures, aluminium’s strength decreases. Linear expansion Compared with other metals, aluminium has a relatively large coefficient of linear expansion. This has to be taken into account in some designs. Machining Aluminium is easily worked using most machining methods – milling, drilling, cutting, punching, bending, etc. Furthermore, the energy input during machining is low. Conductivity Aluminium is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. An aluminium conductor weighs approximately half as much as a copper conductor having the same conductivity. Joining Features facilitating easy jointing are often incorporated into profile design. Fusion welding, Friction Stir Welding, bonding and taping are also used for joining. Reflectivity Aluminium is a good reflector of both visible light and radiated heat. Non-magnetic material Aluminium is a non-magnetic (actually paramagnetic) material. To avoid interference of magnetic fields aluminium is often used in magnet X-ray devices. Zero toxicity After oxygen and silicon, aluminium is the most common element in the Earth’s crust. Aluminium compounds also occur naturally in our food.
  17. 17. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 16 4.2.2 Chemical Testing on the selected material [AL HE-30] Table 3 : Chemical Test Result CONCLUSION • Confirmation of grade of acquired material :ALHE-30 • Material is neutral to petrol. • The alloy mixtures of Copper, Magnesium, Silicon, and Iron & Zinc are within the prescribed limits. • Cost of material is Rs. 120 / kg • Weight of procured block:- 1kg • Dimension of Block (l*b*h):- 30*60*65 Sloe. Particulars Cu% Mg% Si% Fe% MN% Zn% Al% - Specification Limit Min - 0.40 0.60 - 0.40 - - Max 0.10 1.20 1.30 0.60 1.00 0.10 - 01. Sample Piece 0.073 0.84 0.83 0.24 0.52 0.070 97.30
  18. 18. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 17 4.3 Design of Work piece
  19. 19. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 18 4.3.1 Design of top profile Figure 10: Top View  The top profile is machined keeping in consideration the fitment to the tank of a TVS APACHE Petrol tank.  The sealing slot (2.5mm) in the top profile is machined according to the standard oval rubber washer available with the FUEL TAP assembly.  The fitment to the tank is attained with two holes of 6.5mm Diameter for Standard M6 Bolts.  The are two more centrally located holes for the main and reserve line with the outer orifice diameter 6mm & Inner orifice diameter finalized at 3mm.  There were two vertical drills made with a digital read out long drill (3mm) on the main and reserve ports on the top profile.
  20. 20. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 19 4.3.2 Design of front profile  Top body = 6mm  Middle body = 13mm + 27mm  The length of two solenoids next to each was measured as 36mm.  The distance between them was finalized at 4mm.  Excess side length was Finalized at 7.5 mm  Total Length of Lower body = 36mm + 4mm + (7.5x2)mm = 55mm  Standard M6 Threading was done on the work piece with a M6 dye on the lower half of the work piece. Figure 11: Front View
  21. 21. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 20 4.3.3 Design of Side profile Figure 12: Side View  In the side profile has two cylindrical protrusions of 12mm diameter for mounting of the solenoids vertically.  The protrusions are 11.5mm in length from the lower body.  There are two Orifices drilled again with Vertical DRO machine on the side profile with connect to the individual main and reserve lines drilled holes.  It is extremely important that the drilled orifice from the main line only just punctures/connects to the main line itself. The drill length should not exceed the main line.
  22. 22. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 21 Chapter 5 Solenoid 5.1 Solenoid Valve A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically valves fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure. A solenoid valve is an electromagnetic valve for use with liquid or gas controlled by running or stopping an electrical current through a solenoid, which is a coil of wire, thus changing the original state of the valve. An approximate relationship between the required solenoid force Fas, the fluid pressure P, and the orifice area A for a direct acting solenoid value is: Where d is the orifice diameter. Actuator: Actuators are devices used to produce action or motion. The input is generally electrical signal and output is linear or rotary motion. Actuators output can be position or rate i.e. linear displacement or velocity. Types of actuators:  Electromagnetic actuators use magnetic fields to move components. Moderate force and displacements.  Pneumatic actuators use air pressure to move components. High force. Moderate displacement.  Hydraulic actuators use water pressure to move components. Highest forces. Moderate displacement.  Piezoelectric actuators use electrostatic pressure of crystals to move components. Moderate forces. Small displacement.  Thermal actuators use heat to move components. Small forces. Small displacement.
  23. 23. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 22 5.2 Basic working of Solenoid Figure 13 : Working of a Solenoid Valve A) INPUT SIDE: The input side to the solenoid stands for the petrol tank in our project. B) DIAPHRAGM/PLUNGER: This is a either a rubber or a metallic stopper used to regulate the flow of the liquid. C) PRESSURE CHAMBER: This is the area where the fluid is filled irrespective of the plunger being open or closed. D) PRESSURE RELIEF: This area get flow when the plunger is moved due to the action of the electromagnetic solenoid valve E) SOLENOID: This is a coil of wire, through which when current is passed actuated the plunger and moves it from its normal position. F) OUTLET: The fluid flows through this part when the flow is allowed by the solenoid.
  24. 24. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 23 5.3 Types of Solenoids Solenoids are basically of two types: 1. NORMALLY CLOSED (NC): A solenoid valve is normally closed (abbreviated - NC) if there is no flow across the valve in its resting position (with no current on the solenoid contacts). 2. Symbol Figure 14 : Normally Closed Solenoid Valve 3. NORMALLY OPEN: A solenoid valve is said to be “normally open” (abbreviated NO) when it enables fluid to pass in its resting position. Figure 16: Symbol Figure 15: Normally Open Solenoid Valve
  25. 25. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 24 5.4 Solenoid selecting criteria  When selecting a solenoid valve:  Coil voltage, current, AC or DC, and intermittent versus continuous duty.  Valve type,  Aperture size,  Pressure rating, such as "50 PSI" ,  Materials (medium) that it can control, such as "air/water",  Type of connection to each port, such as "1/4" NPT". 5.4.1 Selected Solenoid Specification Table 4 : Specification Sheet PARTICULARS MECHANISM • Valve actuation Solenoid • Number of ways 2/2 Valve • Switching function Normally closed (NC) • Connection size Flow rate • Type of connection Threaded • Working pressure Downstream of valve • Fluid Pressure 8 bar • Solenoid power supply 12V DC • Control fluid supply Control Pressure & Direction
  26. 26. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 25 5.5 Solenoid Manufacturer Figure 17: Solenoid valve This product was made by a Chennai based company “RAAJAN AUTOMOTIVE PVT. LTD”, and is a bought out part, used for dual mode petrol/LPG vehicles. These solenoids are export quality and are robustly manufactured. Each solenoid cost is Rs.250. This solenoid is normally closed type valve, operated by 12V dc current. The body is made of brass but the inlet port is of Mild Steel. 5.6 Solenoid Breakup Figure 18: Solenoid Body A) Brass body- This part is made of brass (due to its non-magnetic nature) and high structural quality. B) Plunger – This is a Mild Steel body with a rubber diaphragm, which is responsible for restricting the fuel flow.
  27. 27. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 26 C) Spring- The spring is responsible for the normally closed state of the solenoid as it holds the plunger in its place. When the solenoid actuates, the spring compresses due to the motion of the plunger towards the inlet (mild steel). D) Inlet – This part is made of Mild steel, which is threaded at the top for its fitment to the fabricated work piece. E) Solenoid – This part consists of wire windings that create magnetic field responsible for the functioning of the valve. It has one positive and a negative terminal. Figure 19: Solenoid actuator
  28. 28. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 27 Chapter 6 Fabrication Figure 20: CNC Machine 6.1 Computer Numeric Control (CNC) machine Numerical control (NC) is the automation of machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually via hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone. The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and 1950s, based on existing tools that were modified with motors that moved the 6controls to follow points fed into the system on punched tape. ` 6.1.1 Vertical Milling Machine In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be extended (or the table can be raised/lowered, giving the same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling. There are two subcategories of vertical mills: the bed mill and the turret mill. 6.1.2 Digital readout Drilling machine- A digital read out (DRO) is a small computer (display unit) usually with an integrated keyboard and some means of numeric representation. It reads the signals generated by the linear encoder (or less frequently by rotary encoders) installed to several machine's axes used to keep track of work piece position (milling and the like) or the tool's position (lathes and grinders). In
  29. 29. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 28 The shop argot this complete system conformed by the computer and the encoders are referred to simply as DRO. Such a system is commonly fitted to most machines in today's shops: lathes, cylindrical grinders, milling machines, surface grinders, boring mills and other machine tools to allow the operator to work faster and with greater accuracy. The use of DROs are not limited to manual equipment as CNC equipment can usually be switched to manual operation and in this case a form of DRO is simulated on the Control Panel of a robotic machine. 6.2 Parts of a CNC Machine 6.2.1 Machine Control Unit (MCU) The machine control unit (MCU) is a microcomputer that stores the program and executes the commands into actions by the machine tool. The MCU consists of two main units: the data processing unit (DPU) and the control loops unit (CLU). The DPU software includes control system software, calculation algorithms, translation software that converts the part program into a usable format for the MCU, interpolation algorithm to achieve smooth motion of the cutter, editing of part program (in case of errors and changes). The DPU processes the data from the part program and provides it to the CLU which operates the drives attached to the Machine lead screws and receives feedback signals on the actual position and velocity of each one of the axes. A driver (dc motor) and a feedback device are attached to the lead screw. 6.2.2 Tool changer A device that arranges multiple cutting tools in order and then positions these cutting tools for replacement in the machining centre Figure 21: Control Board Figure 22: Tool Changer
  30. 30. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 29 . 6.2.3 Tool Holder and Machine Tool Figure 23: Tool Holder A machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing or other forms of deformation. Machine tools employ some sort of tool that does the cutting or shaping. All machine tools have some means of constraining the work piece and provide a guided movement of the parts of the machine. Thus the relative movement between the work piece and the cutting tool (which is called the tool path) is controlled or constrained by the machine to at least some extent, rather than being entirely "offhand" or "freehand". 6.2.4 Workbench Figure 24: Work Bench The part of a machine tool that supports the work piece and any work holding devices is called the workbench. It customized device that is used to position and hold a work piece in place. On a mill, fixtures are normally used to machine flat surfaces parallel to the table.
  31. 31. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 30 6.2.5 Cutting fluid Figure 25: Cutting Fluid This is a type of coolant and lubricant designed specifically for machining processes. There are various kinds of cutting fluids, which include oils, oil-water emulsions, pastes, gels, aerosols (mists), and air or other gases. They may be made from petroleum distillates, animal, plant oils, water and air, or other raw ingredients. Depending on context and on which type of cutting fluid is being considered, it may be referred to as cutting fluid, cutting oil, cutting compound, coolant, or lubricant. 6.3 Machining Processes CUTTING It is a collection of processes where in material is brought to a specified geometry by removing excess material using various kind of tooling to leave a finished part that meets specifications. The net result of cutting is two products, the waste or excess material, and the finished part. In cutting metals the waste is chips or sward and excess metal. FACE MILLING This is a milling operation in which the surface of the work piece is perpendicular to the spindle axis.
  32. 32. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 31 THREADING Threading is the process of creating a screw thread on the required work piece. DRILLING Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials. The drill bit is a rotary cutting tool, often multipoint. The bit is pressed against the work piece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. This forces the cutting edge against the work piece, cutting off chips from what will become the hole being drilled. 6.4 Mating of the work piece with the Solenoid. 6.4.1 External Threading on the Solenoid Figure 26: External Threading Fig () The process of combining the solenoid with the work piece was achieved by external male threading on the inlet of the solenoid. A standard M6 Threading was done with the help of a lathe machine. M6- THREAD 14” BSP- THREAD BEFORE AFTER
  33. 33. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 32 6.4.2 Internal Threading on Work piece. Figure 27: Internal Threading For mounting of the machined solenoids on the work piece, another female thread (standard M6) was made on the cylindrical protrusion in the lower half of the work piece. Figure 28: SOLENOID AND WORKPIECE Figure 29: Sealing of work piece
  34. 34. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 33 Chapter 6 Electricals System 6.1 Electrical Specifications Sheet Table 5 : Electricals Used SL.NO PARTICULARS QUALTITY 1 BAJAJ PULSAR 180 IGNITION SWITCH ASSEMBLY 1 2 BAJAJ PULSAR 180 HANDLE BAR SWITCH ASSEMBLY 1 3 BATTERY(12V,9A) MINDA BATTERY 1 4 BATTERY CABLE 2 5 LED’s(RED & GREEN) 2 6 COPPER WIRES 2meters 7 TOGGLE SWITCH 1 The electrical system is very critical in our project. Our aim is to remove the manual operation of the existing fuel tap and convert to a more ergonomic and automated system. We have tried to accomplish this with the use of standard quality automotive products available in the two wheeler spares market. A modification has been made to the handle bar switch by drilling two holes for the “LED” .The headlight switch has been replaced with the toggle switch
  35. 35. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 34 Due to the similarity of its operation. The toggle switch has been integrated for the functioning of the main and reserve lines though the solenoids. . For mass production the switch can be integrated in the handle bar assembly itself. 6.2 Wiring Diagram 6.3 .1 Ignition Switch An Ignition (or starter) switch is a switch in the control system of an internal combustion engine vehicle that activates the main electrical systems for the vehicle. Besides providing power to the ignition system components (the starter solenoid and ignition related components such as the engine control unit, spark coil and distributor) it also usually switches on power to many "accessories" (radio, power windows, etc.). The ignition system is used to ignite the fuel-air mixture in the engine. The starter system is the ignition system, plus the battery, and starter switch, relay, solenoid & electric starter motor. The ignition switch usually requires a key be inserted that works a lock built into the switch mechanism. It is frequently combined with the starter switch which activates the starter motor. In our project a Bajaj Pulsar 180 ignition switch is used which is manufactured by Minda Industries. RESERVE SOLENOID MAIN RESERVE IGNITION SWITCH MAIN SOLENOID Figure 30: Circuit Diagram Figure 31: Ignition Unit
  36. 36. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 35 6.4 Handle bar switch : A standard baja180 handle bar switch is used for the ease of operation of the toggling between two solenoids. The handle bar switch is modified by adding two LED, for visual aid Red for “Main Solenoid” and Green for “Reserve Solenoid”. BATTERY: The power source is a standard two wheeler battery which supplies 12v Direct current. COLOUR CODING: GREEN – “MAIN” RED – “RESERVE” AfterBefore Figure 32: Switch Unit Modification
  37. 37. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 36 Chapter 7 Testing & Observations 7.1 Dry testing Figure 33: Ignition and Switch Set Aim: To Checking the functioning of the valves from the handlebar switch with the entire electrical circuit connected without petrol Apparatus: Two Solenoid and work piece assembly, Ignition switch, handle bar switch and battery. Working procedure: 1. Turn the ignition is “On” and after that turn the toggle switch towards the main fuel line solenoid indicated by the GREEN LED on the handle bar switch. 2. The process is repeated for the reserve line solenoid, which is indicated by RED LED on the handle bar switch. Each of the solenoid should function individually. Observation: 1. A click sound signifies the solenoid is in on state. 2. The red and the green light in the handle bar are functioning correctly. 3. Off state without the key is also achieved. Result: Solenoid and switch set working.
  38. 38. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 37 7.2 Testing with Petrol Aim: 1. To check the fitment to the tank of the solenoid and the work piece assembly. 2. To check the individual flow from each pipe on actuation of the solenoid Apparatus: Two Solenoid and work piece assembly, Ignition switch, handle bar switch, battery, Y pipe, Funnel, Transparent pipes, Petrol tank (TVS apache), M6 bolts, washers, 4liters petrol Working procedure: 1. Fill the petrol tank with four litres of petrol till the main fuel line is completely immersed. 2. Turn the ignition “On” and turn the toggle switch towards the main fuel line solenoid indicated by the GREEN LED on the handle bar. This should be followed by petrol flowing only through Main transparent pipe till the flow stops; this indicates that the level of petrol has fallen below the main line. 3. Now the reserve line solenoid should be switched on, which is indicated by RED LED on the handle bar switch followed by petrol flowing through reserve transparent pipe. 4. When the ignition is turned off there should be no flow. Observation: 1. Flow is observed though the individual pipes. 2. No flow condition on removal of the key. 3. Slight leakage observed on the mounting points. Result: Solenoids working and connected to ignition. Figure 34: Wet Testing
  39. 39. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 38 7.3 Flow rate testing Figure 35: Solenoid Setup Aim: 1. To determine the flow of petrol though the drilled 3mm orifice 2. Measure the main and reserve line fuel levels. Apparatus: Two Solenoid and work piece assembly, Ignition switch, handle bar switch, battery, Y pipe, Funnel, Transparent pipes, Petrol tank (TVS apache), M6 bolts, washers, 4liters petrol, Stopwatch, Measuring flask.
  40. 40. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 39 Working Process: 1. Fill four litres of petrol in the fuel tank till the tank has reached maximum capacity and connect the battery. 2. Turn the ignition on and switch on switch to the main line solenoid. Observe the flow till it stops by itself. Record the time 3. Switch to the reserve solenoid and record the time till the flow stops. 4. Turn ignition off and check the No Flow condition. Observations 1. A small leakage was experienced through the mounting points. 2. The solenoid get heated after 2 hours of continues functioning. 3. Excess air bubbles are observed towards the end of flow through the pipe. This is characterized on the running bike as knocking when the fuel levels are low. 4. Rubber washers found inadequate for sealing criteria due to reaction with petrol. Fibre washer used to control the flow 5. The below table show the flow through the Main Line for One litre of petrol. Average time is 4 minutes and 10 seconds. 6. The leakage of 5ml experienced for a period of 4 hours. 7.3.1 Flow rate test results. Synod: Open Flow Time/Quantity Leakage Remarks 1 3.54min/1Lt. 5mL OK 3 3.48min/1Lt. 10mL OK 4 4.12min/1Lt. 25mL Rejected 5 4.25min/1Lt. 35mL Rejected 6 3.58min/1Lt. 5mL OK 7 3.45min/1Lt. 5mL OK 8 4.34min/1Lt. 5mL OK Table 6 : Flow Rate Test Result
  41. 41. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 40 7.4 Precautions Figure 37: Washers 1) Digital Read out (DRO) to prevent drag while drilling the orifice on the top and side surface of the work piece. This machine also provides accurate drilling length according to the required specifications. 2) Constant Usage of coolant during CNC machining of the work piece to avoid overheating. 3) All the wires are covered to prevent sparking as we are dealing with a flammable liquid like petrol. 4) Sealing the bolts with adequate torque and use of only T.V.S Standard M6 bolts. 5) Metal, rubber and fibre washers to control leakage from various regions of the assembly. 6) Fuel Filtering required for preventing blockage of solenoid due to dirt in fuel. Figure 36: Coolant
  42. 42. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 41 Chapter 8 Scope for mass production & Cost report 8.1 Rising demand for two wheelers in India Table 7 : Market research of 2-wheelers manufacturing companies The domestic two-wheeler industry is expected to report moderate volume growth of around 4-5 per cent in 2012-13, as demand slowdown as well as base effect catches up with the industry, says a recent ICRA report on the industry. The two wheeler industry, however, has clocked a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 21.8 per cent over the last three years. The report further adds that over the medium term, the two-wheeler industry is expected to report a volume CAGR of 8-9 per cent, to reach a size of 22-23 million units (combining domestic and exports) by 2016-17. With domestic volume growth of 3.9 per cent year-on-year (you) and exports volume dip of 1.1 per cent you in 11 months of 2012-13; the Indian two-wheeler is currently amidst a slowdown phase last experienced in 2007-08 / 2008-09.
  43. 43. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 42 8.2 Increasing price of Petrol. Figure 38: Fuel Pump The runaway petrol price, which has singed many, has found an unexpected beneficiary in the Indian auto market: motorcycles and scooters. With customers looking for cheaper mobility options over pricier cars following the steepest-ever jump in fuel prices last week, the demand for more affordable motorcycles and scooters is likely to go up in the coming months. 8.3 Cost of Prototype Table 8 : Cost of Prototype SR.NO PARTICULARS QUANTITY COST(Rs) 1 MATERIAL FOR WORKPIECE(ALHE30) 30*60*65 mm 160 2 CNC MACHINING(Milling + Drilling + Threading) 60mins 410 3 SOLENOIDS 2Nos 400 4 NUTS & BOLTS 2Nos 5 5 WASHER (Metal+ Fibre +Rubber) 10Nos 15 6 TOTAL Rs 990
  44. 44. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 43 The table above shows the cost of the prototype without the electrical systems. The CNC machining rates are taken considering complexity of job and the no of hours to complete it. At present the One hour of VMC machining can cost anywhere between Rs350-500.The jobs are taken strictly according to number of components only. For internal threading a lathe machine was used. If accommodated for mass production then the cost of this is expected to reduce substantially in area like labour in CNC, MATERIAL as well as SOLENOIDS. 8.4. Cost of Project PARTICULAR Bill Amt in Rs 1. MATERIAL (ALHE30) 250/- 2. SOLENOID 1000/- 3. PIPING (Y pipe , drip pan, transparent pipe , jar and funnel ) 544/- 4. PETROL TANK ASSEMBLY ( Ft cap ,Fuel level sensor , Fuel tap ) 3,885/- 5. ELECTRICALS (Ignition switch ,Handle bar switch ,LED wires, battery & cable) 2054/- 6. MATERIAL OF STAND 700/- 8. FASTNERS (Nuts ,bolts ,Washers ,Sealants) 150/- 160 410 400 200 100 200 300 400 500 Table 9 : Cost of material & Machining
  45. 45. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 44 Table 10 : Cost of Project 8.5 Scope for future modifications. Reduction of size of the solenoid valve to integrate into the machined block is the most important aspect of the design modifications. It is crucial to find a normally closed solenoid of half the size. Various levels of testing should be done before integrating it into the machine block to check for robustness and rigidity of manufacture. In the current assembly the solenoids are mounted horizontally. For the next stage of design it is important for the solenoids to be mounted vertically according to the gravity flow condition. Serviceability of the unit can be done by replacing mechanicals threaded solenoids with Allen keys. 9. FABRICATION OF CNC WORKPIECE & STAND 2,100/- 10. TOOLING ( Grinding wheel ,Drill bits ,Soldering iron, Multimeter ) 500/- 11. LABOUR ( CNC , Stand , Threading) 1,500 11. PAINT & STICKERING 300/- 12 TRANSPORTATION 800/- 13. MISC. @ 5% 747/- TOTAL PROJECT COST 13,730/-
  46. 46. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 45 Chapter 9 Conclusion & Bibliography 9.1 Conclusion The aim of our project is to stop the pilferage of fuel from two wheelers, which is very common in rural areas. This is a rising problem as the prices of fuel are increasing at a rate of Rs. 6 / lt / yr.. Petrol is getting the name “liquid gold”. A daily loss of such commodity can be stopped for two wheelers in the lower and middle segment bikes if our research and development of this anti-pilferage system is funded. This system aims to stop the daily loss of fuel by changing the traditionally available fuel tap to our fuel tap concept .this system can be reduced in size to about half the current size if it moves to the research stage .This can be achieved by procuring solenoids which are smaller in size. A sheet metal cover on top of the whole system leaving just two wires , will cause a trouble for the thief to pilfer out the fuel. Sheet metal cover will be easier to remove and repair in case of malfunctioning of the solenoid. If our project is taken to production, the product cost will also come down. if the material used for the work piece is of Mild Steel or some other cheap alloy with the same properties like no-toxic and corrosion resistant etc. The bikes of higher end (more than 200cc) of highly recognised automotive companies are trying to remove fuel taps from their bike design .These companies are using fuel injection systems which sprays the fuel to the engine. This system cost around 9-10 thousand rupees .In this system fuel theft is difficult as it is locked by heavy body covering of the bike. The middle class people will have to burn a hole in their pocket if they want to enjoy this modification. Otherwise they will have to keep on suffering the consequences of poor design of fuel taps. We also aimed our project to ease the use of the system which successfully toggles the main and the reserve line. With this the chances of the rider to meet and accident is reduced marginally.
  47. 47. FUEL THEFT PREVENTION SYSTEM Dept Of Mechanical Engineering, DSCE 2012-13 Page 46 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Skinner Valve (1997), Two-Way, Three-Way and Four-Way Solenoid Valves, 2. Parker Hannifin, Catalogue Industrial Valve Resource. 2010-03-18 Miniature Solenoid Valves for Medical Devices 3. Siegel, Arnold. "Automatic Programming of Numerically Controlled Machine Tools", Control Engineering. 4. Reinters, J. Francis (1991), Numerical Control: Making a New Technology, Oxford University Press 5. Robert M. Haney, PE “Solenoid Control, Testing, and Servicing” McGraw Hill 6. Zimmer and Grover “CAD/CAM’ TMH Publications

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