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human resource

  1. 1. Human Resource Development In public and private sectors of Tourism in India
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION In simple terms, HRD is concerned with the development of the human resource function in an organization. The term Human Resource Development involves mainly two terms: Human Resource and Development. Human Resource which consists of the total knowledge, creative abilities, skills, talents and aptitudes of an organization's work force, as well as the values, benefits, and benefits of an individual involved in the organization. Development on the other hand involves enhancement of the skills and abilities of the employee in the present job as well as making him capable of doing so in the future assignments too.
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE OF HRD •Growth of organization: It is associated with the development of its workforce. •Development of work culture: Improving the efficiency of employees, better communication, development of mutual cooperation and creativity of all the members. •Developing potentialities: HRD manager focuses on enabling people to self-actualize through a systematic approach leading to development of their talents. •Growth of employees: Helps employees to know their strengths and weaknesses and enable them to improve their performance.
  4. 4. The importance of tourism and need of HRD As a creator of job opportunities, it can be understood from the fact that in India every one million invested in tourism creates 47.5 jobs directly and around 85-90 jobs indirectly. In comparison, agriculture creates only 44.6 jobs and manufacturing a mere 12.6 jobs. Moreover tourism is the third largest foreign exchange earner after gems and jewelers and ready made garments. In spite of having a lot of tourism potentials, India’s share of global international tourism is relatively small in volume i.e. about 0.40% of world tourism.
  5. 5. The greatest thrust to tourism will come through human resource development in our country. We would have skilled persons to handle this industry right from the level of waiters to executive level. For instance countries like Fiji, which is one of the most popular destination all over the world, have approached tourism training as a national priority. Perhaps this is one of the reasons why Indian tourism is not enjoying the growth that India has been hoping for. There is no doubt that India is an outstanding destination by many standards but we are in an increasingly competitive global tourism environment and unless all segments of the tourism experience are operating to world standard it is easy for travellers from major source markets to try other destinations and make comparisons which may not necessarily be in India's favour.
  6. 6. The specific role of the Public and Private Sector in the Tourism Industry is to 1.Build and manage the required tourist facilities in all places of tourist interest. 2.Assume collective responsibility for laying down industry standards, ethics and fair practices. 3.Ensure preservation and protection of tourist attractions and give lead in green practices. 4.Sponsor maintenance of monuments, museums and parks and provision of public conveniences and facilities. 5.Involve the local community in tourism projects and ensure that the benefits of tourism accrue to them in right measure.
  7. 7. 6.Undertake industry training and man-power development to achieve excellence in quality of services. 7.Participate in the preparation of investment guidelines and marketing strategies and assist in database creation and research. 8.Facilitate safety and security of tourists 9.Endeavour to promote tourism on a sustained and long term perspective. 10.Collaborate with Govt. in the promotion and marketing of destinations.
  8. 8. ISSUES Inadequate training and inappropriate selection of government employees . Poor working environment for the employees. Poor moral and lack of involvement of employees in the management decision making process. Irrelevant job description of employees. Employees Turnover or high Attrition Rate. Inadequate evaluation of the skills and level of performance of the employees. Poor work ethic amongst public sector employees.
  9. 9. The goal of sustainability oriented tourism development requires a number of human resources development (HRD) strategies aimed at the tourism industry personnel, host community and the tourists, and underpinned by concepts and practices of sustainability. Sustainability based work culture, professional ethics, and operational practices are basic to sustainability in tourism. Indian tourism, despite its immense potential, has seen tardy development, and shortcomings in the HRD domain have been one of the reasons for this below par performance in terms of unorganized and untrained human resources and unattended HR issues and policies at major and minor level both. Availability of skilled manpower is a major challenge faced by the travel and tourism industry, which is one of the largest employment generators in the country. To sustain growth in the travel and tourism industry, trained manpower/ workforce is required at every level — managerial, supervisory, skilled or semi-skilled because the challenges faced at each level are different.
  10. 10. At mid and senior management levels, the industry faces talent crunch. At the front-line staff level, although human resources are adequate, a boom in other service industries such as banking, retail, airline and BPO have resulted in shortage of manpower for the travel and tourism industry. Thus, we have a Demand-Supply Mismatch with respect to manpower in the travel & tourism and hospitality sector in India. A study conducted by Ministry of Tourism suggests that existing supply of human resources do not cater to even 40% of the demand of the Tourism Industry. Thus, the industry has no alternative but to fill the void with untrained resources. Such a high proportion of untrained manpower would adversely affect quality of services offered to the tourists. Attrition, shortage of tourism training infrastructure, qualified trainers, and lack of proper strategies and policies for human resource development also affect the industry. So, the industry needs to address these problems at the earliest.
  11. 11. In addition to tour operators and hotel staff, tourists interact with persons from different backgrounds, occupations and experience. Such people include staff at bus/railway station, immigration staff at airports, taxi/coach operators, ticketing/ travel agencies, small hotels, dhabas/roadside eateries, staff at heritage sites, and tour guides, among others. The degree of service offered by these various stakeholders has a significant impact on determining the tourist’s overall experience of India as a tourist destination. The government has to take initiatives to promote responsible tourism by sensitizing key stakeholders of the tourism industry through training and orientation, to develop a sense of responsibility towards tourists and inspire confidence of foreign tourists in India as a preferred destination. One such major initiative is the “Atithi Devo Bhava” campaign. More such efforts are required to improve the degree of service across various operators.
  12. 12. The Action Points Relating to Human Resource Development in Indian tourism industry The hospitality and service sector has assumed high priority with the growth of tourism and the diversification of tourism activities. At present, the Ministry of Tourism is running 21 Institutes of Hotel Management and Catering Technology (IHMs) and 14 Food craft Institutes (FCIs). The IHMs provide 3-year Degree in Hotel Management in collaboration with IGNOU. Some of them also provide- 1-1/2 year Post-Graduate Diploma in Accommodation Operations, 1-1/2 year Post- Graduate Diploma in Dietetics and Hospital Food Science,
  13. 13. 6- month Certificate course in Hotel and Catering Management. 1-1/2 year Diploma course in Food Production, Bakery & Patisserie, Front Office Management, Accommodation Operations and Food & Beverage Service Operations. The FCIs are engaged in providing the craft Diploma in Cookery, Food & Beverage Service/ Restaurant & Counter service, Reception & Book Keeping, House Keeping and Bakery & Confectionery. The trained manpower released during the Eighth Plan period was 7168 persons. The tentative target in the Ninth Plan is to produce 12000 Diploma holders in Hotel Management and 16000 manpower in other crafts courses. A majority of Institutes operated by the Ministry have attained self- sufficiency in meeting the revenue expenditure. No new IHMs are proposed to be set up in the Ninth Plan period.
  14. 14. In view of the employment generation potential of the craft level trained manpower, 15 new FCIs are to be set up in the Ninth Plan. The training courses run by the Institutes should be designed to suit the needs of the various target groups. Strengthening the institutional set-up for human resource development including the setting-up of an Advanced Institute of Hotel Management and a Culinary Institute including An Executive Development Centre. Qualitative improvement and modernization of existing training institutions. Setting-up at least one Food Craft Institute in each State, particularly in North Eastern States. Improving the standards of training in private institutes through accreditation and quality control.
  15. 15. Setting up a National Tourism Documentation Centre equipped with modern technology systems to function as a repository of research findings and publications on tourism. Involving the tourism industry in human resource development activities and encouraging them to set-up independent training facilities. Streamlining and strengthening of guide training and training of other grass root level workers. Introduction of optional courses in tourism related topics at Graduate and under Graduate levels in order to meet requirement of trained personnel in this sector.
  16. 16. An assessment of the training infrastructure estimates a total of 337 training institutes in the Hospitality sector and 101 travel and tour institutes offering courses related to ticketing and tourism as in March 2010 which appears to be significantly low. As per a study by the Ministry of Tourism, only 50 per cent of the employees in the key functional domains of hotels are fully trained with this statistics reducing to 35 per cent for restaurants and other eating outlets. This necessitates the immediate need for formal training especially for the hospitality sector employees. In addition, proper selection of hotel management students, increased focus on grooming and communication skills, on the job training, courses in foreign languages and standardization and monitoring of curricula in private institutions may be required.
  17. 17. Several skill development areas have been identified for employees engaged in the tourism sector in India. Formally trained managerial staff accounts for only 16 per cent of the total hospitality sector and 21 per cent of the total travel and trade sector workforce. Efforts are thus required for enhancing the skill sets of non managerial staff in the sector. With 20 per cent of the travel and trade sector employees comprised of casual workers, development of basic skill set is important. These include health and personal hygiene, cleanliness, basic service techniques, cooking techniques, garbage disposal, etiquette and basic manners, basic nutrition values, basic tourism awareness, first aid, client handling and behavioral skills etc.
  18. 18. Sr no. Course No. of course No. of trainees Total Expenditure (Rs. in lakh) 1 Snow Skiing 6 480 40.30 2 Water Skiing 10 300 84.80 3 Trekking 10 200 33.95 4 Parasailing 10 200 24.41 5 Hot Air Balloon 5 100 37.30 For example: This year, the Ministry of Tourism has sanctioned an amount of Rs.220.76 lakh to the Indian Institute of Skiing & Mountaineering, Gulmarg (IISM) for conduct of adventure courses as follows: Total 41 1280 220.76
  19. 19. Paryatan Bhawan in Delhi and at State Capitals Setting up of Paryatan Bhawan in Delhi as one stop tourist reception centre to cater to various needs of travelers, foreign as well as domestic and offer air and train reservations, money changing counters and information about all tourist centers with e-connectivity and networking facilities to all State tourist offices. Construction of similar State level Paryatan Bhawans at State Capitals has been commenced which will need trained professionals for their proper functioning.
  20. 20. INITIATIVES BY THE GOVERNMENT FOR TOURISM PROMOTION ‘Hunar se Rozgar’ Programme A special initiative was launched in 2009-10 for the creation of employable skills among youth belonging to economically weaker sections of the society in the age group of 18-25 years (upper age limit raised to 28 years in November, 2010) with the basic objective to reduce the skill gap affecting the hospitality and tourism sector and to ensure the spread of economic benefit of tourism to the poor. The programme offers short duration courses of 6 to 8 weeks which are fully funded by the Ministry of Tourism.
  21. 21. Initially covering two courses (i) food and beverage service; and (ii) food production, courses in Housekeeping, Utility, Bakery and Patisserie were added subsequently. With the growing acceptability of the initiative more trades/training areas were added like- drivers, stone mason and security guards etc. For the year 2012-13, 21175 persons have been trained under the initiative up to 31 January 2013. The basic objective was to reduce, through this initiative, the skill gap that affected the hospitality and tourism sector. Another objective was to put in place a dispensation to ensure that the economic benefit of a growing tourism reached the poor.
  22. 22. It provides training to youth in areas like – Tourist facilitators programme for pilgrimage tourism being conducted at IHM Srinagar in the following areas – • Shri Mata Vaishno Devi, Katra. • Shri Amarnath Yatra, Srinagar. • Shrines of Kashmir at Srinagar. • Buddhist Monasteries at Leh. A scheme to train persons for induction as service providers in certain specified areas of tourism (Golf Caddy) It has been decided to provide assistance to the Ministry of Tourism sponsored Institutes to conduct training and one week SKILL TESTING & CERTIFICATION Programme subject for waiters and cooks to improve the quality of service working in various organizations.
  23. 23. The Capacity Building For Service Providers Scheme aims to develop a sustainable Rural Tourism product, converging with the Ministry’s Rural Tourism Scheme through tourism awareness, capacity building for tourism/hospitality services, gender equity, gurukul, environment care and marketing. The Scheme will thereby also support rural livelihoods, enabling low- income rural communities to articulate their skills for experiential visits by domestic and international visitors.
  24. 24. Indian Tourism Development Corporation India Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) came into existence in October 1966 with the objective of developing and expanding tourism infrastructure in the country and thereby promoting India as a tourist destination. Working on the philosophy of public sector, ITDC succeeded in achieving its objectives by promoting the largest hotel chain in India and providing all tourist services, i.e. Accommodation, Catering, Transport, in-house Travel Agency, Duty Free Shopping, Entertainment, Publicity, Consultancy, etc., under a single window. It also offers consultancy services from concept to commissioning in the tourism field both for private as well as public sector.
  25. 25. The Ashok Institute of Hospitality & Tourism Management (AIH&TM) of ITDC has been associated with the pioneering efforts in human resource development for more than three decades. Awarded the ISO-9001-2000 Certification, the institute conducts 18 months Craft/Certificate courses in the field of Culinary Skill Development, besides providing training to management trainees/apprentices and organizing Executive Development programmes for the officials of ITDC. Under an MOU signed with the prestigious Kurukshetra University, the AIH&TM started 4-year Bachelor's Degree Course in International Hospitality Business Management from August 2004.
  26. 26. ITDC has been a pioneering tourism organization which provides all the tourist services/facilities under one roof. ITDC's present network consists of 8 Ashok Group Hotels, 7 Joint Venture Hotels including one under construction, two Restaurants (including one Airport Restaurant), 13 Transport Units, 1 Tourist Service Station, 37 Duty Free Shops at International as well as Domestic Custom Airports, 1 Tax Free outlet, 1 Sound & Light Show and 4 Catering Outlets. Besides, ITDC is also managing a Hotel at Bharatpur and a Tourist Complex at Kosi and a S&L show at Sabarmati, Ahmadabad owned by the Department of Tourism.
  27. 27. CONCLUSION "Human Resources Development" is increasingly gaining attention from human resource specialists, academicians and employees alike. The importance of HRD will undoubtedly increase further. There is likely to be a knowledge exploration in HRD in the next decade. According to WTO forecast, tourism growth prospects for India are very bright and tourist arrivals and receipts are likely to increase during the coming years. With these growing trends in the tourism industry in India, which is labor intensive industry or a 'people industry', HR plays an important role in managing, operating, planning and promoting tourism industry. Therefore, HRD efforts in tourism industry require a major transformation in the attitudes, behaviors and values of employees and management.
  28. 28. This can be possible if appropriate conditions are provided by the organization to make HRD successful and introduce it as a total system within the industry. Thus, HRD has a major role to play for the development of this sector. Indian tourism has vast potential for generating employment and earning large sums of foreign exchange besides giving a flip to the country’s overall economic and social development. Much has been achieved by way of increasing air seat capacity, increasing trains and railway connectivity to important tourist destinations, four lane roads connecting important tourist centers and increasing availability of accommodation by adding heritage hotels to the hotel industry and encouraging paying guest accommodation.
  29. 29. Since tourism is a multi-dimensional activity, and basically a service industry, it would be necessary that all wings of the Central and State governments, private sector and voluntary organizations become active partners in the Endeavour to attain sustainable growth in tourism if India is to become a world player in the tourist industry.