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  • Correlation study
  • My m sc final seminar

    1. 1. بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم<br />وقل رب زدني علما<br />صدق الله العظيم<br />1<br />
    2. 2. MOHAMED HAMED MOHAMED EL-HADY ARISHA<br />B.Sc. Agriculture (Hort.) Zagazig University 2006<br />البيئة المثلي لإنتاج عيش الغراب المحاري<br />Optimum medium for oyster mushroom production<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Under supervision<br />Prof. Dr. Mahmoud Abd El-Aziz Ibrahim Khalil<br />Emeritus Professor of Vegetables, Hort. Dept., Fac. Agric., Zagazig University<br />Prof. Dr. EL Metwally Abd El Samie El-Ghamriny<br />Emeritus Professor of Vegetables, Hort. Dept., Fac. Agric., Zagazig University<br />Prof. Dr. Abdallah Bardisi Ahmed ismaiel<br />Professor of Vegetables, Hort. Dept., Fac. Agric., Zagazig University<br />3<br />
    4. 4. Examination committee <br />Prof. Dr. Taha Mohamed El-Sayed El Gazzar<br />Emeritus Professor of Vegetables, Hort. Dept., Fac. Agric. Mansoura University<br />Prof. Dr. Dawlat Anwer Abd El-Kader<br />Emeritus Professor of Plant Pathology ,Agric Botany and plant pathology dept. Fac. Agric., Zagazig University<br />Prof. Dr. Mahmoud Abd El-Aziz Ibrahim Khalil<br />Emeritus Professor of Vegetables, Hort. Dept., Fac. Agric., Zagazig University<br />Prof. Dr. EL Metwally Abd El Samie El-Ghamriny<br />Emeritus Professor of Vegetables, Hort. Dept., Fac. Agric., Zagazig University<br />4<br />
    5. 5. Mushrooms<br />Is one of the higher fungi that contains high protein content. There are at least 12,000 species of fungi that can be considered mushrooms, with at least 2000 edible species . About 120 mushroom species have been cultivated commercially (DÜndar and Yildiz, 2009) and of these around 4 species were cultivated in Egypt.<br />5<br />
    6. 6. 6<br />Pleurotus ostreatus<br />Oyster mushroom<br />Lentinusedodes<br />Shittaki mushroom<br />Volvariellavolvacea<br />Straw mushroom<br />Agaricusbisporus<br />Button mushroom<br />
    7. 7. Mushroom Classification<br />Kingdom: Fungi<br />Phylum : Basidiomycota<br />Class : Basidiomycetes<br />Subclass : Holobasidiomycetidae<br />Order : Polyporales<br />Family : Polyporaceae<br />Order :PolyporalesOrder:AgricalesOrder:Agricales<br />Family: PolyporaceaeFamily: AgaricaceaeFamily:Pleutaceae<br />Genus :PleurotusGenus:AgaricusGenus:Volvariella<br />Webster and Weber (2007)<br />7<br />
    8. 8. 8<br />
    9. 9. Large quantities of agricultural residues i.e., rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and other substrates are produced in Egypt. Alternative methods of utilization these agricultural residues are needed to mitigate the environmental pollution problems associated burning and soil incorporation.<br /> Cultivation of saprophytic edible mushroom may be the only currently economical biotechnology for lignocelluloses organic waste recycling that combines the production of protein rich food with the reduction of environmental pollution.<br />9<br />
    10. 10. Objective<br />This study aimed to obtained the optimum medium for oyster mushroom production that improving the quantity and quality of it.<br />This study achieved this goal by:<br />Using different agriculture wastes as a growth media for oyster mushroom i.e., rice straw, clover hay, sugarcane bagasse.<br />Improving the productivity by using supplements to mushroom growth media i.e., active dry yeast, soybean powder<br />10<br />
    11. 11. MATERIAL AND METHODS<br />11<br />
    12. 12. This work was carried out in Mushroom Research Laboratory (MRL), Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University during the period between 2008 and 2009 seasons.<br />It was divided into two experiments as follows:<br />First experiment:Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on oyster mushroom production<br />Second experiment: Effect of supplements types, rates, and their interaction on oyster mushroom production<br />12<br />
    13. 13. Used strain in both experiments <br />Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) strain 238 <br />13<br />
    14. 14. 14<br />
    15. 15. First experiment<br />Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on oyster mushroom production <br />15<br />
    16. 16. This experiment includes twelve treatments as follows:<br />16<br />
    17. 17. These treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design system with three replicates, and each replicate consisted of two polyethylene bags (40x60 cm).<br />Preparation of organic substrates<br /> All organic substrates (clover hay, sugarcane bagasse, and rice straw) were chopped into pieces and one kg of each dry substrate were packed in perforated bags and soaked for 3, 6, and 12 hours, respectively and left to drain the excess water.<br /> The substrates and their mixtures were pasteurized in life steam system at 80 – 90O C for 6 hours. These pasteurized mixtures were left to reach to room temperature (Zadrazil, 1978).<br />17<br />
    18. 18. Second Experiment<br />Effect of supplements types, rates, and their interaction on oyster mushroom production<br />18<br />
    19. 19. 19<br />
    20. 20. 20<br />
    21. 21. These treatments were arranged in split plot design system with three replicates, and each replicate consisted of two polyethylene bags (40 x 60 cm). <br />Preparation of rice straw <br /> Rice straw was chopped into particles (4-5cm) and soaked in tap water for 12 hours, then left to drain the excess water, after that it pasteurized in life steam system at 80 – 90O C for 6 hours. These pasteurized mixtures were left to reach to room temperature (Zadrazil, 1978).<br />Addition of active dry yeast<br /> Active dry yeast was added as a suspension prepared using sterilized tap water with sugar at a rate of 100 ml per bag just before spawning.<br />Addition of soybean<br /> Soybean meal was added to the content of each bag at the previously mentioned levels (W/W) and mixed with rice straw just before spawning.<br />21<br />
    22. 22. 22<br />
    23. 23. Data Recorded<br />23<br />
    24. 24. 24<br />
    25. 25. 25<br />
    26. 26. 26<br />
    27. 27. 27<br />
    28. 28. 28<br />
    29. 29. 29<br />
    30. 30. 30<br />
    31. 31. 31<br />
    32. 32. 32<br />
    33. 33. 33<br />
    34. 34. 34<br />
    35. 35. 35<br />
    36. 36. Results and discussion<br />36<br />
    37. 37. First experimentEffect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on oyster mushroom production <br />R.S., Rice straw ; C.H., Clover hay; S.B., sugarcane bagasse<br />37<br />
    38. 38. Growth characters<br />38<br />
    39. 39. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />R.S.+C.H.(1:1)<br />R.S.+S.B.(1:1)<br />C.H. alone<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig : Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on average of fruit body weight<br />39<br />
    40. 40. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />R.S.<br />R.S.+C.H.(3: 1 )<br />R.S.+S.B.(3: 1 )<br />C.H.<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig : Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on number of fruit bodies per cluster<br />40<br />
    41. 41. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />R.S.<br />R.S.+C.H.(3: 1 )<br />R.S.+S.B.(3: 1 )<br />C.H.<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig : Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on number of clusters/ bag of oyster mushroom <br />41<br />
    42. 42. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />R.S.<br />R.S.+C.H.(1 : 1 )<br />R.S.+S.B.(1 : 1 )<br />R.S.+C.H.(3: 1 )<br />R.S.+S.B.(3: 1 )<br />C.H.<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig : Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on average of cluster weight<br />42<br />
    43. 43. <br />1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />S.B<br />R.S.+S.B.(1 : 1 )<br />R.S.+S.B.(3: 1 )<br />R.S.+S.B.(1 : 3)<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig : Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on Number of days from spawning till first flush<br />43<br />
    44. 44. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />R.S.+C.H.(1 : 1 )<br />C.H.<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig : Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on early yield<br />44<br />
    45. 45. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />R.S.<br />R.S.+C.H.(3: 1 )<br />R.S.+S.B.(3: 1 )<br />C.H.<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig : Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on total yield/ bag<br />45<br />
    46. 46. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />R.S.<br />R.S.+C.H.(3: 1 )<br />R.S.+S.B.(3: 1 )<br />C.H.<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig : Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on biological efficiency<br />46<br />
    47. 47. Chemical analysis of mushroom fruit bodies<br />47<br />
    48. 48. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />C.H.<br />R.S.+C.H.(1 : 3)<br />C.H.+S.B.(3: 1 )<br />R.S.+S.B.(1 : 3)<br />C.H.+S.B.(1 : 1 )<br />R.S.<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig : Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on dry matter percentage<br />48<br />
    49. 49. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />C.H.<br />R.S.+C.H.(1 : 3)<br />R.S.+S.B.(1 : 1 )<br />R.S<br />R.S.+S.B.(1 : 1 )<br />R.S.+S.B.(3: 1 )<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig : Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on Phosphorus content in fruit bodies <br />49<br />
    50. 50. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />C.H.<br />R.S.+C.H.(1 : 1 )<br />C.H.+S.B.(1 : 1 )<br />C.H.+S.B.(3: 1 )<br />R.S.+C.H.(1 : 3)<br />S.B.<br />R.S.+S.B.(1 : 1 )<br />R.S.+S.B.(3: 1 )<br />R.S.+S.B.(1 : 3)<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig : Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on crud protein in mushroom fruit bodies<br />50<br />
    51. 51. Chemical analysis of growth media at the start of experiment<br />51<br />
    52. 52. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />C.H.<br />C.H.+S.B.(3: 1 )<br />R.S.+C.H.(1 : 3)<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig : Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on C/N ratio in the growth media before spawning<br />52<br />
    53. 53. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />C.H.<br />C.H.+S.B.(3: 1 )<br />R.S.+C.H.(1 : 3)<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig : Effect of some organic substrates and their mixtures on cellulose content in the growth media before spawning<br />53<br />
    54. 54. Conclusion<br />It could be concluded that <br />The optimum medium for increasing oyster mushroom production was rice straw alone <br />The optimum medium for increasing yield and improving the quality of fruit bodies was Rice straw + clover hay (3:1, W/W).<br />54<br />
    55. 55. Correlation study<br />55<br />
    56. 56. Second experiment<br />Effect of supplements types, rates, and their interaction on oyster mushroom production<br />Y., Active dry yeast; S., Soybean powder<br />56<br />
    57. 57. Fig: Effect of active dry yeast on average fruit body weight of oyster mushroom<br />Fig: Effect of soybean powder on average fruit body weight of oyster mushroom<br />57<br />
    58. 58. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />0.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />0.5 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig: Effect of interaction between active dry yeast and soybean powder on Average of fruit body weight<br />58<br />
    59. 59. Fig: Effect of active dry yeast on number of fruit bodies / cluster of oyster mushroom<br />Fig: Effect of soybean powder on number of fruit bodies / cluster of oyster mushroom<br />59<br />
    60. 60. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />0.0 Y(%) + 0.0 S(%)<br />0.0 Y(%) + 2.5 S(%)<br />0.5 Y(%) + 0.0 S(%)<br />0.5 Y(%) + 2.5 S(%)<br />1.0 Y(%) + 0.0 S(%)<br />1.0 Y(%) + 2.5 S(%)<br />1.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig: Effect of active dry yeast and soybean powder and their interaction on Number of fruit bodies/cluster<br />60<br />
    61. 61. Fig: Effect of active dry yeast on number of clusters per bag of oyster mushroom<br />Fig: Effect of soybean powder on number of clusters per bag of oyster mushroom<br />61<br />
    62. 62. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />0.5 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />0.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig: Effect of interaction between active dry yeast and soybean powder on Number of clusters/ bag<br />62<br />
    63. 63. Fig: Effect of active dry yeast on average cluster weight of oyster mushroom<br />Fig: Effect of soybean powder on average cluster weight of oyster mushroom<br />63<br />
    64. 64. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />0.5 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />0.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig: Effect of interaction between active dry yeast and soybean powder on Average of cluster weight<br />64<br />
    65. 65. Fig: Effect of active dry yeast on number of days from spawning till first flush of oyster mushroom<br />Fig: Effect of soybean powder on number of days from spawning till first flush of oyster mushroom<br />65<br />
    66. 66. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig: Effect of interaction between active dry yeast and soybean powder on Number of days from planting till first flush<br />66<br />
    67. 67. Fig: Effect of active dry yeast on early yield of oyster mushroom<br />Fig: Effect of soybean powder on early yield of oyster mushroom<br />67<br />
    68. 68. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />0.5 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />0.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig: Effect of interaction between active dry yeast and soybean powder on early yield of oyster mushroom<br />68<br />
    69. 69. Fig: Effect of active dry yeast on total yield of oyster mushroom<br />Fig: Effect of soybean powder on total yield of oyster mushroom<br />69<br />
    70. 70. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />0.5 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />0.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig: Effect of interaction between active dry yeast and soybean powder on total yield/ bag<br />70<br />
    71. 71. Fig: Effect of soybean powder on biological efficiency of oyster mushroom<br />Fig: Effect of active dry yeast on biological efficiency of oyster mushroom<br />71<br />
    72. 72. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />0.5 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />0.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig: Effect of interaction between active dry yeast and soybean powder on biological efficiency <br />72<br />
    73. 73. Chemical analysis of the fruit bodies<br />73<br />
    74. 74. Fig: Effect of active dry yeast on dry matter percentage of oyster mushroom<br />Fig: Effect of soybean powder on dry matter percentage of oyster mushroom<br />74<br />
    75. 75. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig: Effect of interaction between active dry yeast and soybean powder on dry matter percentage of oyster mushroom <br />75<br />
    76. 76. Fig: Effect of active dry yeast on Phosphorus content in fruit bodies of oyster mushroom<br />Fig: Effect of soybean powder on Phosphorus content in fruit bodies of oyster mushroom<br />76<br />
    77. 77. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />1.0 Y(%) + 5.0 S(%)<br />1.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />control<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig: Effect of interaction between active dry yeast and soybean powder on phosphorus content in mushroom fruit bodies<br />77<br />
    78. 78. Fig: Effect of active dry yeast on Crude protein in fruit bodies of oyster mushroom<br />Fig: Effect of soybean powder on Crude protein in fruit bodies of oyster mushroom<br />78<br />
    79. 79. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig: Effect of interaction between active dry yeast and soybean powder on Crud protein content in mushroom fruit bodies <br />79<br />
    80. 80. Chemical analysis of media at the start of experiment<br />80<br />
    81. 81. Fig: Effect of active dry yeast on C/N ratio in media at the start of experiment<br />Fig: Effect of soybean powder on C/N ratio in media at the start of experiment<br />81<br />
    82. 82. 1<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />6<br />7<br />8<br />9<br />10<br />11<br />12<br />0.0 Y(%) + 0.0 S(%)<br />0.5 Y(%) + 0.0 S(%)<br />1.0 Y(%) + 0.0 S(%)<br />0.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />0.5 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1.0 Y(%) + 7.5 S(%)<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12<br />Fig: C/N ratio in the growth media at the start of the experiment<br />82<br />
    83. 83. conclusion<br />It could be concluded that<br />The best interaction treatments 1% active dry yeast x 0% soybean powder and 0.5% active dry yeast x 0% soybean powder, followed by 0.5% active dry yeast x 2.5% soybean powder and 0% active dry yeast X 2.5% soybean powder<br />83<br />
    84. 84. Recommendation<br />The optimum media<br />To increase the production of oyster mushroom you can use rice straw alone or in mixture with clover hay (3:1, W/W).<br />To obtain a rapid growth you can supply mushroom growth media with active dry yeast at a rate of 1% and 0.5% (w/w)<br />To obtain high protein content you can use rice straw mixed with clover hay (3:1, W/W) <br />The best interaction treatments 1% active dry yeast x 0% soybean powder and 0.5% active dry yeast x 0% soybean powder, followed by 0.5% active dry yeast x 2.5% soybean powder and 0% active dry yeast X 2.5% soybean powder<br />84<br />
    85. 85. Thank you<br />85<br />

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